American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated February 14, 2017










l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips




Bibliography: Abolition, Anti-Slavery, Opposition to Slavery


Biographical Reference Compilations

 

Allen, American Biographical Dictionary, 8vo, 1856.

 

American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002.

 

American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985.

 

Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888

 

Appleton, New American Cyclopaedia, and Annuals, 27 vols. 8vo.

 

Blake, Biographical Dictionary, 8vo, 1856.

 

Blake, Rev. J. L. A General Biographical Dictionary: Comprising a Summary Account of the Most Distinguished Persons of all Ages, Nations and Professions: Including More than One Thousand Articles of American Biography. New York: A. V. Blake, 1840.

 

Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936.

 

Drake, Frances S. Dictionary of American Biography. Boston, Houghton, Osgood, & Co., 1879.

 

Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, & David L. Bongard, eds. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York, HarperCollins, 1992.

 

Encyclopaedia Americana: A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics, and Biography. Francis Lieber, ed. Philadelphia, PA: 1830.

 

Garraty, John A., and Jerome L. Sternstein, eds. Encyclopedia of American Biography, 2d ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

 

Gates, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013.

 

Hammersly, Thomas H. S. Complete Regular Army Register of the United States: For One Hundred Years (1779-1879). Washington, DC: Hammersly, 1880.

 

Hornsby, Jr., Alton, ed. Black America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011.

 

Lanman, Charles. Dictionary of Congress, 5th ed., 8vo, 1867.

 

Lanman, Charles. Biographical Annals of the Civil Government of the United States, During its First Century. Washington: James Anglim, 1876.

 

The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: James T. White, 1892.

 

Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007.

 

———. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, 1997.

 

Schneider, Dorothy, & Carl J. Schneider. An Eyewitness History: Slavery in America, From Colonial Times to the Civil War. Facts On File, 2000.

 

Spradling, Mary Mace. In Black and White: Afro-Americans in print: A Guide to Afro-Americans who have Made Contributions to the United States of America from 1619-1969. Kalamazoo, MI: Kalamazoo Library System, 1971.

 

White’s Conspectus of American Biography: A Tabulated Record of American History and Biography. 2d ed. New York: James T. White, 1937.

 

Bibliography

 

Abbott, Richard H. Cotton & Capital: Boston Businessmen and Antislavery Reform, 1854-1868. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.

 

Abzug, Robert. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination. New York: Oxford, 1994.

 

Adams, Alice D. The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America, 1808-1831. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1908.

 

Adams, Charles Francis. 1874.

 

Andrew, William, ed. The Oxford Frederick Douglass Reader.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

 

Anthony, Katherine. 1954.

 

Aptheker, Herbert. Abolitionism: A Revolutionary Movement. Boston: Twayne, 1989.

 

———. American Negro Slave Revolts. New Edition. New York: International Publishers, 1974.

 

———. Anti-Racism in U.S. History: The First Two Hundred Years. New York:  Greenwood, 1992.

 

———, ed. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. New York: Citadel, 1951.

 

Ashworth, John. Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic. Vol. 1 of 2; New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995.

 

Ayres, Edward L. Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth-Century American South. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1984.

 

Ball, Charles. Slavery in the United States: A Narrative Life and Adventures of Charles Ball. 1837.  Released anonymously in 1836 as The Life and Adventures of a Fugitive Slave.

 

Barnes, Gilbert H. The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1933.

 

———, ed. Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, and Sara Grimké, 1822-1844, 2 Vols. 1934.

 

Bartlett, Irving H. Wendell Phillips: Brahmin Radical. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961.

 

Basker, James G., ed. American Antislavery Writings: Colonial Beginnings to Emancipation. Library of America, 2012.

 

Basker, James G., gen. ed. Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Anti-Slavery Writings, 1760-1820. New York: Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, 2005.

 

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Bender, Thomas, ed. The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism As a Problem of Historical Interpretation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

 

Benson, Lee. The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1961.

 

Berlin, Ira. Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Random House, 1974.

 

Berlin, Ira, Barbara J. Fields, Steven Miller, Joseph Reidy, and Leslie Rowland, eds. Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1992.

 

Bibb, Henry. Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb: An American Slave.  New York: Author, 1849.

 

Billington, Ray Allen. The Protestant Crusade, 1800-1860 (1964).

