General Officers Commanding
United States Colored Troops
This list was compiled from The Union Army (1908), volume 8.
Birney, William, brigadier-general, was born in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1819, the second son of James G. Birney, and was like his father a strong abolitionist. He was educated at Centre and Yale colleges, and spent five years in study in Europe. While in France, in 1848, he took an active part in the revolution and was appointed, Page 32 on competitive examination, professor of English literature in the college at Bourges. Entering the military service of the United States as captain, in 1861, he rose through all the grades to the brevet rank of major-general of volunteers, and during the last two years of the war commanded a division. In 1863, having been commissioned by the war department to organize colored troops, he enlisted, equipped, and sent to the field, seven regiments of colored troops, in doing which, he liberated the slaves from the slave prisons in Baltimore, thus freeing a large number of slaves belonging to Confederate officers. The result of his operations was to hasten the abolition of slavery in Maryland. After the defeat of the Union troops at Olustee, Florida, being placed in command of that district, he succeeded in regaining possession of the principal parts of the state and of several Confederate strongholds. He took part in numerous skirmishes and the principal battles in Virginia, including the first and second Bull Run, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Chantilly and Chancellorsville. After the war he spent four years in Florida, and then removed to Washington where he practiced his profession, becoming attorney for the District of Columbia. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 31-32
Butler, Benjamin F., major-general, was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, November 5, 1818, was graduated from Watertown college, in 1838, was admitted to the bar in 1840, and soon gained a reputation as an astute criminal lawyer. He was elected to the Massachusetts house of representatives in 1853, and to the state senate in 1859, and was a delegate to the Democratic national convention which met at Charleston in 1860, withdrawing, however, before the close of the convention, with the other delegates who later met at Baltimore and nominated Breckinridge and Lane. As brigadier-general of militia in Massachusetts he was assigned, in the spring of 1861, to command of the district of Annapolis, and on May 13, 1861, occupied Baltimore with 9oo men without opposition, and was appointed major-general May 16. He captured Forts Hatteras and Clark in North Carolina in August, then returned to Massachusetts to recruit an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi, and on May 1, Admiral Farragut's fleet having virtually captured the city, he took possession of New Orleans. He at once put in effect a stringent military government, armed the free negroes, compelled rich secessionists to contribute to the support of the poor of the city, and instituted strict sanitary regulations. For his course in hanging William Mulford, who had pulled down the Stars and Stripes from the mint, and for the issue of an obnoxious order intended to prevent soldiers being insulted by women. he aroused much strong opposition sentiment, not only in the South, but in the North and abroad, and Jefferson Davis declared him an outlaw and put a price upon his head. On May 1, 1862, General Butler seized $80o,000, which he claimed had been entrusted to the Dutch consul to be used in purchasing supplies of war, and by this act aroused the protest of every European country, so that the government at Washington, after investigation, ordered the return of the money. He was recalled December 16, 1862, and near the close of 1863 was placed in command of the department of Virginia and North Carolina, afterwards known as the James. He was recalled to New York city in October, 1864, because election riots were feared there, and in December conducted an expedition against Fort Fisher, near Wilmington, North Carolina, which failed, as had a previous attempt on his part to operate in conjunction with General Grant against Lee, and soon afterwards he was removed from his command by order of General Grant. Returning to Massachusetts, he was elected by the Republicans, to Congress, where he remained, Page 47 with the exception of one term, until 1879, being most active in the impeachment of President Johnson. He was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1871, failed again as a candidate of the Greenback party and one wing of the Democrats in 1878 and 1879, but in 1882 the Democrats having united upon him as their candidate, he was elected. During his administration he made charges which were not sustained against the administration of the Tewksbury almshouse. He was re-nominated governor in 1883 but was defeated, and in 1884 was the candidate of the Greenback and Anti-Monopolist parties for president. He died in Washington, D. C, January 11, 1893. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 46-47.
Carr, Joseph B., brigadier-general, was born in Albany, New York, August 16, 1828. He was educated in the public schools, apprenticed to a tobacconist, entered the militia in 1849, and rose to be colonel. In May, 1861, he went to the front as colonel of the 2nd New York volunteers, his regiment being the first to encamp in Virginia, and he commanded the 2nd at Big Bethel, Newmarket bridge, the Orchards, Fair Oaks and Glendale. He commanded the 2nd New Jersey brigade at Malvern hill, distinguishing himself at that battle, and on September 7, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general for "gallant and meritorious services in the field." He subsequently served with conspicuous bravery at the battles of Bristoe station, 2nd Bull Run, Chantilly, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights and Robinson's tavern. He served in front of Petersburg in command of the 1st division, 18th corps, and supported General Burnside in the mine fight with this force and the 3d division of the 10th corps (colored). He was given command of the James river defenses with headquarters at Wilson's landing, June 1, 1864, was transferred to City Point on May 20, 1865, and on June 1, 1865, was given the brevet commission of major-general of volunteers, to date from March 13, "for gallant and meritorious services during the war." Being mustered out of the service in October, 1865, he was appointed by Governor Fenton, major-general, New York Page 52 state militia, and commanded the forces that quelled the railroad riots of 1877. He was placed on the retired list in 1887. General Carr was elected secretary of state for New York in 1879, and served three terms, and was candidate for governor in 1885. He died at Troy, New York, February 24, 1895. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 51-52.
Casey, Silas, major-general, was born in East Greenwich, Rhode Island, July 12, 1807, was graduated in the U. S. military academy at West Point in 1826, and then, until the outbreak of the Civil war, served on frontier and garrison duty, and in the battles of the Florida and Mexican wars. Entering the Civil war with the rank of colonel in the regular army and brigadier-general of volunteers, he was assigned a division in General Keyes' corps of the Army of the Potomac, and, occupying with it the extreme advance before Richmond, received the first attack of the enemy at Fair Oaks, so distinguishing himself as to win promotion to brevet brigadier-general U. S. A., and major-general of volunteers. He was from 1863 to 1865 president of the board for examining candidates for officers of colored troops, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major-general in the regular army. He was mustered out of the volunteer service August 24, 1865, and later in that year was given command of troops at Fort Wayne, Detroit, Michigan He was retired from the active service, July 8, 1868, on his own request, after forty consecutive years of service, arid died in Brooklyn, New York, January 22, 1882. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 53.
Chetlain, Augustus L., brigadier-general, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, December 26, 1824. His parents moving to Galena, Illinois, he obtained a common school education there, and, at a meeting called in response to President Lincoln's appeal for troops, was the first man to enlist. He was elected captain of a company which afterwards became part of the 12th Illinois regiment, of which he was commissioned, April 26, 1862, lieutenant-colonel. He was in command from September, 1861, to January, 1862, at Smithland, Kentucky, then joined his regiment and led it in the Tennessee campaign. He participated in the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, was promoted colonel, and led his regiment at Shiloh and at the siege of Corinth. After the battle of Corinth, in which he distinguished himself, lie was left by General Rosecrans in command of the city, and while in this service recruited the first colored regiment enlisted in the west. He was relieved in May, 1863, was promoted brigadier-general in December of that year and placed in charge of the organization of colored troops in Tennessee and afterwards Kentucky. He was successful in raising a force of 17,000 men, receiving for this work special commendation from General Thomas. He was in command of the post of Memphis from January to October, 1865, was then given command of the district of Talladega, Alabama, and on February 5, 1866, was mustered out of the service. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, June 17, 1865. After the war General Chetlain served as collector of internal revenue for Utah and Wyoming, and as U. S. consul-general to Brussels, and then became a banker in Chicago. In 1901 he organized and became president of the Industrial bank of Chicago. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 55.
