Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Hin-Hyd
HINCKS, Edward Winslow, soldier, born in Bucksport, Hancock County, Maine, 30 May, 1830. He is descended from Chief-Justice John Hincks, of New Hampshire, who was the first of the name to arrive in this country. Edward was educated in the common schools of his native town, moved to Bangor in 1845, and from then till 1849 was a printer in the Bangor "Whig and Courier" office. In the latter year he moved to Boston, and was a member of the state legislature in 1855. On 18 December, 1860, he wrote to Major Robert Anderson, tendering a volunteer force to aid in the defence of Fort Moultrie. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Massachusetts Regiment on 17 April, 1861, and while on the march to Washington commanded a party, on 21 April, 1860, that saved the frigate " Constitution " at Annapolis, and repaired the bridge and railway at Annapolis junction. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 2d regular Cavalry on 26 April, promoted colonel of Volunteers, 16 May, 1861, and commanded the 19th Massachusetts Regiment and a brigade in Sedgwick's division of the Army of the Potomac from September, 1861, till September, 1862, when he was disabled for six months by wounds. He became brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862, was on court-martial and recruiting duty in 1863-'4, commanded the camp of prisoners-of-war at Point Lookout, Maryland, in March and April, 1864, and a division of the Army of the James during the field operations of that year. He commanded the draft rendezvous on Hart's Island, New York, from October, 1864, till January, 1865. and from that time till the close of the war was chief mustering-officer for the United States in New York City. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, made lieutenant-colonel of the 40th U. S. Infantry on 28 July, 1866. and in 1866-'7 was governor of the National Soldiers' Home. He was retired with the rank of colonel on 15 December, 1870, on account of wounds. From 1872 till 1880 he was deputy governor and treasurer of the National soldiers' homes at Hampton, Virginia. and Milwaukee, Wis. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 211.
HINDMAN, Thomas Carmichael, soldier, born in Tennessee in November, 1818; died in Helena, Arkansas, 28 September, 1808. After receiving a common school education, he studied law, and moved to Mississippi, where he practised his profession. He served throughout the Mexican War as lieutenant in a Mississippi regiment, and in 1858 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving till 1861. He had been re-elected as a Secessionist, but entered the Confederate Army with the appointment of brigadier-general, tie first served under General Simon Buckner in Kentucky, was in command at Memphis, lost the battle of Newtonia, and having collected his forces at Van Buren, Arkansas, crossed Arkansas River with 2,500 men and was defeated at Prairie Grove by General James G. Blunt and General Francis J. Herron. After the battle of Shiloh, where he was promoted major-general, he was transferred to Arkansas, and commanded a brigade under General Leonidas Polk. After the war he moved to the city of Mexico, but returned to the United States in 1867, and settled in Helena, Arkansas General Hindman's military career had been criticised for its severity in enforcing conscription and maintaining discipline, and he was assassinated by one of his former soldiers in revenge for some act of discipline during the war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 212-213.
HINKLEY, Holmes, inventor, born in Hallowell, Maine, 24 June, 1793; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 February, 1866. His parents were poor, and at fourteen years of age he was apprenticed to a carpenter. He went to Boston in 1815. Hinkley became a maker of patterns for machinery in 1823, and in 1826 established a machine-shop on Boston Neck, where, without instruction, he began to build steam-engines. He built the third stationary engine that was produced in Massachusetts, and in 1840 began to construct locomotives on a new and ingenious plan, that soon made his name favorably known. He established in 1848 the Boston locomotive works, which failed after his retirement from active control of them in 1857, but during the Civil War he retrieved his fortune by making shot and shell for the government, and in 1864 was made president of a new company, the "Hinkley and Williams Works." Among Mr. Hinkley's inventions is a locomotive boiler, which is favorably mentioned for its economy of fuel. He was probably the first man in New England to build a locomotive. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 213.
HITCHCOCK, Alfred, surgeon, born in Westminster, Vermont, 17 October, 1813; died in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, 30 March, 1874. He was educated at Phillips Andover academy, was graduated in the medical department at Dartmouth in 1838, and at that of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 1845, settling first in Ashley and afterward in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, in the practice of his profession. He was frequently a member of the legislature between 1847 and 1855, was one of the executive council of Massachusetts in 1862-'4, special agent of the state to superintend the care of the wounded during the Civil War, and in 1862 superintendent of the transportation of the wounded. Dr. Hitchcock was the second surgeon on record to perform the operation of cesophagotomy, and was one of the first to operate for strangulated hernia. He designed a stretcher, a surgical chair, and a splint, made two important changes in surgical instruments, and discovered two medical preparations. Dartmouth gave him the degree of A. M. in 1844. Besides several monographs and addresses, he published "Christianity and Medical Science" (Boston, 1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 315-216.
HITCHCOCK, Ethan Allen, soldier, born in Vergennes, Vermont, 18 May, 1798; died in Hancock, Georgia, 5 August, 1870. His father was a circuit judge during Washington's administration, and his mother was a daughter of General Ethan Allen. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1817, commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1818. adjutant in 1819, and captain in 1824. In 1824-'7 he was assistant instructor of military tactics, and in 1829-'33 commandant of cadets at West Point. For the next ten years he was on frontier duty, served in the Seminole War, was acting inspector-general in General Edmund P. Gaines's campaign of 1836, was transferred to recruiting service, and afterward to Indian duty, where his administration as disbursing agent was of great value in protecting the Indians against swindlers. He was promoted major of the 8th U.S. Infantry in 1838, became lieutenant-colonel in 1842. and during the Mexican War was engaged in all the important battles, serving a part of the time as inspector-general on General Winfield Scott's staff, and receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and that of brigadier-general for Molino del Rey. In 1851 he was promoted colonel of the 2d U.S. Infantry, and in 1851-'4 commanded the Pacific Military Division. In October, 1855, he resigned his commission in consequence of the refusal of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, to confirm a leave of absence that had been granted him by General Scott, and resided in St. Louis until 1861, devoting himself to literary pursuits. At the beginning of the Civil War he re-entered the army, was made major-general of volunteers, and stationed in Washington, serving on the commission for exchange of prisoners and that for revising the military code. He was the warm personal friend and the military adviser of President Lincoln. General Hitchcock was a disciple of Emanuel Swedenborg, and attempted to prove in his works that a subtle and elevated theology is taught in the hermetical system of philosophy. He published "Remarks on Alchemy and the Alchemists" (Boston, 1857); "Swedenborg a Hermetic Philosopher" (New York, 1858); "Christ the Spirit," in which he attempted to show that the gospels were symbolic books, written by members of a Jewish secret Society (1860); "The Sonnets of Shakespeare" (1865); " Spenser's' Colin Clout' Explained " (1865); and "Notes on the Vita Nuova of Dante " (1866). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 217-218.
HITCHCOCK, Phineas Warrener, senator, born in New Lebanon, New York, 30 November, 1831; died in Omaha, Nebraska, 10 July, 1881. He was graduated at Williams in 1855, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and settled in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1857. He was a member of the National Republican Convention that nominated Lincoln for president in 1860. In 1861 he was appointed marshal of the territory, holding office until his election as delegate to Congress, as a Republican, in 1864. He was a member of the national committee appointed to accompany the remains of President Lincoln to Illinois. On the organization of Nebraska as a state in March, 1867, he was appointed surveyor-general, held office two years, and in 1870 was elected to the United States Senate, serving till 1877, and, failing of re-election, retired to private life. Mr. Hitchcock was the author of the timber-culture laws, which have done so much to put forest-trees on western prairies. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 218.
HITCHCOCK, Robert Bradley, naval officer, born in Connecticut, 25 September, 1803. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy in 1825, promoted lieutenant in 1835, commander in 1855, captain in 1861, commodore in 1862, and retired in 1865. He commanded the steam sloop " Susquehanna," of the Western Gulf Squadron, in 1862-'3, and was senior officer of the blockading fleet off Mobile. He was on ordnance duty in 1864-'5, was commandant of the Boston U.S. Navy-yard in 1866, and was then retired from the service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 218.
HOADLEY, George, jurist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 31 July, 1826. His father was at one time mayor of New Haven, and at another of Cleveland, Ohio; and his grandfather, who was a captain in the Revolutionary War, was afterward elected twenty-six times to the Connecticut legislature. He was educated in Cleveland, whither the family had moved in 1830, and at Western Reserve College, where he was graduated in 1844. He studied at Harvard law-school, and in August. 1847, was admitted to the bar. In 1849 he became a partner in the law-firm of Chase and Ball, and in 1851 was elected a judge of the superior court of Cincinnati, and was city solicitor in 1855. In 1858 he succeeded Judge Gholson on the bench of the new superior court. His friend and partner, Governor Salmon P. Chase, offered him a seat upon the supreme court bench, which he declined, as he did also in 1862 a similar offer made by Governor Todd. In 1866 he resigned his place in the superior court, and established the law-firm of which he was the head. He was an active member of the Constitutional Convention of 1873-'4, and in October, 1883, was elected governor of Ohio, defeating Joseph B. Foraker, by whom he was in turn defeated in 1885. During the Civil War he became a Republican, but in 1876 his opposition to a protective tariff led him to affiliate again with the Democratic Party, he was one of the counsel that successfully opposed the project of a compulsory reading of the Bible in the public schools, and was leading counsel for the assignee and creditors in the case of Archbishop Purcell. He was a professor in the Cincinnati Law-School in 1864-'87, and was for many years a trustee in the university. In March, 1887, he moved to New York City and became the head of a law-firm. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 219.
HOAR, Samuel, statesman, born in Lincoln, Massachusetts, 18 May, 1788; died in Concord, Massachusetts, 2 November, 1856. His father, Captain Samuel Hoar, was a Revolutionary officer, and served for many years in the legislature. The son was graduated at Harvard in 1802, and was for two years a private tutor in Virginia. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1805, began practice at Concord, and was for forty years one of the most successful lawyers in the state. He was a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1820, a member of the state senate in 1825 and 1833, and was then elected a representative in Congress as a Whig, serving from 7 December, 1835, till 3 March, 1837. In 1844 he was sent by the legislature to South Carolina to test the constitutionality of acts of that state authorizing the imprisonment of free colored persons who should enter it. His appearance in Charleston caused great excitement, and on 5 December, 1844, he was expelled from that city. On that day the legislature of South Carolina passed resolutions authorizing his expulsion. Mr. Hoar received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1838, and was a member of the American academy of arts and sciences, the American Bible Society, and the Massachusetts Historical Society. He married a daughter of Roger Sherman. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 220.
HOBART, Augustus Charles (Hobart Pasha), Turkish naval officer, born in Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Leicestershire, England, 1 April, 1822; died in Milan, 19 June, 1886. He was the third son of the Earl of Buckinghamshire. He entered the British Navy in 1836, during the Crimean war commanded the "Driver" in the Baltic, and was commended for his gallantry at the capture of Bomarsund and the attack on Abo. After the war he retired on half-pay, and during the Civil War in the United States was in command of a blockade-runner, the "Don," which cruised along the coast of North Carolina, and endeavored to keep up maritime communication with the southern states. He was, perhaps, the most daring and successful of the English blockade-runners. In 1867 he offered his services to the sultan, who gave him command of the fleet operating against Crete. For this his name was stricken from the British naval list, but, at the instance of Lord Derby, he was, in 1874, restored to his former rank of captain on the retired list. When the war between Russia and Turkey began, in 1877, Admiral Hobart was placed in command of the Turkish fleet in the Black sea, and formally withdrew from the British service. On 8 J an., 1881, the sultan raised him to the rank of "Mushir," and Marshal of the Empire, an honor never before conferred on a Christian. He wrote "Sketches from My Life" (New York, 1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 220=221.
HOBSON. Edward Henry, soldier, born in Greensburg, Kentucky, 11 July, 1825. He was educated in common schools in Greensburg and Danville, Kentucky. In 1846 he enlisted in the 2d Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, and was soon promoted to 1st lieutenant, serving in the battle of Buena Vista, 22 and 23 February, 1847. He was mustered out of service in June, 1847, returned to Greensburg, and resumed mercantile business. He was a director of the Branch Bank of Kentucky in 1853, and served as president from 1857 till 1861. He then organized and became colonel of the 13th Kentucky Volunteers, serving at Camp Hobson till he moved southward with General Buell's army in February, 1862. He commanded his regiment at the battle of Shiloh with such success that he was nominated by President Lincoln for brigadier-general. Before receiving this commission, he took part in the siege of Corinth, Mississippi. He commanded a brigade at Perrysville. Owing to the condition of his regiment, he was relieved from active service and ordered to Mumfordsville, Kentucky, to protect the lines of communication and to discipline about 10,000 new troops. Receiving his commission as brigadier-general, he was placed in charge of the Southern Division of Kentucky troops, was ordered to Marrowbone, Kentucky, with cavalry and infantry, to watch the movements of General John Morgan, and after a slight engagement pursued him through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. At Lebanon, Kentucky, he was given two brigades in connection with his own in the pursuit of General Morgan, whom he attacked near the Ohio. He was appointed to the command of General Burnside's cavalry corps, but owing to impaired health was unable to serve, and again commanded troops in repelling raids at Lexington, Kentucky. He was mustered out of service in September, 1865, since which time he has been engaged in business. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1880, serving as a vice-president, and was a supporter of General Grant. He is now (1887) president of the Southern Division of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad company. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 222-223.
HODGE, Hugh Lenox, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30 July, 1836; died there, 10 June, 1881, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1855 and in medicine there in 1858. In 1861 he was appointed demonstrator of surgery and chief of the surgical dispensary of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1870 was made demonstrator of anatomy. He was attached to the U. S. Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia during the Civil War. and was also a surgeon in the Pennsylvania reserve Corps, serving in McClellan's Campaign, before Richmond, in the Gettysburg Campaign, and at Fredericksburg in Grant's advance on Richmond. He was consulting surgeon to many charitable institutions, served as president of the Pathological Society, and was a member of various medical associations. He contributed freely to medical literature on his original investigations on the subjects of metallic sutures, the treatment of fractures of the thigh by improved apparatus, the drainage of wounds by a solid metal probe, deformities after hip disease, tracheotomy in cases of pseudo-membranous croup, ovariotomy, and excision of the hip-joint. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 223-224.
HODGE, George B., soldier, born in Fleming County, Kentucky, 8 April, 1828. He was educated at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, became a midshipman, 16 December, 1845, and afterward acting lieutenant, but resigned in 1851. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1852, was subsequently admitted to the bar at Newport, Kentucky, and was elected to the legislature in 1859. In 1860 he was an elector on the Breckinridge ticket. He entered the Confederate service as a private in 1861, and was soon afterward chosen to represent Kentucky in the Confederate Congress. While not at Richmond, he was in the field, and was made captain and assistant adjutant-general in Breckinridge's division. He was promoted major for gallantry at Shiloh, and colonel in 1864, serving as inspector-general. He became a brigadier-general, and participated in the battle of Chickamauga, subsequently commanding the districts of east Louisiana and Mississippi until the close of the war. He then resumed practice at Newport, Kentucky, and was an elector on the Greeley ticket in 1872. He was state senator in 1873-'7. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 224.
HOFF, Henry Kuhn, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1809; died in Washington, D. C, 25 December, 1878. He was appointed a midshipman from South Carolina on 28 October, 1823, commissioned lieutenant on 3 March, 1831, and commander on 6 February, 1854. In 1861-'2 he commanded the steam sloop "Lancaster" of the Pacific Squadron. He was promoted commodore on 16 July, 1862, was on special duty in 1863, and afterward on ordnance duty in Philadelphia till 1867. He was made a rear-admiral on 13 April, 1867, and in 1868-'9 commanded the North Atlantic Squadron. During the Cuban Insurrection, which began in October, 1868, he promptly and energetically interfered to protect resident American citizens, who suffered injustice from Spanish officials. He was placed on the retired list on 19 September, 1868, returned to the United States in August, 1869, was a member of the retiring board, and in 1870 President of the Board of Visitors at Annapolis. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 226.