 

Bilotta, James D. Race and the Rise of the Republican Party, 1848-1865. New York: P. Lang, 1992.

 

Birnbaum, Jonathan, and Clarence Taylor. Civil Rights Since 1787: A Reader on the Black Struggle. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

 

Birney, James G. The American Churches, the Bulwarks of American Slavery. 1835.

 

Birney, William. James G. Birney and His Times. 1969.

 

Blackburn, Robin. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776-1848. New York: Verso, 1996.

 

Blackett, R. J. M. Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830-1860. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

 

Blake, Rev. J. L. A General Biographical Dictionary: Comprising a Summary Account of the Most Distinguished Persons of all Ages, Nations and Professions: Including More than One Thousand Articles of American Biography. New York: A. V. Blake, 1840.

 

Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972.

 

Blight, David W. Frederick Douglass's Civil War: Keeping the Faith in Jubilee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

 

Blue, Frederick. The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848-54. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1973.

 

Blue, Frederick J. No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005.

 

Bourne, George. The Book and Slavery Irreconcilable.

 

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Bowden, Henry Warner. Dictionary of American Religious Biography (2nd rev. and enl. ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

 

Boyer, Richard O. The Legend of John Brown: A Biography and a History. New York: Knopf, 1973.

 

Bradford, Sarah. Harriet Tubman, the Moses of Her People. Bedford, MA: Applewood  Books, 1886.

 

Brown, Arthur W. Always Young for Liberty: A Biography of William Ellery Channing, 1956.

 

Brown, Henry. Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown.  Manchester: Lee and Glynn, 1851.

 

Brown, Josephine. Biography of an American Bondman, by his Daughter. Boston: R. F. Walcott, 1856.

 

Brown, William Wells. The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. 1863.

 

———. Clotel, or, The President’s Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States. 1853.

 

———. The Escape, or A Leap for Freedom. 1858.

 

———. Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself.

 

———. The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. 1863.

 

———. The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity. Boston: A. G. Brown, 1880.

 

———. The Rising Son; or the Antecedents and Advancement of the Colored Race. Boston: A. G. Brown, 1874.

 

———. My Southern Home, or The South and Its People. 1880.

 

Bruns, Roger, ed. Am I Not a Man and a Brother: The Antislavery Crusade of Revolutionary America, 1688-1788. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1977.

 

Buckmaster, Henrietta. Let My People Go: The Story of the Underground Railroad and the Growth of the Abolition Movement. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1992.

 

Budney, Stephen P. William Jay: Abolitionist and Anticolonialist. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

 

Buffum, Arnold. Lectures Showing the Necessity for a Liberty Party, and Setting Forth its Principles, Measures and Object, 1844

 

Cable, Mary. Black Odyssey. 1971.

 

Cain, William E., ed. William Lloyd Garrison and the Fight Against Slavery (1994).

 

Campbell, Stanley W. The Slave-Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1970.

 

Carawan, Guy. Been in the Storm so Long.

 

Carwardine, Richard. Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1993.

 

Chadwick, John White, ed.  A Life for Liberty: Anti-Slavery and Other Letters of Sallie Holley. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1899.

 

Cheesebrough, David. Frederick Douglass: Oratory from Slavery. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.

 

Child, David Lee. The Despotism of Freedom—or The Tyranny and Cruelty of American Republican Slavemasters, 1833.

 

Child, Lydia Maria. Anti-Slavery Catechism, 1836.

 

———. An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called African, 1836.

 

———. Authentic Accounts of American Slavery, 1835.

 

———. The Duty of Disobedience to the Fugitive Slave Law, 1860.

 

———. The Evils of Slavery, and the Cure of Slavery, 1836.

 

———. Freedmen’s Book, 1865.

 

———. The Patriarchal Institution, 1860.

 

———. The Right Way, the Safe Way, Proved by Emancipation in the British West Indies and Elsewhere. New York, 1860.

 

Clay, Cassius Marcellus. The Life, Memoirs. Writings, and Speeches of Cassius Marcellus Clay. Cincinnati, OH, 1896.

 

———. The Writings of Cassius Marcellus Clay (edited with a Memoir by Horace Greeley). New York, 1848.

 

Commager, Henry S. Theodore Parker. Boston: Beacon, 1947.