Dewey, Joel A., brigadier-general, was born in Georgia, Vermont, September 20, 1840, and was a student at Oberlin college in 1861, when he received a commission as 1st lieutenant. He left college to join the Union army, served in the army of General John Pope, and afterwards with General Sherman, was promoted captain and served on the staff of General Rosecrans. In 1863 he was promoted colonel and commanded the mth colored regiment. He led a brigade in the operations in Alabama, was captured at Athens, Alabama, while engaging Forrest's cavalry, and, after his exchange, served in Tennessee and Alabama until the close of the war. He received his commission as brigadier-general of volunteers, December 13, 1865, declined an appointment as captain in the regular army, and was mustered out of the volunteer service January 31, 1866. He then studied law in the Albany (New York) law school, was graduated in 1867 and removed to Dandridge, Tennessee, where he practised law. He was attorney-general of Tennessee from 1869 to 1873. He died in Knoxville, Tennessee, June 17, 1873. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 74.
Ferrero, Edward, brigadier-general, was born in Granada, Spain, of Italian parentage, January 18, 1831, and came to the United States with his parents in 1833. Prior to the Civil war he conducted a dancing-school in New York city, taught dancing at West Point, and was a member of the state militia, having attained the rank of colonel by 1861. In the summer of 1861 he raised the 51st New York regiment, called the "Shepard rifles," at his own expense, and led it in Burnside's expedition to Roanoke island, while at New Berne he commanded a brigade under General Reno. He served in Pope's Virginia campaign of 1862, distinguishing himself at the second battle of Bull Run, and in covering Pope's retreat at Chantilly on the following day. At South mountain he commanded a brigade after the death of Reno, and at Antietam he so distinguished himself that he was promoted brigadier-general on the field of battle, September 19, 1862. He subsequently served at Fredericksburg, where he again distinguished himself, and at Vicksburg where his brigade was a part of the 9th army corps. He pursued General Joseph E. Johnston, defeating him at Jackson, Mississippi, commanded a division under Burnside at Knoxville, during the siege, from November 17 to December 4, 1863; and his defense of Fort Sanders against an assault by Longstreet, December 4, compelled that commander to retire, while at the battle of Bean's station his timely occupation of Kelley's ford frustrated Longstreet's attempt to send a detachment across the Holston, and attack the Union forces in the rear. In Grant's final campaign General Ferrero commanded a colored division at Petersburg. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, December 2, 1864, and was mustered out of the service, August 24, 1865. General Ferrero died in New York city, December 11, 1899. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 86.
Fessenden, James D., brigadier-general, was born in Westbrook, Maine, September 28, 1833, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1852, and then practised law in Portland until the Civil war broke out. He was commissioned captain of the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters, November 2, 1861, and in 1862-63 served on the staff of General David Hunter and engaged in the operations on the Carolina coast, being present at the attack on Fort McAllister, in the operations on the Edisto, and at Du Pont's attack on Charleston. He organized and commanded the 1st regiment of colored troops in May, 1862, but the government refused to accept such service at that time. In July of that year he was promoted colonel and additional aide-de-camp. He was subsequently transferred to the Army of the Tennessee, in 1863, and served under Hooker in the campaigns of Chattanooga in that year and Atlanta in 1864. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, August 8, 1864, was ordered to report to General Sheridan in the valley of Virginia, and participated in the battle of Cedar creek in October. He was brevetted major-general of Page 88 volunteers, March 13, 1865, for distinguished service in the war, and served in South Carolina until mustered out, January 15, 1866. Returning then to Maine, he was appointed register of bankruptcy in 1868 and was representative in the state legislature, 1872-74. General Fessenden died in Portland, Maine, November 18, 1882. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 87-88.
Fremont, John C, major-general, was born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 1813, and was educated at Charleston college, from which he was expelled before graduation, although subsequently, in 1836, he was given his degree by the college authorities. He became teacher of mathematics on the sloop-of-war "Natchez" in 1833, on which he took a two-year cruise, and, on returning, passed the necessary examination and was appointed professor of mathematics in the U. S. navy. He was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the U. S. topographical engineers in 1838, while engaged in exploring the country between the Missouri and the northern frontier, and in 1842, having suggested a geographical survey of all the territories of the United States, he was sent at the head of a party of 28 men to explore the Rocky mountain region. In accomplishing this he ascended the highest peak of the Wind River mountains, which was afterwards known as Fremont's peak. He next explored the territory between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, then a region almost unknown, and early in 1843 started with a party of 39 men, and, after a journey of 1,700 miles, reached Great Salt lake. It was his report of this region which gave to the Mormons their first idea of settling in Utah. He proceeded thence to the tributaries of the Columbia river and in November started upon the return trip, but, finding himself confronted with imminent danger of death from cold and starvation, turned west, and, after great hardship, succeeded in crossing the Sierra Nevada range and in March reached Sutter's fort in California. His return journey was conducted safely by the southern route, and he reached Kansas in July, 1844. He went on another exploring expedition in 1845, spending the summer along the continental divide and crossing the Sierras again in the winter. Upon refusal of the Mexican authorities to allow him to continue his explorations, he fortified himself with his little force of 64 men on a small mountain some 30 miles from Monterey, but when the Mexicans prepared to besiege the place he retreated to Oregon. He was overtaken near Klamath lake, May 9, 1846, by a courier with despatches from Washington, directing him to watch over the interests of the United States in the territory, there being reason to fear interference from both Great Britain and Mexico. He promptly returned to California, where the settlers, learning that General Castro was already marching against the settlements, flocked to his camp, and in less than a month Northern California was freed from Mexican authority. He received a lieutenant-colonel's commission, May 27, and was elected governor of the territory by the settlers July 4. Learning on July 10 that Com. Sloat, commanding the American squadron on the Pacific coast, had seized Monterey, Fremont joined him and, when Com. Stockton arrived with authority to establish the power of the United States in California, Fremont was appointed by him military commandant and civil governor. Near the end of the year General Kearny arrived with a force of dragoons and said that he had orders also to establish a government. Friction between the two Page 92 rival officers immediately ensued, and Fremont prepared to obey Stockton and continued as governor in spite of Kearny's orders. For this he was tried by court-martial in Washington, and, after a trial which lasted more than a year, was convicted, January 31, 1847, of "mutiny," "disobedience to the lawful command of a superior officer," and "conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline," and was sentenced to dismissal from the service. President Polk approved of the conviction for disobedience and mutiny, but remitted the penalty and Fremont resigned. In October, 1848, Fremont started on an independent exploring expedition with a party of 33 men, and reached Sacramento in the spring of 1849 after more severe sufferings than those experienced on any of his earlier expeditions. He represented California in the United States senate from September, 1850, to March, 1851, and in 1853 made his fifth and last exploring expedition, crossing the Rocky Mountains by the route which he had attempted to follow in 1848. Fremont's known opposition to slavery won him the presidential nomination of the Republican party in 1856, but in the election he was defeated by Buchanan, who received 174 electoral votes to Fremont's 114. Soon after the beginning of the Civil war Fremont was appointed in the regular army and assigned to command the newly organized Western Department with headquarters at St. Louis. Soon after the battle of Wilson's creek, August 10, 1861, he proclaimed martial law, arrested active secessionists, suspended the publication of papers charged with disloyalty, and issued a proclamation assuming the government of the state and announcing that he would free the slaves of those in arms against the Union. This proclamation he refused to withdraw, and on September 11, the president annulled it as unauthorized and premature. Fremont was relieved of his command, November 2, 1861. many complaints having been made of his administration, but in March, 1862, he was placed in command of the Mountain Department of Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky. Early in June he pursued the Confederate General Stonewall Jackson for 8 days, finally engaging him at Cross Keys, June 8, but permitted him to escape with his army. When the Army of Virginia was created, June 26, to include General Fremont's corps, with Pope in command, Fremont declined to serve on the ground that he outranked Pope, and for sufficient personal reasons. He then went to New York where he remained throughout the war, expecting a command, but none was given him. He was nominated for the presidency, May 31, 1864, by a small faction of the Republican party, but, finding but slender support, he withdrew his name in September. He subsequently became interested in the construction of railroads, and in 1873, was prosecuted by the French government for alleged participation in the swindles connected with the proposed transcontinental railway from Norfolk to San Francisco, and was sentenced, on default, to fine and imprisonment, no judgment being given on the merits of the case. General Fremont was governor of Arizona in 1878-81, and was appointed major-general on the retired list by act of Congress in 1900. He died in New York city, July 13, 1890.