HOFFMAN, David Bancroft, physician, born in Bainbridge, Chenango County, New York, 25 July, 1827. He studied medicine in his father's office, and attended lectures at Rush and Jefferson Medical Colleges. He crossed the plains in 1849, and spent two years in California. In 1851-'3 he was a surgeon on mail steamers from New York to Aspinwall and from Panama to San Francisco. He then settled in San Diego, California, was coroner and afterward postmaster there, and represented the county in the legislature in 1861-2. He received the degree of M. D. from Toland Medical College in San Francisco in 1864. During the Civil War he served as a field-surgeon in the U. S. Army, and afterward as a contract-surgeon till 1880. In 1868 he was a presidential elector, in 1869-'73 collector of customs at San Diego, and in 1870-'5 U. S. commissioner in bankruptcy. He engaged in railroad enterprises, and was chosen president of the San Diego and San Bernardino Railroad Company. He published a "Medical History of San Diego County " (San Francisco, 1864). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 227.
HOFFMAN, John Thompson, governor of New York, born in Sing Sing, New York, 10 January, 1828. He was graduated at Union College in 1846, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1849. He acquired an extensive practice in New York City, and interested himself in polities, joining the Tammany organization in 1854. He was elected recorder in 1860, re-elected in 1863, and in July of the latter year delivered severe sentences against persons that had been engaged in the draft riots. He was elected by the Democrats mayor of New York City in 1865, and re-elected in 1867. He was first nominated a candidate for governor in 1866, and defeated by Reuben E. Fenton, but in 1868 was re-nominated and elected, and in 1870 was reelected. The "Public Papers of Governor Hoffman" were published (Albany, 1872). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 227.
HOFFMAN, William, soldier, born in New York City, 2 December, 1807; died in Rock Island, Illinois., 12 August, 1884. His father, of the same name, was a lieutenant-colonel in the U. S. Army. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1829, entered the army as a lieutenant of infantry, served in Kansas and in the Black Hawk War in 1832, and was promoted 1st lieutenant on 16 November, 1836, and captain on 1 February, 1838. In the war with Mexico he was engaged in the march through Chihuahua, the siege of Vera Cruz, and the battle of Cerro Gordo, was brevetted for services at Contreras and Churubusco, and again for bravery in the battle of Molino del Rey, and was present at the storming of Chapultepec and at the capture of the city of Mexico. He was promoted major on 15 April, 1851, served in the Sioux Expedition of 1855, and in 1858 in the Utah Expedition and the march to California He became a lieutenant-colonel on 17 October, 1860, and was engaged in frontier duty at San Antonio, Texas, when he was made a prisoner of war by the Confederates, and not exchanged till 27 August, 1862. He was made a colonel on 25 April, 1862, served during the war as commissary-general of prisoners at Washington, and was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general. At the close of the war he took command of his regiment in Kansas, and in 1870 was retired at his own request. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 228.
HOGE, Moses Drury, clergyman, born near Hampden Sidney College, Virginia, 17 September, 1819, was graduated at Hampden Sidney in 1839, and, after taking the course at Union theological seminary, was licensed to preach in 1844, and immediately called to Richmond as assistant pastor of the 1st Presbyterian Church. Under Dr. Hoge's charge, a colony soon went out from that church, which, in January, 1845, was organized as the 2d Presbyterian Church. This has been his only charge during a ministry of forty years. During the Civil War he ran the blockade to England, in order to procure Bibles and other religious books for the Confederate Army. Among those who cordially favored his application to the British and Foreign Bible Society was the Earl of Shaftesbury, who was largely instrumental in obtaining for him a grant of £4,000 worth of Bibles and testaments. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 230.
HOGE, Solomon La Fayette, member of Congress, born in Logan County, Ohio, about 1837. He was graduated at the Cincinnati Law College in 1859, and practised at Bellefontaine. He entered the army in 1861 as 1st lieutenant of Ohio volunteers, was promoted captain, and was severely wounded at the second battle of Bull Run. He was twice brevetted for gallantry in battle, and on 23 February. 1866, received the commission of 2d lieutenant in the 6th regular Infantry. He was promoted 1st lieutenant on 28 July, 1866, but resigned in 1868 and moved to South Carolina, where he took an active part in the reconstruction movement. He was elected an associate judge of the state supreme court, and afterward to Congress, serving from December, 1869, till March, 1871, and again from 6 December, 1875, till 3 March, 1877. He was comptroller-general of South Carolina in 1874-'5. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 230.
HOLABIRD, Samuel Beckley, soldier, born in Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut,16 June, 1826. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, assigned to the 1st U.S. Infantry, promoted 1st lieutenant in May, 1855, and was in service at the academy as adjutant from 2 September, 1859, till 13 May, 1861. He served during the Civil War in the Northern Virginia Campaign in August and September, 1862, with the Army of the Potomac in the Maryland Campaign, and was chief quartermaster of the Department of the Gulf from 16 December, 1862, till July, 1865. He was present at the siege of Port Hudson in 1863, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, for meritorious services during the war. He was depot quartermaster at New Orleans from 1 October till 16 December, 1865, and was chief quartermaster of the Department of Louisiana from 1 October, 1865, till 7 March, 1866. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel and deputy quartermaster-general 29 July, 1866; colonel and quartermaster-general, 22 January, 1881, and brigadier-general and quartermaster-general, 1 July, 1883. General Holabird has translated General Jomini's "Treatise on Grand Military Operations" (1865). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 230-231.
HOLDEN, William Woods, journalist, born in Orange County, North Carolina, 24 November, 1818. He attended a common school until he was sixteen years old, was in a printing-office in Hillsborough, North Carolina, for the next two years, and in 1841 was admitted to the bar in Raleigh, N.C. In 1843 he bought "The Raleigh Standard," and was its editor twenty-five years. He served in the legislature in 1846, was a member of the state convention in 1861, and signed the Ordinance of Secession. He was appointed by President Johnson provisional governor of North Carolina in 1865, declined the mission to San Salvador in 1866, and in 1868 he was elected governor, as a Republican, by popular vote. Reports of " Ku-klux " outrages in the latter part of 1869, and early in 1870, caused the governor, by virtue of authority that had been conferred on him by the legislature, to issue a proclamation on 7 March, declaring the county of Alamance to be in a state of insurrection, and a similar one on 8 July regarding Caswell County, and several arrests were made with the aid of the militia. This action caused much excitement, and the Democrats, in addresses that were issued in March and July, asserted that the accounts of outrages were exaggerated, that the local authorities were fully able to preserve order, and that the governor's course was intended to influence the coming election. Governor Holden applied to President Grant for troops, and at first refused to deliver the prisoners to the civil authorities on writ of habeas corpus, but afterward did so by advice of the U. S. Attorney-General. The accused persons were held for trial in their respective counties, and on 10 November the governor proclaimed the restoration of civil authority. The opposition to Governor Holden on account of his course in this matter culminated in the presentation by the state house of representatives to the senate on 20 December, 1870, of eight articles of impeachment against him " for high crimes and misdemeanors." The senate declared him guilty of six of the eight indictments, and ordered that he " be moved from the office of governor, and disqualified to hold any office of trust, honor, or profit under the state of North Carolina." He moved to Washington and edited the "National Republican," but afterward returned to Raleigh and was postmaster. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 233.
HOLLEY, Alexander Lyman, metallurgist, born in Lakeville, Connecticut, 20 July, 1832; died in Brooklyn, New York, 29 January, 1882. He was the son of Alexander H. Holley, who was afterward governor of Connecticut. The son was graduated in the scientific course at Brown in 1853. He then entered the shops of Corliss and Nightingale, where for eighteen months he served as a draughtsman and machinist, and afterward secured employment at the locomotive works in Jersey City. In 1856 he took the management of "The Railroad Advocate," to which he had previously contributed when it was edited by Zerah Colburn. Its name was soon changed to "Holley's Railroad Advocate," and it was published until July, 1857, when it gave place to " The American Engineer," of Holley and Colburn, which suspended with its third issue. He then went abroad with Colburn to study foreign railway practice, and to report on those features of it which would be of greatest importance at home. On the return of the two engineers they published "The Permanent Way and Coal-burning Locomotives of European Railways, with a Comparison of the Working Economy of European and American Lines, and the Principles upon which Improvement must Proceed " (New York, 1858), in which it was shown that the annual operating expenses of an American Railroad was one third more for the same mileage than in England. Their statements were taken up by the daily journals, and many of the leading editorials which appeared at this time were by Mr. Holley. He then became connected with the "New York Times," and between 1858 and 1863 contributed to it upward of 200 articles. In 1859 he was sent to Europe by the "Times," and wrote letters on engineering topics, including a series on the "Great Eastern”, which was then in course of construction. A year later he went to Europe again for the "Times," returning on the first trans-Atlantic trip of the "Great Eastern." and meanwhile contributing to the " American Railway Review," of which he was editor of the mechanical department. During these years he had in preparation his " American and European Railway Practice" (New York and London, 1860; 2d ed., 1867). At the beginning of the Civil War, when he had a professional standing of the highest rank, he offered his services to the U. S. government, but no notice was taken of his letter. In 1862 he was sent abroad by Edwin A. Stevens to study the subject of ordnance and armor. This led to his subsequent publication of "A Treatise on Ordnance and Armor" (New York and London, 1865). A year later he again visited England, at the request of Corning, Winslow, and Company, of Troy, to obtain information concerning the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel. He returned after purchasing the American rights of the Bessemer patents, which were subsequently combined with the conflicting American patents of William Kelly. The first Bessemer plant was established at Troy in 1865 under his supervision, and enlarged in 1867. He also built the works at Harrisburg in 1867, and later planned those at North Chicago and Joliet, the Edgar Thompson works at Pittsburg, and the Vulcan works at St. Louis, besides acting as consulting engineer in the designing of the Cambria, Bethlehem, Scranton. and other works. The history of his career after 1865 is substantially that of the Bessemer manufacture in the United States. After the formation of the Bessemer Association he issued confidential reports to it on the various branches of steel manufacture. During his lifetime the capacity of the American Bessemer Plant was raised from that of about 900 tons a month to more than 10,000 tons for the same period. In 1875 he was appointed a member of the U. S. board for testing iron, steel, and other metals, and was one of the most laborious of its members. Four years later he became lecturer on the manufacture of iron and steel at the Columbia school of mines, and continued this work until his death. Mr. Holley obtained about sixteen patents, of which several were for improvements in the Bessemer process, and of these his last, that of the detached converter-shell, is perhaps the most important. In 1878 he received the degree of LL. D. from Brown, and he was a trustee of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute from 1865 till 1867 and from 1870 till 1882. He was president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in 1875, vice-president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1880, and vice-president of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1876. In addition to the books already mentioned, Mr. Holley was the author of numerous technical papers. From 1877 till 1880 he prepared, with Lenox Smith, a series of forty-one articles on "American Iron and Steel," which were published in the London "Engineering." A statue to his memory is to be erected in Central Park by the societies of mining, civil, and mechanical engineers, from a design furnished by John Q. A. Ward. See "Memorial of Alexander Lyman Holley" (New York, 1884). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 235-236.
HOLLEY, Myron, 1779-1841, Rochester, New York, abolitionist leader, political leader, reformer. Founder of the Liberty Party. Published the anti-slavery newspaper, Rochester Freeman. (Blue, 2005, pp. 20, 23, 25, 26; Chadwick, 1899; Dumond, 1961, pp. 295-296, 404n16; Goodell, 1852, pp. 470, 474, 556; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 16-17, 21; Sernett, 2002, pp. 107-109, 112, 180, 305-306n17; Sorin, 1971; Wright, 1882; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 236; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 150; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 62)
HOLLEY, Myron, reformer, born in Salisbury, Connecticut, 29 April, 1779; died in Rochester, New York, 4 March, 1841. He was graduated at Williams in 1799, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1802. He began practice in Salisbury, but in 1803 settled in Canandaigua, New York. Finding the law uncongenial, he purchased the stock of a local bookseller and became the literary purveyor of the town. In 1810-'14 he was county-clerk, and in 1816 was sent to Albany as an assemblyman. The project of the Erie Canal was at that time the great subject of interest, and through the efforts of Mr. Holley a board of commissioners was appointed, of whom he was one. His work thenceforth, until its completion, was on the Erie Canal. For eight years his practical wisdom, energy, and self-sacrifice made him the executive power, without which this great enterprise would probably have been a failure. On the expiration of his term of office, in 1824, as canal-commissioner and treasurer of the board, he retired to Lyons, where with his family he had previously moved. The anti-Masonic excitement of western New York, arising from the abduction of William Morgan, soon drove Mr. Holley into prominence again. This movement culminated in a national convention being held in Philadelphia in 1830, where Henry D. Ward, Francis Granger, William H. Seward, and Myron Holley were the representatives from New York. An "Address to the People of the United States," written by Holley, was adopted and signed by 112 delegates. The anti-Masonic adherents presented a candidate in the next gubernatorial canvass of New York, and continued to do so for several years, until the Whigs, appreciating the advantages of their support, nominated candidates that were not Masons. This action resulted, in 1838, in the election of William H. Seward. Meanwhile, in 1831, Mr. Holley became editor of the Lyons "Countryman," a journal devoted to the opposition and suppression of Masonry; but after three years, this enterprise not having been successful, he went to Hartford, and there conducted the "Free Elector" for one year. He then returned to Lyons, but soon disposed of his property and settled near Rochester, where for a time he lived in quiet, devoting his attention to horticulture. When the anti-slavery feeling began to manifest itself Mr. Holley became one of its adherents. At this time he was offered a nomination to Congress by the Whig Party, provided he would not agitate this question; but this proposition he declined. He participated in the meeting of the Anti-Slavery Convention held in Cleveland in 1839, and was prominent in the call for a national convention to meet in Albany, to take into consideration the formation of a Liberty Party. At this gathering the nomination of James G. Birney was made, and during the subsequent canvass Mr. Holley was active in support of the candidate, both by continual speaking and by his incessant labors as editor of the Rochester "Freeman." Mr. Holley's remains rest in Mount Hope cemetery, at Rochester, and the grave is marked by an obelisk, with a fine medallion portrait in white marble, the whole having been paid for in one-cent contributions by members of the Liberty Party, at the suggestion of Gerrit Smith. See "Myron Holley; and What he did for Liberty and True Religion," by Elizur Wright (Boston," 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 236.
HOLLINS, George Nichols, naval officer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 20 September, 1799; died there, 18 January, 1878. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1814, and served on the sloop-of-war "Brie" in her unsuccessful attempt to break the British blockade of Chesapeake Bay. He was assigned to the frigate "President" under Stephen Decatur, was captured by the British, and kept a prisoner of war at Bermuda until peace was established, he also served under Decatur in the Algerian war in 1815, and received from him a Turkish sabre for his bravery in the capture of an Algerian frigate. After serving on the "Guerriere," the "Columbus," the "Franklin," and the "Washington," he took command of an East Indian merchantman. In 1825 he was promoted lieutenant, and in 1844 commander. In 1855, while lying off the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, the American residents of Greytown appealed to him for protection from the local authorities, by whom they alleged they had been injured. Hollins accordingly bombarded the city as a punishment to the authorities, and the property and lives of the English residents being imperilled, they declared he had encroached on British domain, as Nicaragua was under the protection of that government. In consequence of his precipitate conduct, serious difficulties were apprehended between England and the United States. In 1861 he resigned his commission to join the Confederate Navy, but the war department refused to accept it, struck his name from the rolls, and ordered his arrest. He eluded the authorities, went to the south, and was commissioned commodore in the Confederate Navy. In October, 1861, he attacked the National Blockading Squadron at the passes of the Mississippi, and was appointed flag-captain of the New Orleans Station for what was claimed as an important victory. In 1862 he was superseded by Commodore William C. Whipple. After the war he became a crier in the city court of Baltimore. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 237.
HOLLOWAY, James Montgomery, physician, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 14 July, 1834. He was educated at Oakland College. Mississippi, and Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, and in 1857 was graduated in medicine at the University of Louisiana. He practised at Vernon, Madison County, Mississippi, and in 1861-'5 served as a surgeon in the Confederate Army. In 1863 he was senior medical officer, and appointed president of the medical examining board of all the hospitals in Richmond. He was professor of anatomy in Louisville College, Kentucky, in 1865-'6, of physiology in 1866-'7, in 186770 'held the chair of physiology and medical jurisprudence in the Kentucky school of medicine, from 1870 till 1874 was professor of physiology and clinical surgery in Louisville Medical College, and from 1874 till 1877 professor of surgery in the hospital College of the medical department of Central University, Kentucky. He has written much for medical periodicals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 328.