 

Cornish, Samuel E., & Wright, Theodore S. The Colonization Scheme Considered in its Rejection by the Colored People, 1840.

 

Craft, Ellen, & Craft, William. Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom, or The Escape of William and Ellen Craft from Slavery. London: William Tweedie, 1860.

 

———. The Fugitive Slave Act. 1850.

 

Cromwell, Otelia. Lucretia Mott. 1958.

 

Cross, Whitney R. The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1950.

 

Cuffee, Paul. A Brief Account of the Settlement and Present Situation of the Colony of Sierra Leone, 1812.

 

Cumbler, John T. From Abolition to Rights for All: The Making of a Reform Community in the Nineteenth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

 

Davidson, J.N. Negro Slavery in Wisconsin and the Underground Railroad. Parkman Club Publications, Milwaukee: 1897

 

Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. 1984.

 

———. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1975.

 

———. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1966.

 

———. The Slave Power Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1961.

 

Delany, Martin. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered, Black Classic Press (reprint), 1993.  Project Gutenberg, online.

 

———. Blake, or the Huts of America (1859-1862). Boston: Beacon Press (reprint), 1970, with Floyd Williams, ed.

 

———. “Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent” (1854).  In Newman, Richard, Patrick Rael & Phillip Lapsansky, Pamphlets of Protest: An Anthology of Early African-American Protest. Routledge, 2000.

 

D'Entremont, John. Southern Emancipator, Moncure Conway: The American Years. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.

 

Dillon, Merton. The Abolitionists: Growth of a Dissenting Minority. New York: Norton, 1974.

 

Dillon, Merton L. Elijah P. Lovejoy: Abolitionist Editor. 1961.

 

Dixon, Chris. Perfecting the Family: Antislavery Marriages in Nineteenth-Century America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

 

Donald, David. Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War. New York: Knopf, 1960.

 

———. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era. 2nd ed. 1956. Reprint, New York: Random House, 1961.

 

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, 1845.

 

Duberman, Martin, ed. The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965.

 

Duberman, Martin B., Charles Francis Adams, 1807-1886, 1961.

 

DuBois, William E. B. John Brown. Philadelphia: G. W. Jacobs, 1909.

 

Dumond, Dwight Lowell. A Bibliography of Anti-Slavery in America. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961.

 

———. Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961.

 

———, ed. Letters of James Gillespie Birney 1831-1857, 2 vols., 1933.

 

———. Antislavery Origins of the Civil War in the United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1939.

 

Dupre, Lewis. An Admonitionary Picture and a Solemn Warning Principally Addressed to Professing Christians in the Southern States.

 

Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, & David L. Bongard, eds. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York, HarperCollins, 1992.

 

Eaton, Clement. The Freedom-of-Thought Struggle in the Old South. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

 

———. The Growth of Southern Civilization, 1790-1860.  New York: Harper and Bros., 1961.

 

Eaton, Hosea, Reverend. A Treatise on the Intellectual Character and Political Condition of the Colored People of the United States, 1837.

 

Elkins, Stanley M. Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1959.

 

Epstein, Barbara. The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism, and Temperance in Nineteenth-Century America. Middletown, Conn., 1981.

 

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. Gutenberg Project, online.

 

Fellman, Michael, and Lewis Perry, eds. Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1979.

 

Fields, Barbara Jeanne. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986.

 

Filler, Louis. The Crusade Against Slavery, 1830-1860. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960.

 

Finkelman, Paul. Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.

 

Fladeland, Betty, James Gillespie Birney, 1955, 1972.

 

Fletcher, Roberts S. A History of Oberlin College. Oberlin, Ohio, 1943.

 

Fogel, Robert W. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York: Norton, 1989.

 

Foner, Eric. Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.

 

———. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.

 

———. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1980.

 

Foner, Philip S. and Herbert Shapiro. Northern Labor and Antislavery: A Documentary History. Westport: Greenwood, 1994.

 

Foner, Philip S., and Josephine F. Pacheco. Three Who Dared: Prudence Crandall, Margaret Douglass, Myrtilla Miner—Champions of Antebellum Black Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.

 

Foot, Michael, and Isaac Kramnick, eds. The Thomas Paine Reader. London: Penguin, 1987.

 

Forster, C. H. The Rungless Ladder: Harriet Beecher Stowe and New England Puritanism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1954.