Grant, Ulysses S., general, was born at Point Pleasant, Clermont county, Ohio, April 27, 1822. His grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution, bore arms at the battle of Lexington, and, when the war was ended, settled in western Pennsylvania. As a lad Ulysses assisted on the farm. He received the ordinary education of the frontier, going to school in winter, and at all other times working on the farm. In 1839, through the instrumentality of Thomas L. Hamer. member of Congress, he was appointed to a cadetship at West Point, entering at the age of seventeen. He was graduated in 1843, standing number twenty-one in a class of thirty-nine, slightly below the general average of the class. He was assigned to the infantry as brevet second lieutenant, and was sent to Jefferson barracks at St. Louis, Missouri, where he remained until May, Page 105 1844, was then sent to Louisiana, and in September, 1845, was commissioned second lieutenant. At the beginning of the Mexican war he joined the army of occupation under General Zachary Taylor and saw a great deal of service, being in all the battles of the war in which any one man could be. He first saw blood shed at Palo Alto on May 8, 1846, at Monterey he showed bold and skillful horsemanship by running the gauntlet of the enemy's bullets to carry a message for "more ammunition." In the spring of 1847 he was made quartermaster of his regiment and placed in charge of the wagons and pack-train for the march. At Vera Cruz he served with his regiment during the siege, until the capture of the place, March 29, 1847. At the battle of Molino del Rey, on September 8 following, he was with the first troops that entered the place. Seeing some of the enemy on top of a building, he took a few men, climbed to the roof and forced the surrender of six Mexican officers, for which service he was brevetted first lieutenant. At the storming of Chapultepec he distinguished himself by conspicuous services and received the brevet of captain. For an especially gallant exploit during the advance on the city of Mexico he was summoned into the presence of General Worth, specially complimented and promoted to a full first lieutenancy. Lieutenant Grant remained with the army in Mexico until the withdrawal of the troops in 1848, then went with his regiment to Pascagoula, Mississippi, and at the close of the war was transferred with his regiment to Detroit, Michigan On July 5, 1852, he sailed from New York with his regiment for California, via the Isthmus of Panama, going first to Benicia barracks, California, and thence to Fort Vancouver, Oregon, a lonely outpost in the wilderness of the extreme Northwest. In July, 1854, the year after he became captain, he resigned from the army and went to St. Louis, where he had married, in 1848, Julia T. Dent, a sister of one of his classmates at West Point. The next six years of his life were years of poverty, obscurity and failure. He tried his hand as a farmer but was not successful; took up bill collecting, but this also resulted in failure; tried for the position of county engineer, but failed to get the place; tried auctioneering, and also made an experiment in the real estate business, but the result was the same in all his ventures. In the winter of 1859 he was actually wandering about the streets of St. Louis seeking work, and even offering to become a teamster to accompany quartermaster's stores to New Mexico. He finally went to Galena, Illinois, and became a clerk at a nominal salary of $66 a month, in the store of his father and brother, who had a leather and saddlery business. Lincoln's first call for troops was made on April 15, 1861, and the telegraph flashed the call throughout the country. That evening the Galena court house was packed with an excited crowd, and Grant, being known as a West Pointer, as well as a Mexican soldier, was called upon to preside. In four days he was drilling a company of volunteers, then offered himself to Governor Yates of Illinois, and was given the charge of mustering regiments. His eleven years' service in the regular army brought him a commission as brigadier-general of volunteers, to dfite from May 17, 1861, and on May 24 he wrote to Adjt.-General Thomas, commanding at Washington, D. C, tendering his services to the government, but the letter was carelessly filed away and temporarily lost. Governor Yates then placed Grant in command of the 21st Illinois volunteer infantry, and on July 3 he led it to Palmyra, Missouri, and from there to guard the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad. Subsequently he took command of the district of southeast Missouri, with headquarters at Cairo, and on September 6, took possession of Paducah, Kentucky, on the Ohio near the mouth of the Tennessee, thus commanding a large region. Early in November he was ordered to make a demonstration in the direction of Belmont, a point on the west bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen miles below the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi, Page 106 the object being to prevent the crossing of hostile troops into Missouri. He received his orders November 5; moved 3,100 men on transports on the 6th; landed at Belmont on the 7th, and broke up and destroyed the camp while under fire, with raw troops. When General Halleck assumed command of the Department of the Missouri he placed Grant in command of the district of Cairo, which was enlarged so as to make one of the greatest in size in the country, including the southern part of Illinois, Kentucky west of the Cumberland, and the southern portion of Missouri. In February, 1862, Grant gained a reluctant consent to a well-matured plan that he had been cherishing for a month past, and started off with 15,000 men, aided by Com. Foote with a gunboat fleet, to capture Forts Henry and Donelson, the former commanding the Tennessee river, and the latter the Cumberland, near the dividing line between Kentucky and Tennessee. The capitulation of both of these forts, as well as the other military achievements of General Grant, are important parts of the main history of the Civil war, and are given appropriate mention on other pages of this work, but it may be said here that the boldness of the assault at Fort Donelson, and the completeness of the victory, made Grant the hero of the people. The president nominated him to the senate as major-general of volunteers, to date from February 16, 1862, the date of the surrender of Fort Donelson, and the senate immediately confirmed him. While this was going on General Halleck, who never seemed to estimate Grant's work at its value, was writing to the war department that after his victory Grant had not communicated with him, and the result of this complaint was that Grant was suspended from his command. Halleck's jealousy met with a rebuff, however, and Grant was restored to his position and was soon on his way to other important and decisive victories. On March 17 he transferred his headquarters to Savannah, on the Tennessee river, and in the vicinity of Pittsburg landing. After the dearly-bought victory at Shiloh, Grant was named second in command of all the Federal troops congregated in that section, but especially intrusted with the right wing and reserve, and on April 30 the order was given to advance against Corinth. On June 21 Grant moved his headquarters to Memphis, on July 11 Halleck was appointed general-in-chief of all the armies and six days later set out for Washington, leaving Grant in command of the Army of the Tennessee, to which position he was officially promoted on October 25. On January 29, 1863, he arrived at Young's point above Vicksburg, and began in detail the working out of well matured plans of his own, the ultimate object of which was the capture of the fortified city of Vicksburg, a supposed impregnable position commanded by the Confederate General Pemberton. The history of this campaign is the record in detail of one of the master strokes and brilliant achievements of the Federal forces during the Civil war, but it is unnecessary to recount the different movements