HOLMES, Oliver Wendell, jurist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 8 March, 1841, was educated at Harvard. He entered the National service as lieutenant in the 20th Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry in 1861, was wounded severely at Ball's Bluff, at Antietam, and at the second battle of Fredericksburg, and was mustered out with the rank of captain in June, 1864. He had been offered a commission as lieutenant-colonel in 1863, but declined promotion. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1866, and practised in Boston. In 1882 he was professor in the law school of Harvard, and in the same year was appointed a justice of the supreme court of the state. He has edited Kent's "Commentaries" (Boston, 1873), and is the author of "The Common Law" (1881) and of numerous articles and addresses. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 241.
HOLMES, Theophilus Hunter, soldier, born in Sampson County, North Carolina, in 1804; died near Fayetteville, North Carolina, 21 June, 1880, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1829, served on the western frontier, and as lieutenant and captain of infantry in the Florida War, the occupation of Texas, and the war with Mexico, receiving the brevet of major for gallantry in the engagements before Monterey. He was commissioned major on 3 March, 1855, took part in the Navajo Expedition of 1858-'9, and was superintendent of the general recruiting service when the Civil War began. He went on leave of absence to North Carolina, where he owned large estates, resigned his commission on 22 April, 1861, and was at once made a brigadier-general in the service of the state. He organized many of the North Carolina regiments, and selected their commanding officers. When North Carolina joined the Confederacy he was commissioned a brigadier-general by the Confederate government. He commanded at Aquia Creek, and was engaged in the various campaigns of northern Virginia, rising to be major-general in the Confederate Army. In September, 1862, he was transferred to the command of the Trans-Mississippi Department, with headquarters at Little Rock, Arkansas. He was tendered a commission as lieutenant-general while there, and at first declined, but accepted when Jefferson Davis pressed it upon him a second time. In March, 1863, he was at his own request relieved in the command of the department by General E. Kirby Smith. He attacked Helena, Arkansas, on 3 July, 1863, and was driven back with heavy losses. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 241-242.
HOLMES, Isaac Edward, statesman, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 6 April, 1796; died there, 24 February, 1867. He was prepared for college by his cousin, Christopher E. Gadsden, and graduated at Yale in 1815, was admitted to the bar in Charleston in 1818, and became a successful lawyer. He entered the legislature in 1826, and during the nullification crisis of 1832-'3 was a leader of the extreme state-rights party, and one of the founders of the South Carolina Association. The proposition that the state should nullify the tariff first emanated from him. He engaged in planting for a time. In 1838 he was sent to Congress, and was an active member of the house till 1850, serving as chairman of the Committee on Commerce, and afterward of that on Naval Affairs. He then moved to California, and practised law from 1851 till January, 1861, when, on learning of the passage of the Ordinance of Secession, he returned to South Carolina. He passed through Washington, and, in several interviews with William H. Seward and General Winfield Scott, endeavored to avert the Civil War. After the close of hostilities he was appointed a commissioner of the state to confer with the Federal government. He was the author of the " Recreations of George Taletell," consisting of stories, essays, and descriptive sketches (Charleston, 1822), and, in conjunction with Robert J. Turnbull, published a volume of political essays in favor of state rights, under the signature of " Caroliniensis" (1826). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 242.
HOLT, John Saunders, author, born in Mobile, Alabama, 5 December, 1820; died in Natchez, Mississippi, 27 February, 1886. He moved with his father, when an infant, to Woodville, Mississippi, and was educated in New Orleans and Centre College, Danville, Kentucky. In 1846 he joined a Mississippi regiment of volunteers under Colonel Jefferson Davis, and served as a private in the Mexican War, receiving honorable mention for bravery at Buena Vista. After studying law, he was licensed to practise in Woodville, Mississippi, in 1848, and resided there until his removal to New Orleans in 1851. He returned to Woodville in 1857, and throughout the Civil War served as lieutenant in the Confederate Army. At its close he resumed the practice of law. His novels, which are intended to portray various phases of southern character, are written under the pen-name of "Abraham Page," and are entitled "The Life of Abraham Page, Esq."(Philadelphia, 1868); "What I know about Ben Eccles, by Abraham Page" (1869); and " The Quines" (1870). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 244.
HOLT, Joseph, jurist, born in Breckenridge County, Kentucky, 6 January, 1807. He was educated at St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, and at Centre College, Danville, and in 1828 began to practice law at Elizabethtown, Kentucky. He moved to Louisville in 1832, was attorney for the Jefferson circuit in 1833, and in 1855 went to Port Gibson, Mississippi, where he attained eminence in his profession. He became an adherent of . Richard M. Johnson, and a speech that he made in Johnson's favor in the National Democratic Convention of 1836 made him widely known as an orator. At this time he was counsel for the city of Vicksburg in a celebrated suit involving the claim of the heirs
of Newit Vick, founder of the city, to a strip of land along the river-front that Vick had devoted to the public use. He was a frequent opponent of Sergeant S. Prentiss. Holt returned to Louisville in 1842, and after a trip to Europe was appointed commissioner of patents by President Buchanan in 1857. He became Postmaster-General in 1859, and when John B. Floyd withdrew from the cabinet in 1860 he assumed charge of the War Department. He actively co-operated with General Scott in providing against hostile demonstrations at the inauguration of President Lincoln in 1861, and in a report, which was afterward published, described the plot that had been made to seize the capital. Although he had been a Douglas Democrat, Mr. Holt now gave his earnest support to the administration, denounced the policy of " neutrality " in his native state, and advocated the Union cause there and elsewhere. In the latter part of 1861 he was one of the commission that was appointed to investigate the military claims against the Department of the West. President Lincoln made him judge-advocate-general of the army on 3 September, 1862, with the rank of colonel, and on the establishment of the Bureau of Military Justice in 1864 he was put at its head with the same title, but with the rank of brigadier-general. He expressed his strong approval of the Emancipation Proclamation of 1862, and on 26 August, 1863, addressed an opinion to Secretary of War Stanton in which he approved the enlistment and subsequent emancipation of those Negroes who, living in states to which the proclamation did not refer, were still in slavery. Judge Holt bore a conspicuous part in various courts-martial and military commissions, especially in that which tried the assassins of President Lincoln. He was brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, on 13 March, 1865, for " faithful, meritorious, and distinguished services in the Bureau of Military Justice during the war," and on 1 December, 1875, was retired at his own request, being over sixty-two years of age. Since that time he has resided in Washington, D. C. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 244.
HOMER Winslow, artist, born in Boston. Massachusetts, 24 February, 1836. In 1854 he was placed by his father with a lithographer to learn the business, and remained two years, producing among other works a design that embraced the portraits of the entire senate of Massachusetts. He then engaged in drawing on the block for wood-engravers, and, his work attracting favorable comment, he was invited to remove to New York by a publishing house, for whom he made many drawings. In 1860-'l he studied in the night-school of the Academy of design, and had a month's instruction in landscape painting. In 1863 he exhibited for the first time, at the Academy, two pictures on war subjects— 'Home, Sweet Home." and "The Last Goose at Yuletown." These pictures made a strong impression on the public. In 1805 he exhibited " Prisoners at the Front." The characters in this scene are all portraits, and at the Paris salon of 1867 was one of the few American pictures that received favorable comment. He spent the year 1867 in Paris, studying without a master from life models, but received a great impulse from the paintings of John La Farge. He was elected an associate of the National academy in 1804, and an academician the following year. Mr. Homer's pictures have the merit of genuine motive and aim. He paints life as he sees it, and is rigidly faithful to his own perceptions. Since 1867 he has resided in New York. He exhibited "Snap the Whip" and "The American Type" at the Philadelphia exposition of 1876, and "Snap the Whip" and the "Country School Room " at the Paris salon of the next year. Among his most noted pictures are the Negro studies " Eating Watermelon" and the "Cotton-Pickers," and the "Song of the Lark," " The Pour-Leaved Clover," " Dad's Coming," " In the Fields," " The Trysting-Place," and "Flowers for the Teacher." He has recently exhibited at the National academy "The Life-Line " (1884) and " Under-tow " (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 246.
HOOD, John Bell, soldier, born in Owenville, Bath County, Kentucky, 1 June, 1831; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 August, 1879. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1853, and, after serving two years in California, was transferred in 1855 to the 2d U.S. Cavalry, of which Albert Sidney Johnston was colonel and Robert E. Lee lieutenant-colonel. In the fight at Devil's Run with the Comanche and Lipian Indians, in July, 1857, he was severely wounded in a hand-to-hand encounter with a savage. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 1858, and was cavalry instructor at the Military Academy in 1859-60. At the beginning of the Civil War he resigned his commission, and, entering the Confederate Army, rose to the rank of colonel, and, after a short service in the peninsula, was appointed brigadier-general of the Texas Brigade. He was then ordered back to the peninsula, was engaged at West Point, and, while leading his men on foot at Gaines's Mill, was shot in the body. In this battle his brigade lost more than half its number, and Hood was brevetted major-general on the field. He served in both Maryland Campaigns, was engaged in the second battle of Bull Run and those of Boonesborough, Fredericksburg, and Antietam, and was a second time severely wounded at Gettysburg, losing the use of his arm. Two months later he re-joined his command, and was ordered to Tennessee to re-enforce General Braxton Bragg. During the second day's fight at Chickamauga, seeing the line of his brigade waver, he rode to the front, and demanded the colors. The Texans rallied and charged, and Hood, at the head of the column, was again shot down. This wound necessitated the loss of his right leg, and while in hospital he was offered a civil appointment, which he refused, saying: "No bomb-proof place for me; I propose to see this fight out in the field." Six months later he returned to duty, and in the spring of 1864 commanded a corps in General Joseph E. Johnston's army, fighting through the retreat from Dalton to Atlanta. In obedience to an order of Jefferson Davis he succeeded Johnston in the command on 8 July, 1864, and, after several days of stubborn fighting, was completely outflanked by General William T. Sherman, and compelled to evacuate Atlanta, leaving Sherman in the rear, and enabling him to make his march to the sea. Hood then began a counter-movement into Tennessee. He compelled the evacuation of Decatur in November, crossed the Tennessee, and on the 30th of this month was defeated by General George H. Thomas at Franklin. On 16 December he was again disastrously defeated at Nashville by the same general, and after this battle, at his own request, was relieved of command and succeeded by General Richard Taylor. On the termination of the war he engaged in business as a commission-merchant in New Orleans, and was also president of the Louisiana branch of the Life Association of America, acquiring a competency, which was afterward lost in trade. During the yellow-fever epidemic of 1879 his wife and eldest child died within a few hours of each other, and Hood also succumbed to the disease. He is the author of "Advance and Retreat, Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate Armies" (New Orleans, 1880). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 247.
HOOKER, Charles Edward, lawyer, born in Union District, South Carolina, in 1825. He was graduated at Harvard Law-School in 1846, and afterward practised at Jackson, Mississippi. He was elected district attorney of the River District in 1850, and in 1859 a member of the Mississippi legislature, but resigned his seat on entering the Confederate Army. He was wounded during the siege of Vicksburg, and, having been promoted to the rank of colonel of cavalry, was assigned to duty on the military court that was attached to General Leonidas Polk's command. He was elected Attorney-General of Mississippi in 1865, re-elected in 1868, and. together with the other civil officers of the state, was moved by the military authorities. He was afterward elected to Congress as a Democrat, served from 6 December, 1875, till 3 March, 1883, and was again chosen in 1886. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 248.
HOOKER, Edward, naval officer, born in Farmington, Hartford County, Connecticut, 25 December, 1822. He is descended from Reverend Thomas Hooker. Edward was educated at Farmington academy, and at the age of fourteen entered the merchant marine, where he remained until he entered the U.S. Navy as acting master. 19 July, 1861, on the gun-boat "Louisiana," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and was severely wounded, 5 October, 1861. He was on service on that gun-boat in the Burnside expedition, and commanded it, in the absence of the chief officer, at Washington, North Carolina, 5 September. 1862. For his gallant conduct in this action he was promoted to acting-volunteer lieutenant, 20 September, 1862. He was in command of the steamer "Victoria" in 1863, and captured the brig " Minna"' and the steamer "Nicholai I." off Wilmington, North Carolina. He had command of the boats on the Rappahannock during the advance of General Grant, and cleared the river of torpedoes, opening it to transports. He was promoted to acting volunteer lieutenant-commander in January, 1865, was naval store-keeper in the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard from October, 1865, till October. "1867, commanded the store-ship "Idaho" in 1867-'9, and was commissioned lieutenant-commander in the regular navy. 18 December, 1868. He was inspector of yards and docks at the U.S. Navy-yard. New York, in 1870, and in 1884 was retired with the rank of commander. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 248.