 

Forster, Frances Smith. Witnessing Slavery: The Development f Ante-bellum Slave Narratives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979.

 

Fox, Early Lee. The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1919.

 

Franklin, John H., and A. Alfred Moss. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994.

 

Fredrickson, George. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

 

Fredrickson, George M. The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality. Middleton, Conn.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1988.

 

Frederick, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1877-1964. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

 

Freehling, Alison Goodyear. Drift Toward Dissolution: The Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831-1832. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1982.

 

Freehling, William W. Prelude to the Civil War: The Nullification Controversy. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

 

Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion. 2 vols. projected. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990.

 

Frey, Sylvia R. From Slavery to Emancipation. 1999.

 

Frey, Sylvia R. Water From the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1991.

 

Friedman, Lawrence J. Gregarious Saints: Self and Community in American Abolition 1830-1870. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

 

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks. Gerrit Smith: A Biography. 1878; reprint, New York: Negro Univ. Press, 1969.

 

Fuller, Edmond. Prudence Crandall: An Incident of Racism in Nineteenth-Century Connecticut. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1971.

 

Gamble, Douglas A. “Joshua Giddings and the Ohio Abolitionists: A Study in Radical Politics.” Ohio History 88: 37-56.

 

Gara, Larry. The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad. Lexington: Univ. of Kentucky Press, 1961.

 

Garnet, Henry Highland. The Past and Present Condition and Destiny of the Colored Race, 1848.

 

Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Francis Jackson Garrison. William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1889: The Story of His Life Told by His Children. 4 vols. New York: Century, 1885-89.

 

Garrison, William Lloyd. Underground Railroad.

 

Gates, Henry Lewis. Figures in Black: Words, Signs, and the "Racial" Self. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., ed. Frederick Douglass: Autobiographies. New York: Library of America, 1994.

 

———. “Introduction.” In The Classic Slave Narratives. Edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Penguin Books, 1987.

 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013.

 

Geggus, David P. (1989). “Racial Equality, Slavery, and Colonial Secession during the Constituent Assembly.” American Historical Review 94: 1290-1309.

 

Gellman, David N. Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777-1827. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

 

Genovese, Eugene D. From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1979.

 

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Pantheon, 1974.

 

Gerteis, Louis S. Morality and Utility in American Antislavery Reform. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1987.

 

Gienapp, William E. The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852-1856. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

 

Gilroy Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993.

 

Glick, Wendell, ed. The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau: Reform Papers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

 

Goodheart, Lawrence B. Abolitionist, Actuary, Atheist: Elizur Wright and the Reform Impulse. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1990.

 

Goodheart, Lawrence B., and Hugh Hawkins, eds. The Abolitionists: Means, Ends, and Motivations. 3d ed. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1995.

 

Goodman, Paul. Of One Blood: Abolitionism and the Origins of Racial Equality. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998.

 

Gougeon, Len, & Joel Myerson, eds. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Emerson’s Antislavery Writings. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

 

Grant, Mary H. Private Woman, Public Person: An Account of the Life of Julia Ward Howe from 1819 to 1868. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1994.

 

Gregory, James M. Frederick Douglass, the Orator. 1893. New York: Apollo Editions, 1971.

 

Grimké, Angela E. An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, 1836.

 

Gummere, Amelia Mott, ed. The Journals and Essays of John Woolman. 1922.

 

Guy, Anita Aidt. Maryland's Persistent Pursuit to End Slavery, 1850-1864. New York: Garland, 1997.

 

Hallowell, Anna Davis. James and Lucretia Mott: Life and Letters. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1885.

 

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers. Edited by Clinton L. Rossiter. New York: Mentor Books, 1961.

 

Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1964.

 

Hammersly, Thomas H. S. Complete Regular Army Register of the United States: For One Hundred Years (1779-1879). Washington, DC: Hammersly, 1880.

 

Hammond, John Craig. Slavery, Freedom, and Expansion in the Early American West. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007.

 

Hammond, John Craig, & Matthew Mason, eds. Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011.

 

Hansen, Debra Gold. Strained Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.

 

Harding, Walter. The Days of Henry Thoreau: A Biography. New York: Dover Publications, 1982.

 

Harding, Vincent. There Is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.