in this sketch. On May 1 he defeated a portion of Pemberton's force at Port Gibson; on May 12 he routed a part of Johnston's army that was trying to join Pemberton; and then pushed on to Jackson, Mississippi, capturing that place on the 14th. Grant then turned about and moved rapidly toward Vicksburg, attacking Pemberton at Champion's hill, and from this onward the advance was steady and the fighting constant. And after an active campaign of eighty days, on the afternoon of July 4, 1863, the Federal troops marched in and took possession of the city, while Pemberton's troops marched out as paroled prisoners of war. Port Hudson soon surrendered to Banks, and the Mississippi was open for commerce through its entire length, or, as President Lincoln expressed it, "the mighty river ran unvexed to the sea." Grant was at once appointed a major-general in the regular army to date from July 4, 1863, a gold medal was given him by Congress, and on October 18 he was given command of the "Military District of the Mississippi," Page 107 comprising the departments of the Tennessee, the Ohio, and the Cumberland. He went at once to Chattanooga, took command in person, and five days later a three hours' battle was fought at Wauhatchie in Lookout valley, resulting in a Federal victory and the opening of a much-needed line of communication for supplies. Grant then ordered a concentration of forces near Chattanooga, and on November 23, one month after his arrival, began the series of battles embracing Chattanooga, Orchard knob, Lookout mountain and Missionary ridge. On March I, 1864, Grant was nominated lieutenant-general, the grade having been revived by Congress, was confirmed by the senate on March 2, and left Nashville, where he then was stationed, in obedience to an order calling him to Washington, March 4. His new commission was handed him by the president on the 9th, and he was given formal command of all the armies of the United States on the 17th. He established himself at Culpeper, Virginia, with the Army of the Potomac, and opened the final great campaign of the war, on May 4, when he crossed the Rapidan, and the 5th, 6th, and 7th witnessed the terrible scenes of the battle of the Wilderness between opposing forces aggregating 183,000 men. Then by strategic movements Grant endeavored to outwit Lee, and a long series of battles resulted. Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor and Chickahominy followed, and by the time Grant had reached the James river he had lost, including the Wilderness fight, 70,000 of his troops. Then ensued the Richmond and Petersburg campaign, with the capture of those places as the desideratum, and through the summer, autumn, and following winter the campaign was "fought out on this line." On the morning of April 2, 1865, an assault was begun upon the lines around Petersburg, the city was evacuated the same night, and the Federal forces took possession on the morning of April 3. Then the retreat of the Confederates began, closely pursued by the Federal troops, and on April 9 the end came—the war was over—Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House. Following the surrender Grant established his headquarters in the city of Washington. Wherever he went he was greeted with ovations; honors were heaped upon him from every hand, and he was universally hailed as the country's deliverer. Congress, as a reward for his military valor, created for him the grade of general. He also obtained through Congress the entire control of affairs relating to the southern states, and in August, 1867, was appointed by President Johnson secretary of war ad interim while Secretary Stanton was under suspension. Grant protested against this action, and much dissension, ensued, but he held the office until January 4, 1868, when, the senate refusing to confirm the suspension of Stanton, Grant promptly retired, greatly to the president's annoyance. Grant grew daily in popularity with the people, and at the national convention of the Republican party, held at Chicago on May 20, 1868, he was nominated for the presidency on the first ballot. When the election occurred in November, out of 294 electoral votes cast for president, Grant received 214, and Seymour, the Democratic candidate, 80—the former carrying twenty-six states against eight won by his rival—and on March 4, 1869, the victorious general took the oath as chief executive of the United States. During his first term of office occurred the Credit Mobilier scandal, in connection with the building of the Union Pacific railroad, but in all the investigations made in connection with the matter, no stain ever rested on Grant. There came another scandal, the "Back-pay" affair, where certain laws regarding salaries had been passed, retroactive in their character, and near the close of his term a determined effort was made by his political enemies to encompass his defeat. The lamented Horace Greeley was placed against him in the presidential contest of 1872, but Grant carried thirty-one states and received the largest vote that had ever been given for any presidential Page 108 candidate. His second administration was mainly important for the passage of the "Resumption act" in January, 1875, and the detection and punishment of the ringleaders in the notorious "Whiskey ring," of which many were men of great personal influence, and with friends claiming to hold very important positions near the president himself. Shortly after the close of his second term, on May 17, 1877, he set sail from Philadelphia on a tour of the world, his first objective point being England. On May 28 he arrived at Liverpool and there received the first of a grand series of ovations in foreign lands, which for two years and four months constituted a triumphal tour never experienced by even a Roman or Oriental monarch, his welcome by every class of people, from royalty to peasants, being of the most heartfelt kind. He finally sailed from Yokohama for home on September 3, 1879, and touched the American shore at San Francisco on September 20. Then banquets and receptions met him everywhere, until he sought the retirement of his private home. In 1880 he visited Cuba and Mexico, after which he went with his family to his old home in Galena, Illinois, but the popular feeling in his favor was such that a movement was started for his third nomination to the presidency of the United States. The convention gathered at Chicago, in June, 1880, and for thirty-six ballots the iron-clad vote for Grant was 306, with slight variations ranging between 302 and 313. After a long and exciting contest, the opposition became united upon James A. Garfield and secured his nomination, thus defeating the third-term movement. The military and public life of General Grant having ended, he invested his entire capital of accumulated money in a banking house in New York city, and in May, 1884, through a series of unblushing frauds the firm became bankrupt, and the man who had been able to conquer and subdue the greatest uprising in all history found himself completely swindled by the skillful manipulation of a single business partner. In 1884, at the age of sixty-two, General Grant was attacked by a disease which proved to be cancer at the root of the tongue, and which ultimately caused his death. On March 4, 1885, Congress unanimously passed a bill creating him a general on the retired list, thus restoring him to his former rank with full pay; but he enjoyed this evidence of a nation's gratitude but a short time, for on July 21 an alarming relapse set in, and on Thursday morning, July 25, 1885, death released him from his suffering. In 1884 he began the preparation in two octavo volumes of "Personal Recollections," in which he told the story of his life down to the close of the Civil war, and he finished the proof-reading four days prior to his death. General Grant was buried at New York city, and the public funeral, which occurred August 8, 1885. was the most impressive spectacle of the kind ever witnessed in the United States. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 104-108.