HOOKER, Joseph, soldier, born in Hadley. Massachusetts, 13 November, 1814; died in Garden City. New York, 31 October, 1879. After a good elementary education he was appointed a cadet in the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1837 with Braxton Bragg, Jubal Early, John Sedgwick, and Edward D. Townsend. He was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery, and after serving in the Florida War was sent with his regiment to the Maine frontier, on account of the disputed boundary controversy. On 1 November, 1838, he was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. After continued service with his regiment, he was appointed adjutant of the Military Academy, 1 July, 1842, but soon afterward, having been offered the adjutancy of his own regiment, accepted it, and retained it until 11 May, 1846. He served with distinction in the Mexican War from 1846 till 1848, and in the former year was appointed a captain in the adjutant-general's department. He was attached successively to the staffs of Generals Persifer F. Smith. Thomas L. Hamer, William O. Butler, and Gideon I. Pillow. He was particularly distinguished in the siege and assault of Monterey, under General Zachary Taylor, and received the brevet of captain. He took part in the movements from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, and for his gallantry in a spirited affair at the National Bridge on 11 August, 1847, was brevetted major. He was favorably mentioned in the despatches announcing the series of actions and victories in the valley of Mexico—Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of the city. For the decisive action of Chapultepec he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, being thus among the very few to whom were given three brevets during the war. After a year's sojourn at the east he was sent, on 9 July, 1849, as assistant adjutant-general to the Division of the Pacific, where he served until 24 November, 1851. By regular lineal promotion he had become a captain in his regiment on 29 October, 1848; but this post he declined and vacated, since he could not hold both, in order to retain his captaincy in the adjutant-general's department. From 1851 till 1853 he was on leave of absence. Being, like many others, smitten with the "California fever," he resigned from the army on 21 February, 1853, and from that time until 1861 lived a precarious and not very successful life. At first he was a farmer in Sonora County, California In 1858 he was appointed superintendent of military roads in Oregon, and had other government surveying. From 1859 till 1861 he was colonel of California militia, expecting the cloud of war soon to burst. Thus by his needs, his training, and his forecast he was ready to avail himself of the opportunity that soon presented itself to his uncommon military talents. Still young, tall, handsome, cool, brave, and dashing, he was at once a soldier and a general, the beau-ideal of a leader of men. The government made haste to accept his services, which he had promptly offered, and he was appointed on 17 May, 1861, a brigadier-general of volunteers. The actual time of issuing his commission was in August, but it was dated back to give him a claim to higher command. He saw the battle of Bull Run, without participating in it. He was employed in the defences of Washington, 12 August, 1861, and then on the eastern shore of the lower Potomac, and was appointed in April, 1862, to the command of the 2d Division in the 3d Corps, Army of the Potomac, under Heintzelman, and fought in that capacity during the Peninsular Campaign. He was distinguished at the siege of Yorktown, 5 April to 4 May, and was appointed a major-general of volunteers on the day after the evacuation, 5 May. In the battle of Williamsburg his single division held the whole Confederate Army in check, and lost 2,228 men, killed or wounded, while 30,000 National troops looked on and gave no assistance until, when all his men had been engaged, and he was obliged to retire, Kearny and Hancock came to his relief. He was also distinguished at the battles of Fair Oaks, Frazier's Farm. Glendale. and Malvern, where so much depended upon defeating the enemy while the change of base was being executed. At the close of the campaign, Hooker was employed, still as a division commander, in the new movement under General John Pope, against General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, and fought with skill and valor at Bristoe Station, 27 August, Manassas, 20 and 30 August, and Chantilly, where he held the enemy in check with the gallant Kearny, who was killed there. From the soldiers who had admired his cool and dashing courage under fire he received the nickname of "Fighting Joe," and when he appeared on the field the men were strengthened and inspired. Especially had his rapid defeat of Ewell, 27 August, at Manassas compelled Jackson to evacuate Manassas, and relieved the army from a very critical situation. When Pope had failed and was hurled back under the defences of Washington, the Army of the Potomac was restored to McClellan, and Hooker was promoted to the command of the 1st Corps. He took a prominent part in the Maryland Campaign, and was engaged in the battle of South Mountain, 14 September, 1862. where he carried the mountain-sides on the right of the gap, as Reno carried those on the left, the enemy precipitately retreating. At the battle of Antietam, 17 September, he again did more than his share of the fighting. His corps lay on the right, resting on Antietam Creek, with Mansfield in rear and Sumner on his left. At dawn he crossed the creek and attacked the Confederate left flank; but that unbalanced field caused him to be confronted with overpowering numbers, and his losses were extremely heavy. He was shot through the foot and carried from the field. Had the movements of the left wing been as vigorous, had others obeyed orders as promptly and fought as bravely as he, the victory would have been much more decisive. For his conduct in this action he was appointed a brigadier-general in the regular army, to date from 20 September, 1862. His wound only kept him out of the field until 10 November, when he rejoined the army for the campaign on the Rappahannock, with Fredericksburg as the objective point. The slow and cautious movement of McClellan in pursuit of Lee after Antietam had caused him to be relieved of the command, which was conferred upon General Ambrose E. Burnside. In the new organization for the advance on Fredericksburg the army was formed into three grand divisions, the command of the centre, 40,000 men, being given to Hooker. The principal attack was made on 13 December, Burnside had expected to surprise Lee, but failed in this, and the assault resulted in the discomfiture of the National Army. In the criminations and controversies of generals, Hooker's conduct in the field had impressed Mr. Lincoln with a favorable estimate of his abilities, and when, at his own request, Burnside was relieved of the command, Hooker was appointed, by an order of 25 January, to succeed him. The letter that was addressed to General Hooker by President Lincoln, when he appointed him to the command, is so remarkable for its keen insight into character and careful study of the situation that it seems proper to insert it here: "I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. Of course I have done this upon what appear to me sufficient reasons, and yet I think it best for you to know that there are some things in regard to which I am not quite satisfied with you. I believe you to be a brave and skilful soldier, which of course I like. I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in which you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a valuable if not indispensable quality. You are ambitious, which, within reasonable bounds, does good rather than harm; but, I think that during General Burnside's command of the army you have taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as much as you could, in which you did a great wrong to the country and to a most meritorious and honorable brother officer. I have heard, in such a way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the army and the government needed a dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship. The government will support you to the utmost of its ability, which is neither more nor less than it has done and will do for all commanders. I much fear that the spirit which you have aided to infuse into the army, of criticising their commander and withholding confidence from him, will now turn upon you. I shall assist you as far as I can to put it down. Neither you nor Napoleon, were he alive again, could get any good out of an army while such a spirit prevails in it. And now, beware of rashness! Beware of rashness! But with energy and sleepless vigilance go forward and give us victories." The hopes of the country were high that the Army of the Potomac now had a general that would lead it to glorious victory. Hooker reorganized it, abandoned the cumbrous machinery of grand divisions, returned to the corps system, and formed a new plan, of the success of which he was very sanguine. He said he had "the finest army on the planet," and that no power, earthly or heavenly, could save Lee from destruction. After some unimportant movements he sent Stoneman's cavalry to the enemy's rear, and then, crossing the Rappahannock at several fords, with the ultimate intention of turning Lee's left, while Sedgwick should make a demonstration on Fredericksburg, instead of attacking Lee, he took post at Chancellorsville, where he awaited Lee's attack. This came with unexpected force and unexampled rapidity. Sedgwick's attack upon the Fredericksburg Heights had been successful, but Jackson, by a vigorous flanking movement, turned the National right, and threw it back in great confusion upon the centre; there was want of concert of action, and thus the battle, although well planned, was lost. In the very heat of the conflict occurred an accident that entailed serious results. General Hooker was leaning against a pillar on the piazza of the Chancellor House, which was struck by a cannon-ball. He was stunned, and for some time senseless, and could not recover his judgment so as to continue the command or to transfer it to a subordinate. Jackson was mortally wounded, and for two days the Army of the Potomac held its ground. The command devolved upon General Couch, of the 2d Corps, who withdrew the forces to the north side of the river. While the Confederate general, elated by this unexpected victory, was moving northward with bold schemes of invasion, the Army of the Potomac took up a line extending from Washington to Baltimore, hoping and expecting that Lee would again give battle in Maryland. In this they were disappointed. It soon became evident that Lee was going to invade Pennsylvania by way of Chambersburg. The Army of the Potomac marched northward, parallel with Lee's route, and looking for the best place to thwart him. Perceiving the inferiority of his army, Hooker demanded that the 11,000 troops under French at Harper's Ferry should be added to his force. This was refused, and for this reason ostensibly Hooker sent in his resignation of the command. In this condition of affairs, without assigning any reason, the president issued an order, under date of 27 June, 1863, relieving Hooker from the command and conferring it upon General George G. Meade, the commander of the 5th Corps, who conducted it to Gettysburg, fought Lee there, and drove him back across the Potomac. In his farewell order to the troops, General Hooker acquiesced cheerfully in the action of the government, like a soldier and a patriot, and gave the true significance of the order: "Impressed," he says. "with the belief that my usefulness as the commander of the Army of the Potomac is impaired, I part from it, yet not without the deepest emotion." He went to Baltimore, where he remained about two months. But so accomplished a general could not be spared, and on 24 September he was assigned to the command of the 11th and 12th Army Corps, which were consolidated later, and constituted the 20th Corps. With these troops he was sent to the south for the relief of Chattanooga, first under Rosecrans and afterward under Grant. From Wauhatchie he marched into Lookout valley on 27 and 28 October, and thus aided in opening communications for supplies, so that the army was thoroughly provisioned by two steamers, with only eight miles of wagoning. When Grant's plans were in order for the final movement, so that his line was complete from the northern end of Lookout Mountain to the northern end of Missionary Ridge, Hooker made a bold attack on the former, and carried it on 24 November, fighting what has been picturesquely called "the battle above the clouds." He then marched across to strengthen the National right, and shared in the grand attack on Missionary Ridge, by which Bragg was defeated and driven away in confusion. In pursuit of the enemy, he fought him at Ringgold on the 27th, where he met with stubborn resistance. When General William T. Sherman organized his army for the invasion of Georgia, Hooker was retained in command of the 20th Corps, and gained new laurels at Mill Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, and Pine Mountain, he took part in the attack on Atlanta, and in the capitulation in the latter days of August. General James B. McPherson, who commanded the Army of the Tennessee, was killed in one of the movements around Atlanta, 22 July, 1864. Hooker had expected to succeed him, but was disappointed. The president, at the suggestion of General Sherman, appointed General Oliver O. Howard to that post. Sherman regarded Hooker as one that interfered in the actions of others and questioned the orders of his superiors. Hooker considered himself ill-treated, and by his own request was relieved of his command, 30 July, and was placed upon waiting orders until 28 September. But his services were not forgotten. For the part he took in the movements under Grant and Sherman he was brevetted a major-general in the regular army, under date of 13 March, 1865. After the close of the war in 1865, Hooker was put in charge of the Department of the East, with his headquarters in New York City. In August. 1866, he was transferred to the Department of the Lakes, with headquarters at Detroit. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, 1 September, 1866, and was for some time on a board for the retirement of officers. Having been struck with paralysis and incapacitated for further active duty, he was, at his own request, placed on the retired list, 15 October, 1868, with the full rank of a major-general. He lived subsequently in New York and in Garden City, Long Island, where he was buried. Hooker was a brave soldier, a skilful military organizer, with an overplus of self-esteem, which led him to follow the dictates of his ambition, sometimes without regard to the just claims of others; but his military achievements and unwavering patriotism so overshadowed his few faults that he is entitled to great praise. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 249-251.
HOOPER, Johnson J., lawyer, born in North Carolina about 1815; died in Alabama in 1863. At an early age he moved to Alabama, where he became solicitor of the 9th circuit, holding that office from 1849 till 1863. In 1861 he was Secretary of the Provisional Confederate Congress. He also edited at one time a Whig journal, and published "Adventures of Captain Simon Suggs " (Philadelphia, 1845), and "Widow Rugby's Husband, and other Tales of Alabama" (1851)." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 252.
HOOPER, Samuel, 1808-1875, merchant. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts. Elected in 1860, served until his death in 1875. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 252; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 203; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 144; Congressional Globe)
HOOPER, Samuel, merchant, born in Marblehead. Massachusetts. 3 February, 1808; died in Washington, D. C, 13 February, 1875. After receiving a common-school education he entered at an early age the counting house of his father, who was engaged in European and West Indian trade. As agent of this enterprise the son visited Russia, Spain, and the West Indies. About 1832 he became junior partner in the mercantile house of Bryant, Sturgis, and Company, in Boston, where he remained for ten years, and then was a member of the firm of William Appleton and Company, who were engaged in the China trade. He was much interested in the iron business and its relation to questions of political economy, and possessed shares in the mines and furnaces near Port Henry, Lake Champlain, and in the Bay-State Rolling-Mills, South Boston. In 1851 he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, where he served three years, declining a re-election, and in 1857 became state senator, but refused a renomination on account of his business enterprises. In 1860 he was elected to Congress, as a Republican, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Appleton, and was re-elected at each successive biennial election until his death. He served on the committees on Ways and Means, on Banking and Currency, and on the war debts of the loyal states. The success of the national loan of April, 1861, was greatly due to his efforts. In 1869 Chief-Justice Chase wrote a letter attributing the success of the bill that provided for the national banking system to the "good judgment, persevering exertions, and disinterested patriotism of Mr. Hooper." In 1866 he was a delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalists' Convention. He presented $50,000 to Harvard, in 1866, to found a school of mining and practical geology in close connection with the Lawrence scientific school, and in that year received the degree of M. A. from the university. He wrote two pamphlets on currency, which became well known for their broad and comprehensive treatment of this subject. His house in Washington, which was noted for its hospitality, was the headquarters of General George B. McClellan in 1861-2. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 252.
HOOPER, William Henry, merchant, born in Cambridge, Dorchester County, Maryland, 25 December, 1813. He received a common-school education, and for several years was a merchant on the eastern shore of Maryland. He emigrated to Illinois in 1835, and until 1849 he engaged in mercantile pursuits on the Mississippi. In 1850 he moved to Utah, where he was a member of the legislature, and acting Secretary of the Territory. He was a delegate to Congress from 1859 till 1861, and was elected U. S. Senator from Utah under the proposed state organization of " Deseret" in 1862. He again was a delegate to Congress in 1865. and served until 1873, after which he engaged in mercantile pursuits in Salt Lake City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 253.
HOPE, James Barron, poet, born in Norfolk, Virginia, 23 March, 1827. He was educated at William and Mary College, Virginia, and previous to 1861 was a practising lawyer and commonwealth attorney in Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He had won some literary distinction from a series of poems that he published in a Baltimore periodical under the pen-name of "the late Henry Ellen, Esq." After serving throughout the Civil War as quartermaster and captain in the Confederate Army, he settled in Norfolk, Virginia , was superintendent of public schools, and edited the Norfolk " Landmark," a daily newspaper. On the one hundredth anniversary of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, 19 October, 1881, Mr. Hope, on the invitation of a joint committee of the U. S. Senate and House of Representatives, delivered an address entitled "Arms and the Man," afterward published with other poems (Norfolk, 1882). His writings include "Leoni di Monota" (Philadelphia, 1857); "Elegiac Ode. and Other Poems" (Norfolk, 1875); and ' Under the Empire" (1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 253.
HOPKINS, Johns, 1795-1873, abolitionist, entrepreneur, philanthropist. His family were Quakers and freed their slaves in 1807. Worked with prominent abolitionists Myrtilla Miner and Henry Ward Beecher. Strong supporter of Lincoln and the Union during the Civil War. Supported African American institutions. After the war, founder of Johns Hopkins Institutes in Baltimore, Maryland. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 256; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 213)
HOPKINS, Johns, philanthropist, born in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, 19 May, 1795; died in Baltimore, 24 December, 1873. His parents were Quakers, and their son was trained to a farming life, but received a fair education. At seventeen years of age he went to Baltimore, became a clerk in his uncle's wholesale grocery-store, and in a few years accumulated sufficient capital to establish himself in the grocery trade with a partner. Three years later, in 1822, he founded, with his two brothers, the house of Hopkins and Brothers. He rapidly added to his fortune until he had amassed large wealth. Retiring from business as a grocer in 1847, he engaged in banking and railroad enterprises, became a director in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, and, in 1855, chairman of its finance committee. Two years afterward, when the company was seriously embarrassed, he volunteered to endorse its notes, and risked his private fortune in its extrication. He was one of the projectors of a line of iron steamships between Baltimore and Bremen, and built many warehouses in the city. In March, 1873, he gave property valued at $4,500,000 to found a hospital which, by its charter, is free to all, regardless of race or color, presented the city of Baltimore with a public park, and gave $3,500,000 to found the Johns Hopkins University, which was first proposed by him in 1867, and was opened in 1876. It embraces schools of law, medicine, science, and agriculture, and publishes the results of researches of professors and students. At his death he left a fortune of $10,000,000, including the sums set apart for the endowment of the university and hospital, which were devised to the trustees in his will. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.
HOPPER, Anna, daughter of Lucretia Mott, abolitionist, Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (PFASS), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Yellin, 1994, pp. 71, 75)
HORTON, George Firman, 1806-1886, physician, temperance activist, abolitionist. Active member of the American Anti-Slavery Society. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 266)
HORTON, George Firman, physician, born in Terrytown, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, 2 Jan., 1806; died there, 20 Dec., 1886. He was educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, and in the medical department of Rutgers College, and began practice in his; native town in 1829. He became an advocate of the temperance cause in 1830, and was a member of the American Anti-Slavery Society almost from the time of its foundation till the extinction of slavery. He was for twelve years treasurer and town-clerk of his township, from 1830 till 1856 postmaster at Terrytown, and in 1872 was elected a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania for revising the state constitution. He was a skilful botanist and entomologist. He published reports of his cases in the “Transactions of the Pennsylvania State Medical Society”; “Reports on the Geology of Bradford County” (1858); and “The Horton Genealogy” (1876). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 266.
HORTON, George Moses, North Carolina slave, published book of poetry, The Hope of Liberty, 1824 (Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 20-21, 278; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 232)
HORTON, Jonathon, anti-slavery activist, Methodist (Dumond, 1961, p. 187)
HORTON, Jotham, anti-slavery advocate. Helped found the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1843 with abolitionists Orange Scott and Le Roy Sunderland in 1843. (Dumond, 1961, p. 187; Matlack, 1849, p. 162)
HORWITZ, Phineas Jonathan, surgeon, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 3 March, 1822. He was educated at the University of Maryland and at Jefferson Medical College. In 1847 he entered the U. S. Navy as assistant surgeon, and during the Mexican War was in charge of the naval hospital at Tobasco. From 1859 till 1865 he was assistant to the Bureau of Medicine, and chief of that bureau in 1865-'9. He was promoted surgeon 19 April, 1861, commissioned medical inspector 3 March, 1871, medical director 30 June, 1873, and was retired with the relative rank of captain in 1885. His office as assistant to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery during the war involved the adjustment of all the pensions that accrued to the wounded and to the widows and orphans of the killed in the navy; the tabulation of medical and surgical statistics; and the general management of all financial matters pertaining to the office. Dr. Horwitz projected and constructed the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 267.