 

Harlow, Ralph Volney. Gerrit Smith: Philanthropist and Reformer. New York: Henry Holt, 1939.

 

Harper, Ida Husted. The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony. Indianapolis, IN: Bowen-Merrill, 1899.

 

Harrold, Stanley C. American Abolitionists. New York: Longman Press, 2001.

 

———. The Abolitionists and the South, 1831-1861. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.

 

———. Gamaliel Bailey and Anti-Slavery Union. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1986.

 

Hart, Albert Bushnell. Salmon Portland Chase. 1899.

 

———. Slavery and Abolition, 1831-1841. 1906. Reprint, New York: New American Library, 1969.

 

Haviland, Laura S. A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences of Laura S. Haviland. Chicago: Publishing Association of Friends, 1881.

 

Hays, Elinor Rice. Morning Star: A Biography of Lucy Stone 1818-1893. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961.

 

Hersh, Blanche Glassman. The Slavery of Sex: Feminist Abolitionist in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978.

 

Heyrick, Elizabeth [Coltman]. Immediate, Not Gradual Abolition, or An Inquiry into the Shortest, Safest and Most Effectual Means of Getting Rid of West Indian Slavery, 1824.

 

Hildrith, Richard. The Slave, or Memoirs of Archy Moore (a novel), 1836.

 

Hinks, Peter. To Awaken My Afflicted Brethren. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1997.

 

Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.

 

Hodges, Graham. Root and Branch. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

 

Hornsby, Jr., Alton, ed. Black America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011.

 

Horton, James and Lois Horton. Free People of Color: Inside the Black Community. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1993.

 

Howard, Victor B. Conscience and Slavery: The Evangelistic Domestic Missions, 1837-1861. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1990.

 

Howard, Victor B. The Evangelical War against Slavery and Caste: The Life and Times of John G. Free. Senlinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1996.

 

Howe, Daniel Walker. The Political Culture of the American Whigs. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1979.

 

Howe, Marc A. DeWolfe. “Thomas Wentworth Higginson.” Dictionary of American Biography. Edited by Dumas Malone. New York: Charles Scribner’s and Sons, 1932.

 

Huggins, Nathan I. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Little, Brown, 1980.

 

Hunt, Alfred N. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1988.

 

Jackson, Maurice. Let This Voice be Heard: Anthony Benezet, Father of Atlantic Abolitionism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

 

Jacobs, Donald M. Courage and Conscience: Black and White Abolitionists in Boston. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1993.

 

Jacobs, Harriet Ann.  Edited by Lydia Maria Child. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. 1861.

 

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on Virginia.

 

Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Abolitionists Remember: Antislavery Autobiographies and the Unfinished Work of Emancipation. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

 

———. The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism: Ordinary Women in the Antislavery Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

 

Jennings, Lawrence C. French Reaction to British Slave Emancipation. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.

 

Johnson, Oliver. William Lloyd Garrison and His Times: Or Sketches of the Anti-Slavery Movement in America. 1881.

 

Johnson, Paul. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837 (1978).

 

Karcher, Carolyn L. The First Woman of the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Marie Child. Durham, NC.  Duke University Press, 1994.

 

Keane, John. Tom Paine: A Political Life. London: Bloomsbury, 1995.

 

Kraditor, Aileen. Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and his critics on Strategy and Tactics 1834-1850. New York: Pantheon Books, 1969.

 

Kraut, Alan M., ed. Crusaders and Compromise: Essays on the Relationship of the Antislavery Struggle to the Antebellum Party System. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

 

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Litwack, Leon. North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960.

 

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Lumpkin, Katherine Du Pre. The Emancipation of Angelina Grimké. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1974.

 

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———. Sojourner Truth: Slave, Prophet, Legend. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

 

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McGowan, James A. Station Master on the Underground Railroad: The Life and Letters of Thomas Garrett. Moylan, PA: Whimsie Press, 1977.

 

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———. The Negro's Civil War. New York: Vintage, 1965.

 

———. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.

 

———. The Struggle for Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

 

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Maizlish, Stephen. The Triumph of Sectionalism: The Transformation of Ohio Politics: 1844-1856. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1983.

 

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Nash, Gary B. Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720-1840. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1988.

 

———. “New Light on Richard Allen: The Early Years of Freedom.” William and Mary Quarterly 46: 332-340.