Hamlin, Cyrus, brigadier-general, was born in Hampden, Maine, April 26. 1839, was educated at Hampden academy and at Colby university, but left Colby before graduating and studied law, being admitted to the bar in 1860, and practising in York county, Maine He was appointed captain and aide-de-camp to General Fremont in 1862 and attracted that officer's favorable notice by his conduct at Cross Keys. He was among the earliest officers in the army to advocate enlisting the negro, was appointed colonel of the 80th U. S. colored infantry. February 12, 1863, serving in the Department of the Gulf, and on December 3, 1864, was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded Port Hudson, 1864-65, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major-general of volunteers for distinguished service during the war. He remained at New Orleans after the war, practising law and taking an active part in the movements of the reconstruction period, and died there, August 28, 1867, of disease contracted while in the army. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 114.
Hawkins, John P., brigadier-general, was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, September 29, 1830. He was graduated at West Point in 1852 and assigned to the infantry, was promoted 1st lieutenant in 1857, and in 1861 was brigade quartermaster in the defenses of Washington. He accepted a commission as staff captain and commissary of subsistence, August 20, 1861; served in southwest Missouri and west Tennessee, 1861-62; was chief commissary under Grant at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862; and on November 1, 1862, he joined the volunteer army as lieutenant-colonel in the commissary department, in which capacity he served until April 13, 1863. when he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade of colored troops in northeastern Louisiana from August 17 of that year until February 7, 1864, was then promoted to command a division, being stationed at Vicksburg from March, 1864, till February, 1865, and after that served in the Mobile campaign, winning the brevet of major-general in the regular establishment for gallantry at the siege of Mobile. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, June 30, 1865, and honorably mustered out of the volunteer service February 1, 1866. In the regular service he was brevetted, on March 13, 1865, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, for his services during the war. He was promoted major in the commissary department in 1874, lieutenant-colonel and assistant commissary-general in 1889, colonel and assistant commissary-general in 1892, brigadier-general and commissary-general of subsistence December 22, 1892, and was retired by operation of law September 29, 1894. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 123.
Hinks, Edward W., brigadier-general, was born in Bucksport, Maine, May 30, 1830. He was educated in the schools of his native village, moved to Bangor in 1845, was printer on the Bangor "Whig and Courier" until 1849, when he moved to Boston, and in 1855 he was a member of the Massachusetts legislature. He was among the first to volunteer his services to help defend Fort Moultrie, became lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Massachusetts regiment in April, and while on the march to Washington commanded a party that assisted in saving the frigate ''Constitution" at Annapolis. He was for this service commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the regular service, April 26, 1861, and he was subsequently promoted colonel of the 19th Massachusetts volunteers, May 16, 1861, commanding a brigade in Sedgwick's division of the Army of the Potomac, September, 1861, to September, 1862, and taking part in all the engagements from Ball's bluff to Antietam, when he was disabled from wounds and forced to retire from active service. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. November 29, 1862, was on court-martial duty, 1863-64, commanded the camp of prisoners of war at Camp Lookout, Maryland, in March and April. 1864, and then joined the Army of the James, commanding a division of colored troops in the field operations of that year, and distinguishing himself in the preliminary engagements and the assault at Petersburg. He commanded the draft rendezvous on Hart's island, New York, from October, 1864, to January, 1865, and was then until the close of the war chief mustering officer for the United States in New York city. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, was made lieutenant-colonel of the 40th U. S. infantry, July 28. 1866, commanded the National soldiers' home, and was afterwards deputy-governor of the soldiers' homes at Hampton, Virginia, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin General Hinks died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 14, 1894. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 130.
Howell, Joshua B., brigadier-general, was a native of Somerset county, Pennsylvania He was commissioned colonel of the 85th Pennsylvania regiment, November 12, 1861, and joined McClellan on the Peninsula. He participated with his regiment in the operations which drove the enemy in upon their capital, engaged in the battle of Fair Oaks, where the regiment lost heavily in killed and wounded, and, after the evacuation of the Peninsula, made a short excursion into the interior of North Carolina, being transferred then to the Department of the South, where Colonel Howell was given command of a brigade, which he continued to command during most of the remainder of his service. He was employed in the operations for the reduction of Charleston, taking part in the siege of Fort Wagner, and in April, 1864, was ordered with his command to Virginia. Here, on May 20, he distinguished himself by leading his brigade in a daring charge on the enemy's works, and subsequently he participated in the vigorous operations of the 10th corps on the north side of the James, leading his brigade until early in September, when he was given command of a division of colored troops. On the 12th of the month he received injuries from a fall of his horse which proved fatal, and he was given his commission as brigadier-general of volunteers to date from that day. He died September 14, 1864. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 134.
Hunter, David, major-general, was born in Washington. D. C, July 21, 1802, was graduated at West Point in 1822, and after becoming captain in the 1st dragoons in 1833, resigned his commission in 1836 to go into business in Chicago. He rejoined the army as paymaster with the rank of major in 1842 and was chief paymaster of General John E. Wool's command in the Mexican war, serving after that at New Orleans and at other posts, including those on the frontier. He was assigned, in February, 1861, to accompany President-elect Lincoln from his home in Springfield, Illinois, to Washington, but at Buffalo his collar-bone was dislocated by the pressure of the crowd that gathered to see Lincoln, and he did not arrive at Washington until May 14. He was then Page 137 appointed colonel of the 6th U. S. cavalry, and three days later was given a commission as brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the main column of McDowell's army in the Manassas campaign, was severely wounded at Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and on August 1, 1861, was made major-general of volunteers, serving under General Fremont in Missouri, and on November 2 succeeding him in the command of the western department. He commanded the Department of Kansas from November, 1861, until March, 1862, and by his prompt reinforcement of Grant at Fort Donelson, at the solicitation of General Halleck, made possible the victory of February 16, 1862. In March, 1862, General Hunter was transferred to the Department of the South, with headquarters at Port Royal, South Carolina, and his first effective movement was the capture of Fort Pulaski, April 11, 1862. Finding there a large number of able-bodied, idle negroes, willing to enlist in the United States service, General Hunter on April 12 issued an order declaring that slavery and martial law were incompatible, further declaring free all slaves in Fort Pulaski and on Cockburn island, Georgia, and on May 9, he extended the declaration to slaves in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina. On May 19, President Lincoln issued a proclamation which declared General Hunter's order entirely void and given without authority. On June 16, 1862. an expedition against Charleston by way of James island resulted in the disastrous battle of Secessionville— an attack which, according to General Hunter's report, was made contrary to his orders. General Hunter organized the 1st South Carolina volunteers, a regiment composed of refugee slaves which was the first of the kind to be mustered into the U. S. volunteer service. In September he was ordered to Washington and was made president of a court of inquiry to investigate the causes for the surrender of Harper's Ferry and other matters, and he subsequently served as president of the court-martial instituted by General Pope to try General Fitz-John Porter for disobedience to orders. He was placed in command of the Department of West Virginia in May, 1864, defeated a Confederate force at Piedmont on June 5, moved on Lynchburg on the 8th by way of Lexington, where he burned the place, and on the 16th of June invested Lynchburg, falling back then by way of the Kanawha river, thus bringing his army to the Ohio river and leaving the valley for several weeks open to the mercy of Early. General Hunter was then on leave of absence until February 1, 1865, after which he served on courts-martial, being president of the commission that tried the persons who were charged with conspiring for the assassination of President Lincoln. He was brevetted major-general U. S. A., March 13, 1865, and was mustered out of the volunteer service in January, 1866. He was retired the following July and died in Washington, D. C, February 2, 1886. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 136-137.