HOTCHKISS, Benjamin Berkely, inventor, born in Connecticut in 1830; died in Paris, France, 14 February, 1885. He was brought up as a machinist, and as early as 1856 designed a rifle field-gun, which was purchased by the Mexican government. In 1860 he submitted to the U. S. government an improved system of rifling-belt and percussion fuse for projectiles, and after their adoption he engaged in their manufacture in New York. During the Civil War, more Hotchkiss shells were used than any other variety except the Parrott shell. Mr. Hotchkiss visited Paris in 1867, and invented an improved metallic cartridge-case as a substitute for the paper-case then used in the French Army. This form was purchased by the French authorities, and its manufacture begun at St. Etienne. He remained in Paris, where he made important improvements in the guns used by different nations, including his revolving cannon, which was adopted in Germany, Holland, Denmark, Russia. Italy, Austria, Chili, China, Norway, and the United States. His next invention of importance was that of a magazine-rifle, devised in 1875, and followed in 1882 by a quick-firing gun that has since been adopted in trance, England, and the United States. During 1882 the firm of Hotchkiss and Company was formed, and the policy was introduced of manufacturing the guns in the different countries using them. In this manner connections were established in Germany, Austria, Italy, England, and Russia. At the time of his death, Mr. Hotchkiss had the reputation of being the first artillery engineer in the world, and up to July, 1886, his factories had delivered 5,037 guns, of which but two had ever failed. The Hotchkiss Ordnance Company, in which the three original partners are managing directors, was formed in 1887, and arrangements were made by the U. S. government for the establishment of one of the company's factories in this country. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 269.
HOTCHKISS, Giles, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
HOUGH, Reuben, Whitesboro, New York, abolitionist leader, Executive Committee member and founding officer of the New York State Anti-Slavery Society, Utica, New York, October 1836. (Sorin, 1971; Minutes, First Annual Meeting of the New York State Anti-Slavery Society, Utica, New York, October 19, 1836)
HOUGH, Stanley, New York, abolitionist leader, editor, newsletter of the New York Anti-Slavery Society (NYASS), Friend of Man, after 1839. (Sernett, 2002, p. 53; Sorin, 1971)
HOUGHTON, Henry Oscar (ho'-ton), publisher, born in Sutton, Vermont, 30 April, 1823. He attended the academy in Bradford, Vermont, learned the printer's trade in Burlington, and worked at it in Nunda, New York. He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1846, and failing to obtain a place as teacher went to Boston and engaged as reporter for the " Traveller." In 1849 he became a member of the firm of Bolles & Houghton, printers, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 1852 established in that city the Riverside Press, under the firm-name of H. O. Houghton and County, of which he is still (1887) the head. In 1864 he became a member of the publishing-firm of Hurd and Houghton, which in 1878 was succeeded by that of Houghton, Osgood and County, and in 1880 by that of Houghton, Mifflin and Company. By the change of 1878 it acquired the large list of the old Ticknor and Fields house, which included many famous American authors of the generation of Emerson, Longfellow, Whittier, and Holmes. When Mr. Houghton was an apprentice in Burlington, an unknown man one day walked into the office, handed him a printed slip, and said: "My lad, when you use these words, spell them as here, theater, center,'' etc. It was Noah Webster, whose great dictionary is now printed at the Riverside Press, where several presses are constantly at work upon it. Among the notable books that have been produced there are facsimile reprints of the " Bay Psalme Book." and Cromwell's "Souldier's Bible,' "Notes on Columbus," edited by Harrisse, Winsor's "History of America," and the illustrated edition of Longfellow's works. In 1872 Mr. Houghton was elected mayor of Cambridge. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 272.
HOUSE, James Alford, inventor, born in New York City, 6 April, 1838. He was educated as an architect, but his taste was for invention, and in 1864 he became the mechanical engineer of the Wheeler and Wilson Manufacturing Company. The button-hole machine made by this corporation was invented by him in 1862, and the button-hole attachment for their family sewing-machine was patented by him in 1866. He has also invented an India-rubber trunk shield and several sewing machine improvements, including an ingenious adaptation of the variable motion by means of a steel pin moving over unequal distances in equal times in a slotted disk. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 273
HOUSE, Royal Earl, inventor, born in Rockingham, Vermont, 9 September, 1814. He early became interested in mechanics, chemistry, and magnetism, and devoted much time to their study. The practicability of the printing-telegraph became manifest to him, and he invented a keyboard, a single line of insulated electric conductors, magnets, typewheels, automatic platens, and paper-carriers, for several stations, adapted for transmitting and printing messages in Roman characters. This invention was first put in operation and exhibited at the Mechanics' Institute, New York, in 1844. Although the first of its kind, it attained a speed of transmission of over fifty words a minute. Subsequently efforts were made by the representatives of the Morse patents to enjoin the use of the printing-telegraph; but after much litigation Mr. House was sustained. He has since made other important inventions in the art of telegraphy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 273.
HOUSTON, David Crawford, engineer, born in New York City, 5 December, 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and was retained at the academy as assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy until September, 1857, when he was placed on construction of fortifications at Hampton Roads, Virginia. From 1856 till 1860 he commanded a detachment of engineer troops in Oregon, after which he was assistant engineer in the construction of a fort on Sandy Hook, New Jersey. During the Civil War, as 1st lieutenant of the Engineer Corps, he aided in constructing the defences of Washington. D. C. He was at Blackburn's Ford and Bull Run as engineer of General Tyler's division, and as chief engineer 1st Army Corps, department of the Rappahannock. He was with the 3d Army Corps in the second battle of Bull Run and of Cedar Mountain, after which he was brevetted captain. He became chief engineer of the 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, in the Maryland Campaign, and was engaged in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, where he was brevetted major, 17 September, 1862. He was in charge of the defences of Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and of the Department of the Gulf during the siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in March, 1863, for which service he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 17 June, 1863. He took part in the expedition to the mouth of the Rio Grande, 1863, and in the Red River Campaign in April, 1864. He was a member of the special board of engineers for the defences of San Francisco, California, in 1864-'5. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted colonel for "gallant and meritorious services during the rebellion." He served on the board for defences of Willet's Point, New York, in 1865, and from 1865 till 1867 on the board to carry out in detail the modifications of the defences near Boston, as proposed by the board of 27 January, 1864. He was also superintending engineer of the construction of the defences of Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island, in 1865; of the river and harbor improvements in Rhode Island and Connecticut from 1866 till 1870: and of surveys and improvements of various rivers in Wisconsin since July, 1870. In 1868 he was a member of the board of engineers on Block Island breakwater, on the wreck of the steamer "Scotland,” and on the improvement of Ogdensburg and Oswego Harbors. In 1869 he served on the Wallabout Channel and in the New York Navy yard. In 1871 he was charged with the plans for docks in Chicago breakwater, and from 1872 till December, 1875, was engaged in constructing harbors in the northwest. He was also superintending engineer on modifications proposed for Michigan City Harbor, Indiana, in July, and on the improvement of Fox and Wisconsin Rivers in August, 1878. He became major of the Corps of Engineers on 7 March, 1867, lieutenant-colonel, 30 dune, 1882, and since 1886 has been a member of the board of engineers for fortifications and river and harbor improvements. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 273.
HOUSTON, George Smith, governor of Alabama, born in Williamson County, Tennessee, 17 January, 1811; died in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama, 17 January, 1879. At an early age he moved to Limestone County, Alabama, where he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1831. He practised with success, and served in the state legislature for two sessions. In 1836 he became state's attorney for the Florence Judicial District, after which he served a second time in the legislature. He was elected as a Democrat to Congress in 1841, and was so continued by successive elections till 1849, when he resumed his law practice. In 1851 he was again elected to Congress, serving on several important committees, and officiating as chairman of the committee on the Judiciary and on that of Ways and Means. He was also a member of the special committee of thirty-three. He retired in 1861, when Alabama seceded. He was a delegate to the Philadelphia National Union Convention of 1866. In 1874 he was governor of Alabama. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 273.
HOUSTON, Samuel, president of Texas, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, 2 March, 1793; died in Huntsville, Walker County, Texas, 26 July, 1863. He was of Scotch-Irish descent. On the death of his father, the family moved to a place in Tennessee near the Cherokee territory. He received but little education, and spent much of his time with the Indians, by one of whom he was adopted. In 1813 he enlisted in the 7th U. S. Infantry, and soon became a sergeant. He was present at the battle of the Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka). where he attracted the attention of General Jackson by his desperate bravery, and was several times wounded. He was made ensign in the 39th U.S. Infantry, 29 July, 1813, and in the following May became 2d lieutenant. For a time he acted as sub-agent for the Cherokees, at Jackson's request. He became 1st lieutenant in March, 1818, but resigned in the following May on account of criticism emanating from the War Department, of which John C. Calhoun was secretary, touching the smuggling of Negroes from Florida into the United States. This he had tried to prevent, and, being accused of complicity, he demanded an investigation and was fully exonerated. He began the study of law at Nashville, in June, 1818, obtained his license in a few months, and commenced practice at Lebanon. In 1819 he was elected district attorney of the Davidson District, whereupon he moved to Nashville. He was also appointed adjutant-general of the state. In 1821 he was elected major-general, and within a year resigned the district attorney-ship. In 1823 he was elected to Congress, and in 1825 was re-elected. In the last year of his term, he fought a duel with General White, whom he wounded. In 1827 he was a candidate for governor, and was elected by an overwhelming majority. In January, 1829, he married a Miss Allen, of Sumner County, Tennessee, but a few weeks after the marriage Houston suddenly separated from his wife without a word of explanation. He always protested that the cause of separation in no manner affected his wife's character. He left the state amid a storm of vituperation, and made his way up the Arkansas to the mouth of the Illinois, where lived his former Cherokee father-by-adoption. Here he remained about three years. In 1832 he made a trip to Washington in the interest of the Indians. He wore the Indian garb, and was warmly received by President Jackson. While in Washington he was accused by William Stansberry, of Ohio, a member of Congress, of attempting to obtain a fraudulent contract for furnishing the Indians supplies. In retaliation, he attacked Stansberry, and beat him severely. He received a mild reprimand at the bar of the house, and was fined $500, but Jackson remitted the fine. This year he made a trip to Texas. He was elected a member of the convention called to meet at San Felipe de Austin, 1 April, 1833, where a constitution was adopted, in which Houston had inserted a clause, forbidding the legislature to establish banks. Shortly afterward. Houston was elected general of Texas, east of Trinity River. He was also a member of the so-called "General Consultation " that met in October, 1835, for the purpose of establishing a provisional government, he successfully opposed a declaration of absolute independence as premature. He was here elected commander-in-chief of the Army of Texas, and at once proceeded to perfect the military organization of the scattered population, though constantly hampered by the bickerings and jealousies of those in control of the law-making power, who soon deprived him of his office. He was elected a member of the convention that met at New Washington, and adopted a declaration of absolute independence, 2 March, 1836, which also re-elected him commander-in-chief. The Mexicans, under Santa-Anna, began the invasion of Texas, about 5,000 strong, in three columns. On 6 March the Alamo fell, and 185 men were put to death, Bowie, David Crockett, and Travis among the number. A few days later, Goliad was captured by the Mexicans, and 500 men were put to death. After some manoeuvring, Houston, on 21 April, 1836, with 750 men, met the main division of the Mexicans, 1,800 strong, under Santa-Anna, on the banks of the San Jacinto, near the mouth of Buffalo bayou. The American battle-cry was "Remember the Alamo!" The fight lasted less than an hour, and the Mexicans were totally routed, losing 630 killed and 730 prisoners, among them Santa-Anna. Houston, wounded in the ankle, was treated with great indignity by the civil authorities immediately after the battle, and retired to New Orleans. In the autumn of 1836, when he returned to Nacogdoches, Mirabeau B. Lamar had been made commander-in-chief. An election for president of the republic had been ordered by the March convention, and Houston announced himself a candidate twelve days before the day of election. In a total vote of 5,104, he received 4,374, and on 22 October, 1836, he became first president of the republic of Texas. His term expired 12 December, 1838. He left the country in a healthy condition, its treasury notes at par, at peace with the Indians, and on a friendly footing with Mexico, although a permanent peace had not yet been negotiated. Houston had been in the Texan Congress for the two terms 1839-'41. In April, 1840, he married Margaret Moffette, having been divorced from his first wife. His second wife, who exercised an ennobling and restraining influence over him, was from Alabama. In 1841 he was re-elected to the presidency. From 12 December 1841, till 9 December, 1844, Houston's work was to undo the mischief of his predecessor, Lamar. He probably saved the government from disbanding. Congress, in June, 1842, passed a bill making him dictator, and 10,000,000 acres of land were voted to resist the threatened Mexican invasion. Houston vetoed these measures, and the danger of invasion soon passed away. In 1838 he had taken the first step toward securing the annexation of Texas to the United States. Van Buren hesitated, when Houston began to coquette, as he afterward said, with Spain, France, and England, knowing that the United States dreaded the intrusion of a European power upon American soil. On 29 December 1845, Texas entered the Union, and in March, 1846, Houston entered the U. S. Senate, and served till 1859. He was a pronounced Unionist, voted against and strenuously opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and voted for all compromise measures during the slavery agitation. He opposed the Kansas and Nebraska bill, and in 1858 voted against the Lecompton Constitution of Kansas. He refused to sign the Southern address. Constantly, during his term of service, he earnestly advocated the cause of the Indians. A favorite and oft-quoted maxim of his was that no treaty, made and carried out in good faith, had ever been violated by the Indians. His availability as a presidential candidate became patent, and at one time his nomination was regarded as a foregone conclusion. In 1852 he received eight votes on the first ballot in the convention that nominated Franklin Pierce. His popularity was somewhat impaired in the Democratic Party by his sympathetic course toward the Know-Nothings. On 11 October, 1854, a meeting of Democrats at Concord, New Hampshire, had put Houston forward as the people's candidate, in opposition to caucus or convention nomination. In the American convention that met, 22 February, 1856, and nominated Millard Fillmore, Houston received three votes. The convention of the Constitutional Union Party met at Baltimore, 9 May, 1860, and on the first ballot John Bell, of Tennessee, received 68, and Houston 57 votes. On the next ballot Bell was nominated. In November, 1857, Houston had been defeated for governor of Texas by Harrison B. Runnels, the regular nominee of the Democratic Party. In 1859, as an independent candidate, he defeated Runnels. In the presidential election of 1860 his preference was for any Union man that could defeat Lincoln, and in his message to the legislature he deeply deplored Lincoln's election, but saw in this no grounds for secession. At the election, 23 February, 1861, the state was carried for secession, and all state officers were required to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States. This Houston refused to do, and on 18 March he was deposed. U. S. troops were offered him, but he refused their aid. On 10 May, 1861, he made a speech at Independence, Texas, in which he defined the position of southern Unionists. He said: "The voice of hope was weak, since drowned by the guns of Fort Sumter. . . . The time has come when a man's section is his country. I stand by mine. . . . Whether we have opposed this secession movement or favored it, we must alike meet the consequences. ... It is no time to turn back now." He took no part in public life after this. See his life, anonymous (New York, 1855). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 274-275.
HOVEY, Charles Edward, lawyer, born in Thetford, Orange County, Vermont, 26 April, 1827, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1852, after which he became principal of the high-school in Farmington, Massachusetts, and of the boy's high-school in Peoria, Illinois. He assisted in organizing the Illinois Normal University in Normal, of which he was president from 1857 till the Civil War, and on the organization of a system of public schools in that city, in 1856, he was appointed superintendent, and assisted in forming the State Teachers' Association, of which he was president in 1856. On 15 August, 1861, he entered the national service as colonel of the 33d Illinois Volunteer Infantry, a regiment composed chiefly of young men from the state colleges. In 1862 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and on 5 September, 1862, to that of major-general by brevet, for gallant and meritorious conduct in battle, particularly at Arkansas Post, 11 January, 1863. He left the military service in May, 1863, and has since practised law. He delivered a number of addresses in Illinois, was a member of the state board of education there, was the editor of the "Illinois Teacher," and contributed also to other educational periodicals from 1852 till 1861. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 276.