 

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Nye, Russell B. William Lloyd Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers. Boston, 1955.

 

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———. With Malice toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.

 

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Payne, Daniel Alexander. History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Nashville, TN: Publishing House of the A.M.E. Sunday School Union, 1891.

 

Pease, Jane H. “The Freshness of Fanaticism: Abby Kelley Foster.” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of History, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1969.

 

Pease, Jane H., and William H. The Fugitive Slave Law and Anthony Burns: A Problem of Law Enforcement. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1975.

 

Pease, William H., & Pease, Jane H. Bound With Them in Chains: A Biographical History of the Anti-Slavery Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972.

 

———. They Who Would Be Free: Blacks’ Search for Freedom, 1830-1861. New York: Atheneum, 1974.

 

———. The Antislavery Argument. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1965.

 

Pennington, James William Charles. The Fugitive Blacksmith. London, 1844.

 

Perry, Lewis. Radical Abolitionism: Anarchy and the Government of God in Antislavery Thought. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995.

 

Perry, Lewis, & Michael Fellman, eds. Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

 

Pillsbury, Parker. Act of the Anti-Slavery Apostles. Rochester, NY: Author, 1883.

 

Ploski, Harry A., and James Williams, eds. The Negro Almanac: A Reference Work on the African American. New York: Gale Research Inc., 1989.

 

Potter, David M. The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

 

Preston, Dickson J. Young Frederick Douglass: The Maryland Years. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

 

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Ripley, C. Peter, ed. The Black Abolitionist Papers (5 Vols.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

 

———. Witness for Freedom: African American Voices on Race, Slavery, and Emancipation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

 

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Rossbach, Jeffrey. Ambivalent Conspirators: John Brown, the Secret Six, and a Theory of Slave Violence. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

 

Rugoff, Milton. The Beechers: An American Family in the Nineteenth Century. New York, Harper and Row, 1981.

 

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Salzman, Jack, David Lionel Smith, and Cornel West, eds. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1996.

 

Sanchez-Eppler, Karen. Touching Liberty: Abolition, Feminism, and the Politics of the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

 

Schor, Joel. Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977.

 

Schwartz, Harold. Samuel Gridley Howe: Social Reformer, 1801-1876. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1956.

 

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Scott, Otto J. The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement. New York: Times Books, 1979.

 

Sears, Richard D. The Kentucky Abolitionists in the Midst of Slavery. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

 

Sernett, Milton C. North Star Country: Upstate New York and the Crusade for African American Freedom. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2002.

 

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Sewell, Richard H. Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837-1860. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1976.

 

———. The House Divided: Sectionalism and Civil War, 1848-1865. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

 

Sherwin, Oscar. Prophet of Liberty: The Life and Times of Wendell Phillips. New York: Bookman, 1958.

 

Shyllon, Folarin. James Ramsay: The Unknown Abolitionist. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1977.

 

Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom. New York: Macmillan, 1898.

 

Smedley, R. C. History of the Underground Railroad. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

 

Smiley, David L. Lion of White Hall, the Life of Cassius Clay. 1962.

 

Smith, Page. Jefferson: A Revealing Biography. New York: American Heritage, 1976.

 

Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform, 1957.

 

Soderlund, Jean R. “Priorities and Power: The Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society.” In The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America. Edited by Jean Fagan Yellin and John C. Van Horne. Ithaca, NY: Carnell University Press, 1994.

 

———. Quakers & Slavery: A Divided Spirit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

 

Sorin, Gerald. Abolitionism: A New Perspective. New York: Praeger, 1973.

 

———. The New York Abolitionists: A Case Study of Political Radicalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Corporation, 1971.

 

Spradling, Mary Mace. In Black and White: Afro-Americans in print: A Guide to Afro-Americans who have Made Contributions to the United States of America from 1619-1969. Kalamazoo, MI: Kalamazoo Library System, 1971.

 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Anthony, Susan Brownell, & Gage, Matilda Joslyn. History of Woman Suffrage (Vol. 1), 1881.

 

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Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002,

 

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Stevens, Charles Emery. Anthony Burns: A History. Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1856.

 

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Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976.

 

———. Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve Univ. Press, 1970.

 

———. William Lloyd Garrison and the Challenge of Emancipation. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1992.