Kautz, August V., brigadier-general, was born in Ispringen, Baden, Germany, January 5, 1828. He immigrated to this country with his parents Page 143 when a small boy, settling in Ohio, served in the Mexican war as a private in the 1st Ohio volunteer regiment, and, at the close of the war was appointed cadet at West Point, where he was graduated in 1852. He was assigned as 2nd lieutenant to the 4th infantry and served in the northwest, being wounded during the Rogue river hostilities of 1853-55, and again on Puget sound in 1856. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 1855, captain in the 6th U. S. cavalry in 1861, and in 1862 became colonel of the 2nd Ohio volunteer cavalry. Being ordered with his regiment to Camp Chase, Ohio, to remount and refit, he commanded that place from December, 1862, till April, 1863, when he led a cavalry brigade into Kentucky and participated in the capture of Monticello, May 1, and in thwarting Morgan's raid and effecting his capture in July. He served with the Army of the Ohio as chief of cavalry of the 23d corps, was made brigadier-general of volunteers, May 7, 1864, was given command of the cavalry division of the Army of the James, and won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, having previously been brevetted major for gallantry, by entering Petersburg with his small force of cavalry on June 9. He then led the advance of the Wilson raid, which cut the roads leading to Richmond from the south, for more than forty days, and as commander of the 1st division, 25th army corps, he took part in the movement leading to the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox, and led his division of colored troops into the city of Richmond, April 3, 1865. He was brevetted colonel in the regular army, October 7, 1864, for gallantry in action on the Darbytown road; brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A. March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious service in the field during the war, and major-general of volunteers, October 28, 1864, for gallant and meritorious service in the campaign against Richmond. General Kautz was mustered out of the volunteer service, January 15, 1866, and in July of that year was made lieutenant-colonel of the 34th U. S. infantry, being assigned later to the 15th infantry, which he commanded in the Mescalero Apache campaign, succeeding in establishing the Indians in their reservations. He was promoted colonel of the 8th infantry in 1874, was commander of the Department of Arizona, 1875-77; stationed at Angel island, California, 1878-86, and then at Niobrara, Nebraska, 1886-90. He was appointed Ill., brigadier-general in the regular establishment, April 20, 1891, was retired January 5, 1892, and died in Seattle, Washington, September 4, 1895. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 142-143.
Kiddoo, Joseph B., brigadier-general, was born in Pennsylvania about 1840. He entered the national service at the beginning of the Civil war as a private in the 2nd Pennsylvania volunteers and engaged in the siege of Yorktown and in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks and Malvern hill. He was then promoted major of the 101st Pennsylvania volunteers and engaged in the battles of South mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, serving as colonel in the last named battle. He was promoted major of the 6th U. S. colored troops in October, 1863, and colonel of the 22nd U. S. colored infantry in 1864, was present at the siege of Petersburg with the Army of the James, and was severely wounded on October 4. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious service in the assault on Petersburg, and major-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services during the war. On July 28, 1866, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 43d U. S. infantry, but was incapacitated from active service by his wounds, and on Page 147 December 15, 1870, was retired with the full rank of brigadier-general in the regular army. General Kiddoo died in New York city, August 19, 1880. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 146-147.
Lane, James H.
Paine, Charles J., brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, August 26, 1833. He was graduated at Harvard with the degree of A. B. in 1853 and A.M.in 1856,and he entered the Union Army ,October 5,1861, as captain in the 22nd Massachusetts infantry. He became major in the 30th Massachusetts infantry, January 16, 1862, colonel of the 2nd Louisiana, infantry, October 23, of that year, and on July 4, 1864, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He led a brigade at the siege of Port Hudson, May 24-July 8, 1863, then joined General Butler in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, participating in the battle of Drewry's bluff, and he commanded a division of colored troops in the attack at New Market, Virginia, in September, 1864. He also participated in the expedition against Fort Fisher, was with Sherman in North Carolina, subsequently, and for a time commanded the District of New Berne. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, January 15, 1865, for "valuable and meritorious services," and was mustered out a year later. After leaving the army General Paine was connected with the management of railroad corporations and was for many years a director of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Mexican central and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroads. He also became prominent for the part he took in defending the "America's" cup, and in February, 1888, the New Page 191 York yacht club presented him with a silver cup in recognition of his services in three times defending the trophy. In 1897 he was appointed by President McKinley, together with Edward O. Wolcott and Adlai E. Stevenson, a special envoy to Great Britain, France and Germany, with a view to secure by international agreement the remonetization of silver as a coin of final redemption. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 190-191.
Phelps, John W., brigadier-general, was born in Guilford, Vermont, November 13, 1813. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1836 and served in the Florida war, 1836-39, on the Canadian frontier during the border disturbances, then at various forts, and in the Mexican war. In the latter conflict he took part in the battles of Vera Cruz, Contreras and Churubusco, and was brevetted captain for gallantry but declined, and in 1850 was promoted to the full rank of captain. He resigned from the service, November 2, 1859, and took up his residence in Brattleboro, Vermont, where he wrote many articles against the aggression of the slave power. When the Civil war broke out he became colonel of the 1st Vermont infantry, May 9, 1861, and on May 17 he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He took possession of and held Newport News for the defense of Hampton Roads, from May to November, being engaged in several skirmishes, and was then transferred to the Department of the Gulf, where he took possession of Ship island, Mississippi, and with Commodore Farragut's fleet forced the opening of the lower Mississippi in April and May, 1862. While in garrison in Camp Parapet, Louisiana, in 1862, he organized the first negro troops, but was ordered by the government commander to cease such organization, and on that account he resigned, August 21, 1862. For his action in organizing the negroes the Confederate government declared him an outlaw. When the negroes were finally armed he declined a commission as major-general of colored troops, and he spent the rest of his life in Brattleboro, Vermont He was the candidate for the presidency of the United States on the American ticket in 1880. He devoted his attention principally to literary work, and was vice-president of the Vermont Historical society, 1863-85, and of the Vermont Teachers' association, 1865-85. He died in Guilford, Vermont, February 2, 1885. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 197.
Saxton, Rufus, brigadier-general, was born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, October 19, 1824. He received an academic education, and was graduated at the West Point military academy in 1849. He was assigned to the 3d artillery, took part in an exploring expedition to the Rocky mountains in 1853 and 1854, and in 1855 was promoted to be first lieutenant. Between 1855 and 1861 he was engaged on the coast survey and as instructor at West Point. At the opening of the Civil war he served under General McClellan in western Virginia, and as quartermaster to General T. W. Sherman in the Port Royal expedition, and on April 15, 1862, was raised to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. For a few weeks in 1862 he was commander at Harper's Ferry, where he repulsed an attack by General Ewell, and then, until 1865, was military governor of the Department of the South. On January 12, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, on April 9 he was given the brevet rank of brigadier-general in the regular army "for faithful and meritorious services during the war," and in July, 1866, was appointed quartermaster with the rank of major. He was made lieutenant-colonel and deputy quartermaster-general in June, 1872, and colonel and assistant quartermaster-general in March, 1882. From 1883 until 1888 he was stationed at Louisville, Kentucky, and in October of the latter year was placed on the retired list. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 222.