HOVEY, Alvin Peterson, soldier, born in Posey County, Indiana, 6 September, 1821. He was educated in the Mount Vernon common schools, studied law, was admitted to the bar of Mount Vernon in 1843, and practised with success. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of Indiana in 1850. In 1851 he became circuit judge of the 3d Judicial Circuit of Indiana, which office he held until 1854, when he was made judge of the Supreme Court of Indiana. From 1856 till 1858 he served as U. S. District Attorney for Indiana. During the Civil War he entered the national service as colonel of the 24th Indiana Volunteers, in July, 1861. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 28 April, 1862, and brevetted major-general for meritorious and distinguished services in July. 1864. He was in command of the Eastern District of Arkansas in 1863, and of the District of Indiana in 1864-'5. General Grant, in his official report, awards to General Hovey the honor of the key-battle of the Vicksburg Campaign, that of Champion's Hill. General Hovey resigned in October, 1865, and was appointed minister to Peru, which office he resigned in 1870. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1880. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 276.
HOWARD, Benjamin Chew, 1791-1872, Maryland, statesman, U.S. Congressman. Manager of the Maryland Society of the American Colonization Society. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 276-277; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 275; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 111)
HOWARD, Benjamin Chew, Baltimore County, Maryland, 5 Nov., 1791; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 6 March, 1872. He was graduated at Princeton in 1809, studied law, and practised in Baltimore. In 1814 he assisted in organizing troops for the defence of Baltimore, and commanded the “Mechanical Volunteers” at the battle of North Point on 12 September of that year. He served in Congress in 1829-'33, having been chosen as a Democrat, and again in 1835-'9, when he was chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, and drew up its report on the boundary question. From 1843 till 1862 he was reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 1861 he was a delegate to the Peace Congress. Princeton gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1869. He published “Reports of Cases in the Supreme Court of the United States from 1843 till 1855” (Baltimore, 1855). Appletons’ Cylcopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 276-277
HOWARD, Jacob Merritt, senator, born in Shaftsbury, Vermont, 10 July, 1805; died in Detroit, Michigan, 2 April, 1871. By teaching he gained the means of obtaining an education at Williams College, where he was graduated in 1830. Moving to Detroit, Michigan, in 1832, he studied law, was admitted to the bar the next year, and was a member of the legislature in 1838. In 1840 he was elected to Congress, serving from 1841 till 1843, and in 1854-'8 was Attorney-General of Michigan. In 1854 Mr. Howard drew up the platform of the first convention ever held by the Republican Party, and is accredited with giving the party its name, he was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1862, as a Republican, to fill the unexpired term of Kinsley S. Bingham, deceased, was re-elected in 1865, and served until 3 March, 1871. During his term as senator he was chairman of the Ordnance Committee. He was a delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalist Convention of 1866, and in that year Williams gave him the degree of LL. D. He published a "Translation from the French of the Secret Memoirs of the Empress Josephine " (New York, 1847). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 277.
HOWARD, Oliver Otis, 1830-1919, abolitionist, Union Major General, commander of the 11th Corps of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Tennessee, the Right Wing of General Sherman’s March to the Sea, and the Carolinas Campaign, November 1864-April 1865. Recipient of the Medal of Honor. Founder and director of the Freeman’s Bureau, 1865-1874. Founder of Howard University, Washington, DC. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 278; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 279; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11; Cullum, 1891; U.S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1881-1901. Series 1; Warner, 1964.)
HOWARD, Oliver Otis, soldier, born in Leeds, Maine, 8 November, 1830. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1850, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1854, became 1st lieutenant and instructor in mathematics in 1854, and resigned in 1861 to take command of the 3d Maine Regiment. He commanded a brigade at the first battle of Bull Run, and for gallantry in that engagement was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 3 September, 1861. He was twice wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks, losing his right arm on 1 June, 1862, was on sick-leave for six months, and engaged in recruiting service till September of this year, when he participated in the battle of Antietam, and afterward took General John Sedgwick's division in the 2d Corps. In November, 1862, he became major-general of volunteers. He commanded the 11th Corps during General Joseph Hooker's operations in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, 2 May, 1863, served at Gettysburg, Lookout Valley, and Missionary Ridge, and was on the expedition for the relief of Knoxville in December, 1863. He was in occupation of Chattanooga from this time till July, 1864, when he was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee in the invasion of Georgia, was engaged at Dalton, Resaca, Adairsville, and Pickett's Mill, where he was again wounded, was at the surrender of Atlanta, and joined in pursuit of the Confederates in Alabama, under General John B. Hood, from 4 October till 13 December, 1864. In the march to the sea and the invasion of the Carolinas he commanded the right wing of General William T. Sherman's army. He became brigadier-general in the U. S. Army, 21 December, 1864. He was in command of the Army of the Tennessee, and engaged in all the important battles from 4 January till 26 April, 1865, occupying Goldsborough, North Carolina, 24 March, 1865, and participating in numerous skirmishes, terminating with the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston at Durham, North Carolina, 26 April, 1865. In March of this year he was brevetted major-general for gallantry at the battle of Ezra Church and the campaigns against Atlanta, Georgia. He was commissioner of the Freedmen's bureau at Washington from March, 1865, till July, 1874, and in that year was assigned to the command of the Department of the Columbia. In 1877 he led the expedition against the Nez Perces Indians, and in 1878 led the campaign against the Bannocks and Piutes. In 1881-'2 he was superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy. In 1886 General Howard was commissioned major-general, and given command of the Division of the Pacific. Bowdoin College gave him the degree of A. M. in 1853, Waterville College that of LL. D. in 1865, Shurtleff College the same in 1865, and Gettysburg theological seminary in 1866. He was also made a chevalier of the Legion of honor by the French government in 1884. General Howard has contributed various articles to magazines, his latest being an account of the Atlanta Campaign in the “Century” for July, 1887, and has published “Donald's School Days” (1879); “Chief Joseph, or the Nez Perces in Peace and War” (1881); and is the author and translator of a “Life of Count Agenor de Gasparin.” Appleton’s 1990, Vol. III. p. 278.
HOWARD, Roland, abolitionist. Brother of General Oliver Otis Howard. (Marching in Proud Company, Civil War Recollections of Oliver Otis Howard [pamphlet, reprint], Anthoensen Press, Portland, ME, 1983)
HOWARD, William A., revenue officer, born in Maine in 1807: died 18 November, 1871. When a boy he distinguished himself by leading an expedition to rescue a United States vessel that had been seized by the British for infringing the fishery laws. In 1824 he entered the U. S. Navy, and in 1828 resigned his commission to receive a captaincy in the revenue marine. So successful was he in assisting vessels in distress on the coast of New England that the merchants of Boston presented him with a valuable service of silver. In 1848 the German confederation appointed him second in command of the fleet on the Weser, and he there constructed a navy-yard and dock, and remained in charge until the breaking up of the fleet. At the beginning of the Civil War Captain Howard raised a regiment of marine artillery, which was attached to the Burnside expedition. On returning north he began organizing in New York a regiment of heavy artillery, and raised 2,500 men, who were detailed for active service with the Army of the James. As colonel he commanded the defences around Portsmouth and Norfolk, and at the close of the war resumed his commission as captain in the revenue marine. He hoisted the flag of the United States in Alaska soon after its transference by Russia. His last service was superintending the building of steam-launches for the revenue marine. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 278-279.
HOWARD, William Alanson, lawyer, born in Hinesburg, Chittenden County, Vermont, 8 April. 1813; died in Washington, D. C., 10 April, 1880. When fourteen years of age he was apprenticed to the cabinetmaker's trade at Albion, New York. He remained there four years, and in 1832 entered an academy at Wyoming, where he studied three years, and in 1839 was graduated from Middlebury. In 1840 he became tutor of mathematics in the Michigan University, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Detroit in 1842. He was elected a representative in Congress from Michigan for three successive terms, serving from 3 December, 1855, till 3 March, 1861. While in the House of Representatives he took a decided stand in opposition to slavery. In 1861 he was appointed postmaster at Detroit, and in 1869 declined an appointment as minister to China. He was a delegate to the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 1872, and 1876. In 1869 he was appointed land-commissioner of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway, and in 1872 of the Northern Pacific. He was appointed governor of Dakota Territory in 1878, and spent the remainder of his life at Yankton. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 279.
HOWE, Albion Paris, soldier, born in Standish, Maine, 13 March, 1818. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, entered the 4th U.S. Artillery, and from 1843 till 1846 was a teacher of mathematics at West Point. He served with credit in the Mexican War, was brevetted captain for his conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and became captain, 2 March, 1855. He was General McClellan's chief of artillery in western Virginia in 1861, and commanded a brigade of light artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the campaign on the Peninsula in 1862. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 11 July, 1862, and was assigned to a brigade in Couch's division, 4th Army Corps. He was in the battles of Manassas, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. He was in command of the artillery depot, Washington, D. C, in 1864-'6, and was brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. for meritorious service during the rebellion. He was retired from the army in 1882, after serving for several years on the Pacific Coast with the 4th U.S. Artillery, of which he was major. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 279.
HOWE, Eber Dudley, 1798-1885, abolitionist. Publisher of the newspaper, Painesville Telegraph, in Painsville, Ohio, which had an anti-slavery editorial policy. Howe was active in the Underground Railroad.
HOWE, Ellias, inventor, born in Spencer, Massachusetts, 9 July, 1819; died in Brooklyn, New York, 3 October, 1867. He was the son of a farmer and miller, and assisted his father in these pursuits, also attending school during the winter months. In 1835 he went to Lowell, and served for a time with a manufacturer of cotton machinery, earning but fifty cents a day. The financial panic of 1837 threw him out of employment, and he then went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he was given work in the shop of Ari Davis, a Boston machinist. It was at this time that he conceived the idea of making a sewing-machine, and he diligently labored upon it in spare hours after his day's work. After five years of continuous experimenting he succeeded in completing his invention in May. 1845, but not until he had received pecuniary aid from an old school-fellow, George Fisher, with whom he formed a partnership. He obtained, on 10 September, 1846, a patent for the first practical sewing-machine, but in consequence of the opposition to any labor-saving machines, the artisans of Boston were unwilling to use it, and for a brief time Mr. Howe obtained employment on a railroad as an engineer until his health failed. In 1847 he visited England, hoping for success in that country, but after two years he returned to the United States, utterly destitute, after working his way home as a common sailor. While in England he disposed of his rights in that country to William Thomas, and adapted the machine to the business of corset, umbrella, and valise making. During his absence the machine had been imitated and introduced through the country regardless of his patents. Friends were now easily found who were willing to help him to establish his patent, and in 1854, after much litigation, he was successful in establishing his prior right to the invention. His prosperity was thenceforth assured, and a year later he had repurchased all of the patents that he had sold during his season of adversity. Mr. Howe then received a royalty on every sewing-machine that was manufactured in the United States, and his income grew from $300 a year until it reached $200,000. It was estimated that up to September, 1867, the date of the expiration of the patent, he had realized about $2,000,000. In 1863 he organized a company of which he was made president, and erected a large sewing-machine factory at Bridgeport, Connecticut During the Civil War he contributed largely to the support of the government, enlisting as a private soldier in the 17th Connecticut Regiment, with which he served until failing health compelled his resignation, and later, when the government was pressed for funds, he advanced money to pay the regiment. Mr. Howe received numerous medals, including the gold medal of the World's Fair held in Paris in 1867, where he also was given the cross of the Legion of Honor. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 279-280.
HOWE, Dr. Samuel Gridley, 1801-1876, abolitionist leader, philanthropist, physician, reformer. Actively participated in the anti-slavery movement. Free Soil candidate for Congress from Boston in 1846. From 1851-1853 he edited the anti-slavery newspaper, the Commonwealth. Active with the U. S. Sanitary Commission during the Civil War. Member of the American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission, 1863. Supported radical abolitionist John Brown. Husband of Julia Ward Howe. (Filler, 1960, pp. 43, 56, 117, 181, 204, 214, 238, 241, 268; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 32, 117, 119-120, 213; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 165, 207, 327, 388, 341; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 283; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 296; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 453-456; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 342)
HOWE, Samuel Gridley, philanthropist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 10 November, 1801; died there, 9 January, 1876. He was graduated at Brown in 1821, and at the Harvard Medical school in 1824. After completing his studies he went to Greece, where he served as surgeon in the war for the independence in 1824-'7, and then as the head of the regular surgical service, which he established in that country. In 1827 he returned to the United States in order to obtain help for the Greeks when they were threatened with a famine, and later founded a colony on the isthmus of Corinth, but in consequence of prostration by swamp-fever he was obliged in 1830 to leave the country. In 1831, his attention having been called to the need of schools for the blind, for whose education no provision had been made in this country, he again visited Europe in order to study the methods of instruction then in use for the purpose of acquiring information concerning the education of the blind. While in Paris he was made president of the Polish committee. In his efforts to convey and distribute funds for the relief of a detachment of the Polish Army that had crossed into Prussia, he was arrested by the Prussian authorities, but, after six weeks' imprisonment, was taken to the French frontier by night and liberated. On his return to Boston in 1832 he gathered several blind pupils at his father's house, and thus gave origin to the school which was afterward known as the Perkins institution, and of which he was the first superintendent, continuing in this office until his death. His greatest achievement in this direction was the education of Laura Bridgman (q. v.). Dr. Howe also took an active part in founding the experimental school for the training of idiots, which resulted in the organization of the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feeble-minded youth in 1851. He was actively engaged in the anti-slavery movement, and was a Free-Soil candidate for Congress from Boston in 1846. During 1851-'3 he edited the “Commonwealth.” Dr. Howe took an active part in the sanitary movement in behalf of the soldiers during the Civil War. In 1867 he again went to Greece as bearer of supplies for the Cretans in their struggle with the Turks, and subsequently edited in Boston “The Cretan.” He was appointed, in 1871, one of the commissioners to visit Santo Domingo and report upon the question of the annexation of that Island to the United States, of which he became an earnest advocate. In 1868 he received the degree of LL. D. from Brown. His publications include letters on topics of the time; various reports, especially those of the Massachusetts commissioners of idiots (Boston, 1847-'8); “Historical Sketch of the Greek Revolution” (New York, 1828); and a “Reader for the Blind,” printed in raised characters (1839). See “Memoir of Dr. Samuel G. Howe,” by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe (Boston, 1876). —
His wife, Julia Ward, born in New York City, 27 May, 1819, is the daughter of Samuel Ward, a New York banker. Her mother, Julia Rush Ward, was the author of various occasional poems. Julia was carefully educated, partly at home and partly in private schools in New York. Her tutor in German and Latin was Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell. At an early age Miss Ward wrote plays and poems. After her father's death she visited Boston, and met there Dr. Howe, whom she married in 1843. She afterward continued her studies, learned to speak fluently in Italian, French, and Greek, and became a student of Kant, Hegel, Spinoza, Comte, and Fichte. She also wrote philosophical essays, which she read at her house before her literary friends. For some time before the Civil War she conducted with her husband the Boston “Commonwealth,” an anti-slavery paper. In 1861, while on a visit to the camps near Washington, with Governor John A. Andrew and other friends, Mrs. Howe wrote the “Battle-Hymn of the Republic,” which soon became popular. She espoused the woman-suffrage movement in 1869, and was one of the founders of the New England women's club, of which she has been president since 1872. She has also presided over several similar associations, including the American woman-suffrage association. In 1872 she was a delegate to the World's prison reform Congress in London, and in the same year aided in founding the Woman's peace association there. In 1884-'5 she presided over the Woman's branch of the New Orleans exposition. She has delivered numerous lectures, and has often addressed the Massachusetts legislature in aid of reforms. She has preached in Rome, Italy, Santo Domingo, and from Unitarian pulpits in this country. She has also read lectures at the Concord school of philosophy. Mrs. Howe has published two volumes of poems, entitled “Passion Flowers” (Boston, 1854), and “Words for the Hour”(1857); “The World's Own,” a drama, which was acted at Wallack's theatre, New York, in 1855 (1857); “A Trip to Cuba” (1860); “Later Lyrics” (1866); “From the Oak to the Olive” (1868); “ Modern Society,” two lectures (1881); and “Life of Margaret Fuller” (1883). She has also edited “Sex and Education,” a reply to Dr. Edward H. Clarke's “Sex in Education” (1874); and wrote for Edwin Booth, in 1858, “Hippolytus,” a tragedy, which has been neither acted nor published. — Their daughter, Julia Romana, educator, born in Rome, Italy, 12 March, 1844; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 10 March, 1886, became proficient in history and languages, and was an instructor in the Perkins institution, where at one time she taught German to a blind class so well that her pupils were able to converse fluently in that language. She was the founder and for some time president of the Metaphysical club in Boston, and published a sketch of the Concord school of philosophy, also “Stray Chords” (Boston, 1884), a volume of poems. In December, 1870, she married Michael Anagnos, who succeeded her father as superintendent of the Perkins institution. — Their son, Henry Marion, mining engineer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 2 March, 1848, was graduated at Harvard in 1869, and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1871. His attention was then turned to mining engineering and metallurgy, and he has had charge of various works in the United States and Canada. Mr. Howe is an active member of the American Institute of mining engineers, was its vice-president in 1879-'81, and has been a manager since 1886. His publications, consisting of professional papers, have been contributed to the transactions of the mining engineers, and treat principally of the metallurgy of iron, steel, copper, and nickel. He has also written valuable treatises for the “Bulletins of the U. S. Geological Survey,” such as “Copper Smelting” (Washington, 1885), and “Metallurgy of Steel” (1887). — Another daughter, Maud, author, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 9 November, 1855, married in February, 1887, John Elliott, an English artist. She has published “San Rasario Ranch” (Boston, 1884); “A Newport Aquarelle” (1885); and “Atalanta in the South” (1886). Appleton’s, 1892.