 

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Stewart, James Brewer. Wendell Phillips, Liberty's Hero. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1986.

 

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Stiller, Richard. Commune on the Frontier: The Story of Frances Wright. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972.

 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly. 1852.  Published in serial, 1851.

 

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Swisher, Carl. History of the Supreme Court of the United States: The Taney Period, 1836-1864. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

 

Talbot, Edith Armstrong. Samuel Chapman Armstrong: A Biographical Study.  New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1904.

 

Tappan, Lewis. Life of Arthur Tappan. New York, Hurd and Houghton: 1870.

 

Taylor, Clare. British and American Abolitionists: An Episode in Transatlantic Understanding. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1974.

 

Temperley, Howard. British Anti-Slavery 1833-1970. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972.

 

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Thomas, John L. The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison. Boston: Little, Brown, 1963.

 

Thompson, C. Bradley, ed. Antislavery Political Writings, 1833-1860. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2004.

 

Torrey, Charles Turner. Memoir of the Martyr. 1846.

 

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Trueblood, David Elton. The People Called Quakers. Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1966.

 

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Tyler, Alice Felt. Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History form the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War. New York: Harper and Row, 1944.

 

Ullman, Victor. Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon, 1971.

 

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Venet, Wendy Hamand. Neither Ballot Nor Bullets. 1991.

 

Volpe, Vernon L. Forlorn Hope of Freedom: The Liberty Party in the Old Northwest, 1838-1848. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1990.

 

Vorenberg, Michael. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the End of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment. Thesis (Ph.D.) - Harvard University, 1995.

 

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———. Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World.

 

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Walters, Ronald G. American Reformers, 1815-1860. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

 

———. The Antislavery Appeal: American Abolitionism After 1830. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

 

Washburne, E. B. Sketch of Edward Coles, Second Governor of Illinois, and the Slavery Struggle of 1823-4. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1882.

 

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Weld, Theodore Dwight. American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.

 

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Weston, “How Can I Help Abolish Slavery?, or Councels to the Newly Converted,” New York, 1855.

 

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Wiecek, William M. The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism in America, 1760-1848. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1977.

 

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Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Yankee Saints and Southern Sinners. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1985.

 

Yacovone, Donald. Samuel Joseph May and the Dilemmas of the Liberal Persuasion, 1797-1871. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

 

Yee, Shirley, J. Black Women Abolitionists: A Study in American Activism, 1828-1860. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

 

Zilversmit, Arthur. The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

 

 

US Government Publications

 

Annals of Congess.

 

Congressional Globe.

 

Register of US Army Officers.

 

United States Army. The war of the rebellion: A compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1887.

 

 

Libraries and Archives

 

Beinecke Library, Yale University

 

Butler Library, Columbia University, New York, New York

 

Library of Congress, Washington, DC

 

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland

 

New York Historical Society, New York, New York

 

West Virginia University Libraries

 

 

Newspapers

 

The Abolition Intelligencer

 

The Abolitionist

 

The African Observer

 

The African Sentinel and Journal of Liberty

 

Alton Observer, formerly the St. Louis Observer

 

Anti-Slavery Advocate

 

Anti-Slavery Bugle

 

The Colored American

 

The Colored Man’s Journal

 

The Emancipator

 

Free Labor Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle

 

The Free Press

 

Freedom’s Journal

 

Friends’ Review

 

Granite Freeman

 

Herald of Freedom, founded 1840, Concord, New Hampshire

 

Herald of Freedom, founded 1855, Ohio

 

Human Rights

 

The Investigator

 

The Liberalist

 

Liberator

 

Manumission Intelligencier, renamed The Emancipator, renamed Genius of Universal Emancipation

 

Massachusetts Abolitionist

 

Mirror of Liberty

 

The National Anti-Slavery Standard

 

National Era

 

National Enquirer

 

The National Philanthropist

 

The National Watchman

 

Newport News

 

New York Tribune

 

Non-Slave Holder

 

North Star

 

Palladium of Liberty

 

The Philanthropist

The Protectionist

 

Quarterly Anti-Slave Magazine

 

Radical Abolitionist

 

The Ram’s Horn

 

The Rights of All, formerly Freedom’s Journal

 

St. Louis Observer, renamed Alton Observer

 

The Slave’s Friend (children magazine)

 

True American