Shepard, Isaac F., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Massachusetts. In early life he removed to Missouri and was a resident of that state at the time of the breaking out of the Civil war. He at once offered his services in defense of the Federal cause, and on June 18, 1861. was appointed assistant adjutant-general of the state of Missouri with the rank of major. On August 30 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 19th Missouri infantry, and upon the consolidation of that regiment with the 3d Missouri infantry on January 18, 1862, he was commissioned colonel. With four companies of the regiment he marched to southwest Missouri and was in the battle of Pea ridge. He led his entire regiment as a part of General Curtis' army in the expedition to Helena, Arkansas, and on December 12 became a part of the Army of the Mississippi. On May 9, 1863, he became colonel of the 51st U. S. colored infantry and commanded that organization until October 27, 1863, when he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He served until his commission expired, on July 4, 1864. and he then left the service and devoted his attention to peaceful pursuits. He died on August 25, 1889. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 231.
Slocum, Henry Warner, major-general, was born in Delphi, Onondaga County, New York, Sept 24, 1827. He was graduated at West Point in 1852 and became second lieutenant in the 1st artillery. After serving in the Seminole war in Florida he was promoted first lieutenant on March 3, 1855. and was on duty at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, till October 31, 1856, when he resigned his commission. He then settled in Syracuse; began practicing law, which he had studied while in the army; entered political life; was elected to the legislature as a Democrat in 1859, and from 1859 till 1861 was also instructor of artillery in the state militia with the rank of colonel. On May 21, 1861, he became colonel of the 27th New York volunteers. The regiment left Elmira for the front on July 10, and eleven days afterward it passed through the first battle of Bull Run. where its commander was wounded in the thigh. On August 9, while confined to the hospital, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. On his recovery he was assigned to the command of a brigade in Franklin's division, Army of the Potomac. In the Peninsular campaign of 1862 he took part in the siege of Yorktown and the engagement at West Point; succeeded General Franklin in command of the division on May 15; reinforced General Fitz John Porter in the battle of Gaines' mill, June 27; and, with his division, occupied the right of the main line in the battles of Glendale and Malvern hill. On July 4, 1862, he was promoted major-general of volunteers; on Aug 30 was engaged in the second battle of Bull Run; September 14 was in the battle of South mountain; and September 17 added much to his brilliant record in the battle of Antietam, in the latter part of which he was assigned to the command of the 12th corps, succeeding General Mansfield, who had been killed. He further distinguished himself at Chancellorsville and at Gettysburg, where his command was on the right of the army, and repelled a charge made by Ewell's corps at daylight on July 3. In October, after the drawn battle at Chickamauga, the 11th and 12th corps were detached from the Army of the Potomac and hastened to reinforce the army in the Department of the Cumberland. In April, 1864, General Sherman consolidated the two corps into what Page 242 was afterward known as the 20th corps, and assigned General Hooker to the command. On this consolidation General Slocum was given command of a division and of the district of Vicksburg. In August General Hooker was succeeded by General Slocum. When General Sherman made his movement around Atlanta to the Macon road, he assigned General Slocum to guard the communications, and when the Confederates left their intrenchments about Atlanta to meet the Federal army, General Slocum threw his corps directly into the city. In the march to the sea and through the Carolinas, General Slocum commanded the left wing of the army, comprising the 14th and 20th Corps. From June 29 till September 16 he commanded the Department of the Mississippi, and on September 28, 1865, he resigned his commission, returning to civil life in Brooklyn. In the election of 1865 he was defeated as Democratic candidate for secretary of state of New York; in 1868 was a presidential elector; and in 1868 and 1870 was elected to Congress. He was defeated by Grover Cleveland in the Democratic convention of 1882 as a candidate for the nomination for governor of New York, and in the same year was elected Congressman at Large. General Slocum died at Brooklyn, New York, April 14, 1894. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 241-242.
Steedman, James B., major-general, was born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, July 30, 1818. Migrating to Ohio at nineteen, he did some contract work on the Wabash & Erie canal and was sent to the legislature in 1843. He was one of the "Argonauts" of 1849, crossing the plains to California at the head of a company of gold-seekers, but came back the next year and in 1851 was a member of the state board of public works. Under President Buchanan he was at Washington as printer to Congress and in 1860 a member of the Democratic national convention at Charleston. In 1861 he entered the war as colonel of the 14th Ohio infantry, was sent to western Virginia and took part at Philippi in "the first battle of the rebellion." Joining General Buell in Kentucky, he received a brigadier's commission in July, 1862, and at Perryville arrived in time to save the day. In July, 1863, he took command of a division of the reserve corps of the Army of the Cumberland. With General Granger he divided the honors of reinforcing General Thomas, who was thus enabled to maintain his position at Chickamauga against the entire Confederate army; heading a furious charge in person, he drove General Hindman's division from an important position and secured the ridge at a cost of one-fifth of his troops and a severe wound. He was advanced to major-general of volunteers in April, 1864; took part under General Sherman in the movement on Atlanta; relieved the garrison at Dalton, Georgia, and defeated General J. G. Wheeler's cavalry in June. Returning to the help of General Thomas when Tennessee was attacked by General Hood, he took command of a provisional corps made up of a brigade of colored troops and some 5,000 men who had failed to join their commands in time for the march to the sea, and with this irregular force did terrible execution on Hood's right flank in the battle of Nashville. He was military governor of Georgia after the war, left the army in July, 1866, and was appointed by his friend, President Johnson, collector of the port of New Orleans. In his later years he edited a paper in Ohio and was sent to the state senate in 1879, but failed of reelection. He became chief of police of Toledo in May, 1883, and died there October 18, of the same year. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 254.
Thomas, Henry G., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Maine and was one of the sons of that commonwealth that hastened to offer his services to the Federal government at the outbreak of the Civil war. He was mustered into the service of the United States on June 24, 1861, as a captain of a company in the 5th Maine infantry, and with his command left the state for Washington two days later. With his regiment he remained in camp at Meridian hill until July 5, when the march was commenced to the battlefield of Bull Run, where he received his first taste of actual warfare. On August 5, 1861, he became a captain in the 11th U. S. infantry and was on regimental recruiting service until July, 1862. He joined the regiment in the field in October of that year and was engaged in the action of Snicker's gap. He was commissioned colonel of the 79th U. S. colored infantry on March 20, 1863, but that regiment was mustered out of the service on July 11, following, and on January 16, 1864, he was commissioned colonel of the 19th U. S. colored infantry, served as commandant of Camp Birney, Maryland, from February until May, and then commanded a brigade of the 9th corps, Army of the Potomac, until November, being engaged at the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, explosion of the mine, Weldon railroad and Hatcher's run. On November 30, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and transferred to the Army of the James, where he commanded a brigade and temporarily a corps, in the operations before Richmond. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious service during the war, and was mustered out of the volunteer service January 15, 1866. In the regular army service he was brevetted major May 12, 1864, for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Spottsylvania, lieutenant-colonel on July 30, for gallant and meritorious service in front of Petersburg, and colonel and brigadier-general on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious service during the war. After the close of the war he continued in the regular army until July 2, 1891, when he was retired. His death occurred on January 23, 1897. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 270.