HOWE, Timothy Otis, 1816-1883, lawyer, jurist. Republican U.S. Senator from Wisconsin. Elected 1861, served until 1879. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 284; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 297; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 343; Congressional Globe
HOWE, Timothy Otis, senator, born in Livermore. Maine, 24 February, 1816; died in Kenosha, Wis., 25 March, 1883. He received a common-school education, working on a farm during his vacations. In 1839 he was admitted to the bar, and began practice in Readfield. He was an ardent Whig and admirer of Henry Clay, and in 1840 was in the legislature, where he was active in debate. Impaired health occasioned his removal to Wisconsin in the latter part of this year, and opening a law office in Green Bay, then a small village, he continued his residence there throughout his life. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1848, and two years afterward was elected circuit judge. The circuit judges were also judges of the supreme court, and during part of his term he served as chief justice of the state. Resigning his judgeship in 1855, he resumed his profession, and was an efficient Republican speaker in the canvass of 1856. In the trial that was held to ascertain whether William Boynton or Coles Bashford was lawful governor of Wisconsin, Mr. Howe appeared as Bashford's counsel and gained his case, and his success largely increased his reputation. In 1861 he was elected U. S. Senator as a Republican, serving till 1879. During his long career he served on the committees of finance, commerce, pensions, and claims, was one of the earliest advocates of universal emancipation, and in a speech in the Senate on 29 May, 1861, advocated in strong terms the Negro Suffrage Bill for the District of Columbia. He also urged the right of the National government to establish territorial governments over the seceded states. He made able speeches in 1865-'6 against the policy of Andrew Johnson, and voted in favor of his impeachment. He supported the silver bill in 1878, denounced President Hayes's policy regarding civil-service reform in the southern states, and opposed the anti-Chinese bill. On the death of Salmon P. Chase, President Grant offered Judge Howe a judgeship in the supreme court, which he declined. He had left the Senate when the third term question came up, but favored the election of Grant, and in 1880 spoke strongly in its support. In 1881 he was a U. S. delegate to the International Monetary Conference in Paris. In December, 1881, he was appointed Postmaster-General by President Arthur, and, although his term of service was little more than a year, a reduction of postage was effected, postal-notes were issued, and reform measures urged with great force. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 284.
HOWELL, James B., senator, born near Morristown, New Jersey, 4 July. 1816; died in Keokuk, Iowa, 17 June, 1880. His father, Elias, moved with his family to Ohio in 1819, and, settling in Licking County, was state senator, and in 1830 a member of Congress. James was graduated at Miami University in 1839, and settled in Newark, Ohio. In 1841 he moved to Kosauque, Iowa, practised law, and engaged in politics, and was the editor of the "Des Moines Valley Whig." In 1849 he moved with his paper to Keokuk, and abandoning law devoted himself to politics and to his journal, which he now published under the title of the 'Daily Gate City." He was one of the earliest advocates for the formation of the Republican Party in the state, and in 1856 was a delegate from Iowa to the convention that nominated John C. Fremont for president. He supported Abraham Lincoln in the presidential campaign of 1861, and vehemently opposed slavery. In 1870 he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, to fill the unexpired term of James W. Grimes, and served till 3 March, 1871. Shortly after the close of the session of 1871, President Grant selected him as one of the three commissioners that were authorized by the act of 3 March, 1871, to examine and report on claims for stores and supplies that had been taken or furnished for the use of the National Army in the seceded states. He was engaged in this work until 10 March, 1880. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 284-285.
HOWELL, John Adams, naval officer, born in New York, 16 March, 1840. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1858; became a lieutenant in April, 1861; lieutenant-commander in March, 1865; and commander, 6 March, 1872. He served as executive officer of the steam-sloop " Ossipee" at the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, and was honorably mentioned by his commanding officer in his despatches. He was promoted to captain on 1 March, 1884, and in 1887 was a member of the naval advisory board. He is the inventor of a torpedo (the result of sixteen years of study) which naval officers regard as probably superior to any other in use. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 285.
HOWELL, John Cumming, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, 24 November, 1819, was educated at Crawford's classical school in that city, and at Washington College, Pennsylvania, entering the U.S. Navy as an acting midshipman, 9 June, 1830. He became lieutenant in August. 1849; commander, 16 July, W02; and captain, 25 July, 1866. He served in the " Minnesota," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1861, and was her executive officer at the battle of Hatteras Inlet. He commanded the steamer " Tahamo," Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron, in 1862-'3, and the "Nereus," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1864-'5, and participated in the two actions at Fort Fisher in 1864-'5. For his cool performance of duty he was recommended for promotion by Rear-Admiral Porter, 28 January, 1865. From 1868 till 1870 he was fleet-captain of the European Squadron, and from 1870 till 1872 commandant of the U.S. Navy-yard at League Island, Philadelphia. He was commissioned commodore, 29 January, 1872, had command of the U.S. Navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, till 1874, and from that year till 1878 was chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. He became a rear-admiral, 25 April, 1877, commanded the North Atlantic and European Squadrons in 1878-'81, and was acting Secretary of the Navy at various times from 1874 till 1878. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 285.
HOWLAND, Emily, 1827-1929, Sherwood, Cayuga County, New York, opponent of slavery, philanthropist, educator. Society of Friends, Quaker. Worked with freed slaves and on Underground Railroad. Teacher at the Normal School for Colored Girls in Washington, DC, 1857-1859. (Breault, 1981; Sernett, 2002, pp. 264-265, 338-339n29)
HOYT, Henry Martyn, governor of Pennsylvania, born in Kingston, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 8 June, 1830. His parents were natives of Connecticut and among the earliest settlers in the Wyoming Valley. He was graduated at Williams in 1849, taught for a year in Towanda, Pennsylvania, and in 1851-'3 was professor of mathematics in Wyoming Seminary. He then read law with Chief-Justice George W. Woodward, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. At the beginning of the Civil War he was active in raising the 52d Pennsylvania Regiment, of which he was appointed lieutenant-colonel. He served in the Army of the Potomac till January, 1863, was engaged in the siege of Morris Island under General Quincy A. Gillmore, and was captured in a night attack on Fort Johnson, in which he successfully led a division of boats, landed, and entered the fort, which he was unable to hold by reason of the failure of his support to come to his aid. After being confined some time in Macon, Georgia, he was taken back to Charleston and made his escape, but was recaptured. On his exchange he rejoined his regiment, with which he remained till the close of the war, when he was mustered out with the
rank of brevet brigadier-general. He then resumed his law-practice, and in 1867 was appointed by Governor Geary additional law-judge of the courts of Luzerne County. In 18750 he was chairman of the Republican state committee. He was elected governor of Pennsylvania in November, 1878, and held the office till 1883, when he again resumed his law practice. During his term the debt of the state was reduced to $10,000,000, and refunded at the rate of three per cent. In 1881 he received the degree of LL. D. from the University of Pennsylvania and also from Lafayette College. He has published " Controversy between Connecticut and Pennsylvania" (Philadelphia, 1879); and "Protection vs. Free Trade" (New York, 1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 289-290.
HUBBARD, Asahel W., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
HUBBARD, David, Congressman, born in Virginia in 1806. He moved at an early age to Alabama, practised law, and became solicitor of his judicial district. He was a member of the state senate in 1830, and served in the legislature in 1831-'53. He was elected to Congress as a state rights Democrat in 1838, served till 1841, was a presidential elector on the Polk and Dallas ticket in 1845, and was re-elected to Congress in 1849, serving till 1851. He was a presidential elector on the Breckenridge ticket in 1860, a member of the 1st Confederate Congress, and in 1861 was appointed by it Commissioner of Indian Affairs. After the close of the Civil War he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where he has since resided. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 292.
HUBBARD, John H., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
HUBBARD, Lucius Frederick, governor of Minnesota, born in Troy, New York, 26 January, 1836. He was but three years old when he lost his father, Charles P. Hubbard, sheriff of Rensselaer County, and was sent to live with an aunt at Chester, Vermont He was educated in the academy at Granville, New York, and apprenticed to the tinner's trade, at which he worked in Chicago for three years, and in 1857 he moved to Red Wing, Minnesota, where he established the "Republican." He was elected register of deeds in 1858, and in 1861 was a Republican candidate for the state senate, but lacked seven votes of being elected. He enlisted as a private in the 5th Minnesota Infantry in December, 1861, became captain in February, and lieutenant-colonel in March, 1862, and was severely wounded in the first battle of Corinth. He was promoted colonel, 31 August, 1862, commanded his regiment in the battle of Iuka and the 2d brigade of the 1st Division, Army of the Mississippi, in the battles of Jackson and Mississippi Springs, and remained in command of the brigade till the spring of 1863, when the 5th Minnesota was transferred to the 15th Army Corps and took part in the siege of Vicksburg. After the fall of that city he resumed command of his brigade, which in March, 1864, was assigned to the 16th Corps under General A. J. Smith, took part in General Banks's Red River Expedition, and within a very brief period was in seven battles, the last being that of Greenfield, Louisiana, where the enemy was routed and the Mississippi River relieved from blockade. Afterward he was in several engagements in northern Mississippi, marched across Arkansas and Missouri to the Kansas line to attack Price's force, and then returned to Memphis, where Colonel Hubbard's regiment re-enlisted as veterans and was furloughed. Under his command his brigade, in the battle of Nashville, 16 December, 1864, was in the first line of the assaulting column, and captured seven pieces of artillery, several stand of colors, and many prisoners. But it suffered heavy loss, and Colonel Hubbard was severely wounded. He was brevetted brigadier-general for "conspicuous gallantry" in this battle. In the campaign of Mobile, under General E. R. S. Canby, his brigade was one of the foremost in the siege and capture of Spanish Fort. He was mustered out of the service in October, 1865. In 1866 he engaged in the grain business at Red Wing, and afterward in milling. He projected and secured the construction of the Midland Railway from Wabashaw to Zumbrota, and the Cannon Valley Railway from Red Wing to Waterville. In 1872 and 1874 he was elected as a Republican to the state senate. He was one of the arbitrators to settle the dispute between the state and the prison contractors, and also one of a commission to investigate the state railroad bonds. In 1881 he was elected governor of Minnesota by a majority of 27,857. He entered upon his office 10 January, 1882, and was re-elected in 1883, serving till January, 1887. In 1886 he contributed a paper on Minnesota to the "North American Review." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 293.
HUDSON, Erasmus Darwin, 1805-1880, Torrington, Connecticut, abolitionist, temperance advocate, physician. Lecturing agent for the Connecticut Anti-Slavery Society, 1837-1849. General Agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. Wrote article on abolition. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 296)
HUDSON, Erasmus Darwin, surgeon, born in Torringford, Connecticut, 15 December, 1805; died in Riverside, Greenwich, Connecticut, 31 December, 1880. He was educated by a private tutor and at Torringford Academy, and was graduated in medicine at Berkshire Medical College in 1827. He practised in Bloomfield, and became a member of the Connecticut Medical Society. In 1828 he lectured on temperance, and from 1837 till 1849 was lecturing agent of the Connecticut Anti-Slavery Society and general agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society. During the civil war he was appointed by the U. S. government to fit apparatus to special cases of gunshot injuries of bone, resections, ununited fractures, and amputations at the knee- and ankle-joints. He invented several prosthetic and orthopedic appliances, which received awards at the Exposition universelle of Paris in 1857, and at the Centennial exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876. From 1850 till his death he resided in New York, devoting himself to orthopedic surgery and mechanical apparatus for deformities, artificial limbs, etc. He was a contributor to “The Liberator” and the “Anti-Slavery Standard” (Boston and New York, 1837-'49), was co-editor of “The Charter Oak” (Hartford, 1838-'41), and published numerous reported cases in the “Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion” (Washington, 1870-'2). He wrote an “Essay on Temperance” (1828), and published monographs on “Resections” (New York, 1870); “Syme's Amputation” (New York, 1871); and “Immobile Apparatus for Ununited Fractures” (New York, 1872). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 296.
HUEBSCHMANN, Francis, physician, born in Riethnordhausen, grand-duchy of Weimar, 19 April, 1817; died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21 March, 1880. He was educated at Erfurt and Weimar, and was graduated in medicine at Jena in 1841. He came to the United States in 1842, and settled in Milwaukee, where he resided until his death. He was school-commissioner from 1843 till 1851, a member of the first constitutional convention in 1846, and served on the committee on suffrage and elective franchise. He was the especial champion of the provision in the constitution granting foreigners equal rights with Americans. He was presidential elector in 1848, a member of the city council and county supervisor from 1848 till 1867, and state senator m 1851-2, 1862, and 1871-2. From 1853 till 1857 he was superintendent of Indian Affairs of the north. During the Civil War he entered the national service in 1862 as surgeon of the 26th Wisconsin Volunteers. He was surgeon in charge of a division at the battle of Chancellorsville, and of the 9th Army Corps at Gettysburg, where he was held by the Confederates for three days. He was also at the battle of Chattanooga, in charge of the corps hospital in Lookout Valley in 1864, and brigade surgeon in the campaign to Atlanta. He was honorably discharged in that year, and, returning to Milwaukee, became connected with the United States General Hospital. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 299.
HUGER, Thomas Bee, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 12 July, 1820; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 10 May, 1862, entered the U. S. U.S. Navy as a midshipman, July, 1835. During the Mexican War he was at the siege of Vera Cruz, serving with the land forces. On the secession of South Carolina he resigned his commission and returned home. During the bombardment of Fort Sumter he commanded a battery on Morris Island. As lieutenant-commander in the Confederate Navy, he fought his vessel, the "McCrae," a converted merchant steamer, when the National fleet under Farragut forced its way up to New Orleans, where he fell mortally wounded, 24 April, 1862. He married Miss Mariamne Meade, a sister of General George G. Meade of the U. S. Army.— Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.