Thomas, Lorenzo, brigadier-general, was born in the state of Delaware in 1805. He was appointed from that state a cadet in the military academy at West Point September 1, 1819, and on July 1, 1823, he was graduated and assigned to duty in the army as second lieutenant in the 4th infantry. He served in garrison at Cantonment Clinch, Florida, in 1824; in constructing a military road to St. Augustine, 1824-25; in the Creek Nation, Georgia, 1825-26; in garrison again at Cantonment Clinch, 1827-28. and as adjutant of the 4th infantry at regimental headquarters from March 1, 1828, to February 15, 1831, being commissioned first lieutenant in the 4th infantry March 17, 1829. He served on recruiting service, 1831-33, in the adjutant-general's office at Washington, D. C, from June 5, 1833, to September 3, 1836, and did quartermaster duty in the Florida war, 1836-37, being commissioned captain in the 4th infantry September 23, 1836. He served in the quartermaster-general's office in Washington, D. C, from October 16, 1837, to July 7, 1838, being commissioned major and assistant adjutant-general on the last-named date. In the war with Mexico he was adjutant-general and chief of staff to Major-General Butler, both while commander of a division of volunteers and commander of the army, and his experience and systematic administrative powers were conspicuous in the final movements and the withdrawal of the army in Mexico. Early in the Civil war he became adjutant-general of the army by succession, and was afterward especially assigned to the duty of Page 271 organizing volunteer troops, particularly the colored regiments. He was commissioned brigadier-general on August 3, 1861, brevetted major-general, U. S. A., on March 13, 1865, and having passed the age of sixty-two years he was placed on the retired list of the army in February, 1869. General Thomas died at his residence in the city of Washington on March 2, 1875. Thomas, Stephen, brigadier-general, was born in the state of Vermont, and from that state entered the volunteer military service of the United States in the early days of the Civil war. On February 18, 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the 8th Vermont infantry, a regiment recruited for General Butler's Southern expedition, being mustered in for a three years' term. With his regiment he left for New York on March 4 and there embarked for Ship island, where from April 5 until early in May his regiment was encamped. It was then ordered to New Orleans and quartered in the Mechanics' institute building, which it occupied until the end of the month, then crossed to Algiers and Colonel Thomas was placed in command of the District of La Fourche. He opened the Opeousas railroad as far as La Fourche crossing and his regiment was engaged for some months in guarding the road. From October to December, as a part of General Weitzel's brigade, his regiment began the work of opening the Opelousas railroad to Brashear City. It was then encamped at Brashear City until January 8, 1863, when it moved to Camp Stevens at Thibodeaux, but returned after two days and shared in the expedition against the gunboat "John L. Cotton," located in the Bayou Teche, during which the regiment performed excellent service. On April 12 Colonel Thomas moved his regiment with the 19th corps in the advance to Port Hudson, having a brisk engagement with the enemy at Fort Bisland on the march. In the desperate assault on Port Hudson Colonel Thomas commanded the brigade and distinguished himself for gallantry, being wounded in the engagement. With his regiment he now shared in the siege operations and on June 14 led the column in the second grand assault. After the surrender of Port Hudson his regiment was ordered to Donaldson and thence to Thibodeaux, where it encamped until September 1. It then moved to Algiers and took part in the fruitless Sabine Pass expedition. The regiment remained in active service at Algiers and Thibodeaux until June 6, 1864, and then after a number of scouting expeditions embarked for Fortress Monroe. On its arrival it was at once ordered to Washington to assist in resisting Early's attempt upon the city. Colonel Thomas was ordered to join the 6th corps with his regiment and moved in pursuit of the enemy as far as Berryville, in the Shenandoah valley. He then countermarched his men to the vicinity of Washington, whence he was ordered back into Maryland during the flurry caused by McCausland's raid into that state. In August his regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 1st division, 19th corps, under General Emory, and did gallant service at the battle of Winchester, executing a splendid bayonet charge. It participated in the charge which routed the enemy at Fisher's hill and then followed in pursuit. It then encamped north of Cedar creek and participated in the fierce fighting at that place on October 19, being also engaged at Newtown in November. On February 1, 1865, Colonel Thomas was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and served in that capacity until August 24, 1865, when he was honorably mustered out of the service. On July 25, 1892, he was awarded a medal of honor for distinguished conduct in a desperate hand-to-hand encounter at Cedar creek, in which the advance of the enemy was checked. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, pp. 270-271.
Ullman, Daniel, brigadier-general, was born in Wilmington, Delaware, April 28, 1810. He was graduated at Yale, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in New York city, where, besides building up a large practice, he was for many years a master in the old court of chancery. In 1851 he was the Whig candidate for attorney-general, and in 1854 the American (or "Know-Nothing") candidate for governor. After the firing on Fort Sumter he raised and led to the field, as colonel, the 77th New York infantry, which served at Harper's Ferry and in many of the early movements in the Shenandoah and Piedmont regions. After the battle of Cedar mountain, and while the Army of Virginia was retreating, he was prostrated with typhoid fever, left behind, and was captured and confined in Libby prison. On his liberation he wrote a long letter to President Lincoln, recommending the emancipation of slaves and the arming of the freedmen as soldiers. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers January 13, 1863, ordered to establish headquarters in New Orleans, and to select and appoint the necessary white officers for four regiments of colored troops and one regiment of mounted scouts for duty in Louisiana. He rapidly raised and equipped five regiments of colored troops, which subsequently grew into a corps of 17,000 men, and in April following he raised and organized in New Orleans the Ullman brigade, corps d’Afrique, which in July was engaged in the siege and capture of Port Hudson. In the following year he was placed in command of Port Hudson and all the troops in that district, and he was in chief command at the battle of Atchafalaya. In March, 1865, he was ordered to Cairo, then to New York city, where he was brevetted major-general of volunteers and mustered out of service. After retiring from the army General Ullman also retired from active life and made his home at Grand View, near Nyack, where he passed his time in scientific and literary studies, interrupting them by several trips to Europe. He died in Nyack. New York, September 20, 1892. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 280.
Wild, Edward A., brigadier-general, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1825. He was graduated at Harvard college in 1844 and at the Jefferson medical college soon afterward; took a course of medical lectures in Paris; was a medical officer in the Turkish army during the Crimean war; returned to Brookline and practiced till the beginning of the Civil war. Early in 1861 he was commissioned a captain in the 1st Massachusetts infantry, with which he served at Bull Run and in the Peninsular campaign, being severely wounded at Fair Oaks. He was promoted major while yet disabled, lieutenant-colonel on his recovery, and colonel of the 35th Massachusetts infantry on its organization. He returned to the front in time to take part in the battle of South mountain, where he was again wounded and lost an arm. On April 23, 1863, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers and afterward assisted in raising the regiments of colored troops known as Wild's African brigade, which he commanded till the close of the war. Subsequently he became superintendent of the Diana mine at Austin, Nev. At the time of his death he was engaged in mining operations in South America. General Wild died in Medellin, Colombia, South America, August 28, 1891. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 8, p. 300.
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