HUGER, Benjamin, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1806; died there, 7 December, 1877, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1825, and brevetted 2d lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Artillery. He served on topographical duty till 1828, when he went to Europe on leave of absence. He became a captain of ordnance, 30 May, 1832, and was in command of Fort Monroe Arsenal, Virginia, from 1832 till 1839. From 1839 till 1846 he was a member of the Ordnance Board, and in 1840-'l of a military commission on professional duty in Europe, and he was again in command of Fort Monroe Arsenal from 1841 till 1846. In 1847-'8 he was chief of ordnance in the army under General Winfield Scott in the war with Mexico, having charge of the siege-train at Vera Cruz, and was brevetted major for gallantry, 29 March, 1847. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel at Molino del Rey, 8 September, 1847, and colonel at Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847. In 1852 South Carolina presented him with a sword of honor for meritorious conduct and gallantry in the war with Mexico. From 1848 till 1851 he again held command of the Fort Monroe Arsenal, and from 1849 till 1851 was a member of a board to devise "a complete system of instruction for siege, garrison, sea-coast, and mountain artillery," adopted, 20 May, 1851, for the U. S. service. In 1851-'4 he commanded the armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He became major on 15 February, 1855, and was stationed at Pikesville Arsenal, Maryland, in 1854-'60, and the Charleston Arsenal, South Carolina, in 1860. On 22 April, 1861, he resigned, and was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army. He commanded, with the rank of major-general, at Norfolk, before its occupation by the National forces, 10 May, 1862. and subsequently led a division in the Seven Days' fight in front of Richmond. He was relieved from command of his division in consequence of his failure to cut off McClellan's retreat after the battle of Malvern Hill, 1 July, 1862. He was assigned to duty in the ordnance department in the trans-Mississippi, where he continued until the end of the war. He then became a farmer in Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.
HUGHES, Aaron K., naval officer, born in New York City, 31 March, 1822. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 20 October, 1838; became a lieutenant, 9 September, 1853; commander, 10 November, 1862; captain, 10 February, 1869; commodore in 1875, and rear-admiral in 1882. He made a voyage to Puget Sound in the sloop-of-war "Decatur" in 1855, and had a fight on shore at the town of Seattle with 500 Indians, whom he defeated, 25 January, 1855. He commanded the "Water-Witch,'' of the Gulf Squadron, in 1861-2; the steamer "Mohawk," of the South Atlantic Squadron, 1862-'3, and the steamer " Cimmaron " of that squadron in 1863-'4, and participated in the bombardment of the other works in Charleston Harbor. In 1884 he was retired from the service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.
HUGHES, Francis Wade, lawyer, born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 30 August, 1817; died in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 25 October, 1885. He was educated at Milton academy, Pennsylvania, studied at the law-school in Carlisle, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and began practice in Pottsville. He was appointed deputy Attorney-General of Pennsylvania in 1839, resigned the office there several times, but was reappointed and held it for eleven years. In 1843 he was elected to the state senate as a Democrat by the largest majority ever given in the county of Schuylkill; but he resigned this office in the following year and returned to his practice. In 1851 he was appointed Secretary of State, and in 1853 Attorney-General of the state, which office he filled until 1855. He was a Democratic presidential elector in 1856, and was a delegate to many state and national conventions, over some of which he presided. In February, 1861, he was a member of the state convention at Harrisburg, known as the Peace Convention, and was a member of the committee on resolutions. When the war began, his support of the Union was prompt, energetic, and valuable. He aided in fitting out one of the first five companies that reached Washington, and maintained with voice and pen the legal right of the government to put down rebellion by force of arms. He originated and aided in many extensive enterprises, among which were the opening and working of coal and iron mines, and the establishment of iron-works and other factories. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 303.
HUIDEKOPER, Henry Shippen, soldier, born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, 17 July, 1839, was graduated at Harvard in 1862. He served in the Civil War from July, 1862, till March, 1864, commanding the 150th Pennsylvania Regiment, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, at Gettysburg, where he was wounded twice and lost his right arm. After the war he served in the National guard of Pennsylvania fifteen years, with one commission as brigadier-general and three as major-general. During the railroad riots of 1877 he commanded the 7th Division, and at Scranton, by prompt decision and timely action, he saved the city from a mob. General Huidekoper was postmaster of Philadelphia in 1880-'5, and now (1887) resides in New York. He has published a "Manual of Service," which is an authority in military matters (Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1879). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 307.
HULBURD, Calvin T., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
HULL, Joseph Bartine, naval officer, born in Westchester, New York, 26 April, 1802. He was appointed midshipman from Connecticut in 1813, lieutenant in 1835, commander in 1841, captain in 1855, commodore in 1802. and on 16 July of that year was retired. He commanded the sloop "Warren" in the Pacific Squadron in 1843-'7, cut out the Mexican gun-brig "Malekadhel" off Mazatlan, and was in command of the Northern District of California for a short time previous to the close of the Mexican War. In 1856-'9 he commanded the frigate "St. Lawrence," of the Brazil Squadron, Paraguay Expedition, and from May till September, 1861, the "Savannah," of the coast blockade. From 1862 till 1864 he superintended the building of gun-boats at St. Louis, commanded at the Philadelphia U.S. Navy-yard in 1866, was president of the examining board at Philadelphia in 1867, and lighthouse-inspector for the 1st District, with headquarters at Portland, Maine, in 1869. His present residence (1887) is Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 311.
HUMPHREY, James, lawyer, born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 9 October, 1811; died in Brooklyn, New York, 17 June, 1866, was graduated at Amherst in 1831, studied law, and practised in Louisville, Kentucky, and afterward in New York City, he moved to Brooklyn in 1848, was corporation counsel in 1850-'l, and in 1858 was elected to Congress as a Republican. He served as a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Select Committee on the Seceding States. He was defeated for Congress in 1860 and in 1862, but was re-elected in 1864, and was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Naval Department. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 312.
HUMPHRIES, Andrew Atkinson, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 November, 1810; died in Washington, D. C, 27 December, 1883. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, assigned to the 2d Artillery, and served at the academy, on garrison duty, in special work, and in the Florida Campaign of 1835. In September, 1836, he resigned, and was employed as a civil engineer by the U. S. government on the plans of Brandywine Shoal Lighthouse and Crow Shoal Breakwater, under Major Hartman Bache. On 7 July, 1838, he was reappointed in the U. S. Army, with the rank of 1st lieutenant in the corps of Topographical Engineers, and served in charge of works for the improvement of various harbors, and in Washington in 1842-'9 as assistant in charge of the Coast-Survey office. Meanwhile, in May, 1848, he was promoted captain, and subsequently was engaged in a topographical and hydrographical survey of the delta of the Mississippi River, with a view of determining the most practicable plans for securing it from inundation and for deepening its channel at the mouth. He was compelled by illness to relinquish the charge of this work in 1851, and went to Europe, where he examined the river deltas of the continent, studying the means that were employed abroad for protection against inundation. On his return in 1854 he was given charge of the office duties in Washington that were connected with the explorations and surveys for railroads from the Mississippi to the Pacific. In 1857 he resumed his work on the survey of the Mississippi Delta, and published in conjunction with Lieutenant Henry L. Abbot a " Report on the Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River" (Philadelphia, 1861). He was made major in August, 1861,and after the beginning of the Civil War was assigned to duty on General McClellan's staff. During the campaign on the Virginia Peninsula he was chief topographical engineer of the Army of the Potomac, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 28 April, 1862. In September, 1862, General Humphreys was given command of a division of new troops in the 5th Corps of the Army of the Potomac, with which he led in the Maryland Campaign. He was engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg and at Chancellorsville. where he was posted on the extreme left of the army, and meanwhile he received the brevet of colonel and was made lieutenant-colonel in the Corps of Engineers. He was then transferred to the command of the 2d Division in the 3d Corps, with which he served in the battle of Gettysburg under General Daniel E. Sickles, where he was promoted major-general in the volunteer army. On 8 July, 1863, he became chief of staff to General Meade, and he continued to fill that place till November, 1864. He was then given command of the 2d Corps, which was engaged under his direction at the siege of Petersburg, the actions at Hatcher's Run, and the subsequent operations, ending with Lee's surrender. General Humphreys received the brevet of major-general in the U. S. Army for services at Sailor's Creek, and, after the march to Washington, was placed in command of the District of Pennsylvania. From December, 1865, till August, 1866, he was in charge of the Mississippi levees, where he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He was then made brigadier-general and given command of the Corps of Engineers, the highest scientific appointment in the U. S. Army, with charge of the Engineer Bureau in Washington. This office he held until 30 June, 1879, when he was retired at his own request, serving during three years on many commissions, including that to examine into canal routes across the isthmus connecting North and South America, and also on the Lighthouse Board. General Humphreys was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1857, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1863, and was one of the incorporating' members of the National Academy of Sciences in the last-named year. He also held honorary memberships in foreign scientific societies, and received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1868. His literary labors included several reports to the government concerning the engineering work on the Mississippi and on railroad routes across the continent, and he contributed biographical material concerning Joshua Humphreys to Jas. Grant Wilson's " History of the Frigate Constitution." He also published "The Virginia Campaigns of 1864 and 1865 " (New York, 1882), and "From Gettysburg to the Rapidan" (1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 314.
HUNT, Charles Sedgwick, journalist, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, 7 April, 1842; died in New York City, 15 October, 1876. He entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1855, but left in 1857, and became a student at Phillips Andover Academy. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the U.S. Navy, and became acting master on the war-sloop "Juniata," but resigned his commission toward the close of the war, and entered Harvard, where he was graduated in 1868. He then became a reporter on the New York "Tribune." For a time he was financial editor of the New York "Standard," and from 1871 to 1873 was Albany correspondent of the "Tribune," and was instrumental in exposing political corruption. In 1873 he became an editorial writer on the "Tribune," writing chiefly upon topics of finance and political economy. He was also associated with John P. Cleveland in the preparation of the "Tribune Almanac." Early in 1876 he joined the editorial staff of the New York "Times, where he continued until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 315-316.
HUNT, Ezra Mundy, physician, born in Middlesex County, New Jersey, 4 January, 1830. He was graduated at Princeton in 1849, and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1852. He began practice at Metuchen, lectured on materia medica in the Vermont Medical College in 1854, and was elected professor of chemistry there in 1855, but declined. He joined the volunteer army as regimental surgeon in 1862, and in 1863 was placed in charge of a hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has been president of the American Public Health Association, and has contributed papers to eight volumes of " Public Health." Since 1876 he has been secretary of the New Jersey Board of Health, preparing all its reports, and since 1881 has conducted the Sanitary Department in the New York "Independent." he was a delegate to the International Medical Congresses at London (1881) and Copenhagen (1884). His residence is in Trenton, New Jersey. He is instructor in hygiene in the State Normal school. In 1883 he received the degree of Sc. D. from Princeton. He is the author of "Patients' and Physicians' Aid" (New York, 1859); "Physicians' Counsels" (Philadelphia, 1859); "Alcohol as a Food and Medicine" (New York, 1877); and "Principles of Hygiene, together with the Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology" (New York, 1887); also of works on religious subjects, especially "Grace Culture" (Philadelphia, 1865) and "Bible Notes for Daily Readers" (New York, 1870). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 316.
HUNT, Freeman, publisher, born in Quincy, Massachusetts, 21 March, 1804; died in Brooklyn, New York, 2 March, 1858. He entered the office of the Boston " Evening Gazette" at the age of twelve, learned the trade of printing, and while connected with the Boston "Traveller " obtained promotion by sending to the editor articles evincing journalistic talent. Soon after his apprenticeship was over he established "The Ladies' Magazine," with Sarah J. Hale as editor, which was very successful. He sold this, and renewed the publication of the " Penny Magazine," which proved profitable, but which he abandoned to become managing director of the Bewick Company, an association of authors, artists, printers, and bookbinders. While connected with this society, he founded and became editor of the "American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge." He also published in Boston the "Juvenile Miscellany." In 1831 he moved to New York and established "The Traveller," a weekly paper. In 1837 he projected "The Merchants' Magazine," the first number of which was issued in July, 1839. In 1845 he published the first volume of the "Library of Commerce." "Hunt's Merchants' Magazine " was conducted by its founder to the end of the thirty-eighth volume, and after his death was continued as an independent publication till 1870, sixty-three volumes having been issued, when it was converted into a weekly, and merged in the "Commercial and Financial Chronicle." The statistical and other information collected in this magazine was valuable, trustworthy, and useful, not only to merchants, but to all persons concerned in practical affairs. Mr. Hunt's publications in book-form include " Anecdotes and Sketches of Female Character" (Boston, 1830); "American Anecdotes, Original and Selected, by an American" (2 vols., 1830); "Comprehensive Atlas" (New York, 1834); "Letters about the Hudson River and its Vicinity," which had appeared in "The Traveller" (1836; 3d ed., enlarged, 1837); "Lives of American Merchants" (2 vols., 1856-'7); and " Wealth and Worth, a Collection of Morals, Maxims, and Miscellanies for Merchants" (New York, 1858). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 316.
HUNT, Harriot Kezia, MD, 1805-1875, physician, medical reformer, abolitionist, women’s rights activist (Hunt, Harriot, Glances and Glimpses, 1856, J. R. Chadwick [autobiography]; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 385; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 459-460)
HUNT, Harriot Kezia, physician, born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1805; died there, 2 January, 1875. She was a teacher in 1827, studied medicine under Dr. Valentine Mott in 1833, and opened an office in 1835, being probably the earliest female practitioner in the United States. In 1843 she founded in Charlestown, Massachusetts, a ladies' physiological society, which had fifty members. She applied for admission to the Harvard medical lectures in 1847, but was refused. In 1853 the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia conferred on her the degree of M. D. She was a noted lecturer on woman suffrage, sanitary reform, and other subjects. In paying taxes on her real estate she filed annually, for twenty-five years, a protest against taxation without representation. She published "Glances and Glimpses, or Fifty Years' Social, including Twenty Years' Professional Life " (Boston, 1856). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 459.
HUNT, Henry Jackson, soldier, born in Detroit, Michigan, 14 September, 1819. His grandfather, Thomas (1754-1809), served in the Revolution, and at the time of his death was colonel of the 1st U.S. Infantry; and his father, Samuel W., lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Infantry, died in September, 1829. Henry accompanied his father on the expedition that established Fort Leavenworth in 1827, and, after attending school in Missouri, entered the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1839. He served in the 2d Artillery on the frontier during the Canada border disturbances of that year, in garrisons at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, and Fort Columbus and Fort Hamilton, New York, and on recruiting service till 18 June, 1846, when he was promoted to 1st lieutenant. During the Mexican War he was brevetted captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and major at Chapultepec, and he was at Vera Cruz. Cerro Gordo, San Antonio. Molino del Rey, where he was twice wounded, and at the capture of the city of Mexico. He was then on frontier duty till the Civil War, with the exception of service in 1856-'7 and 1858-'60 on a board to revise the system of light-artillery tactics. He had become captain, 28 September, 1852, was promoted to major, 14 May, 1861, and commanded the artillery on the extreme left in the battle of Bull Run. He was chief of artillery in the defences of Washington from July to September, 1861, and on 28 September became aide to General McClellan with the rank of colonel. In 1861-'2 he was president of a board to test rifled field-guns and projectiles, and organized the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, commanding it in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. In September, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and became chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac, holding the office till the close of the war, and taking an active part in all the battles that were fought by that army in 1862-'5. He was brevetted colonel, 3 July, 1863, for his services at Gettysburg, major-general of volunteers, 6 July, 1864, for "faithful and highly meritorious services" in the campaign from the Rapidan to Petersburg, brigadier-general in the regular army for his services in the campaign ending with Lee's surrender, and major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for services during the war. He was president of the permanent artillery board in 1866, and then commanded various forts, being promoted to colonel of the 5th U.S. Artillery, 4 April, 1869. He was retired from active service, 14 September, 1883, and is now (1887) governor of the Soldiers' Home, Washington, D. C. General Hunt has published "Instruction for Field Artillery" (Philadelphia, 1860), and is the author of various papers on artillery, projectiles, and army organization. In 1886 he contributed to the " Century" three articles on the battle of Gettysburg. —His brother, Lewis Cass, soldier, born in Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 23 February, 1824; died in Fort Union, New Mexico, 6 September, 1886, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and assigned to the infantry. He became captain, 23 May, 1855, and served on the Pacific Coast till the Civil War. He was stationed in Washington Territory in 1859, when General Harney occupied San Juan Island in Puget Sound, which was then claimed by Great Britain, and, when a joint occupation of the harbor by British and U. S. forces was arranged by General Scott, was chosen to command the American detachment. After serving in the first part of the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, he became on 21 May of that year colonel of the 92d New York Regiment, and was severely wounded at Fair Oaks. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers 29 November, 1862, and in the winter of 1862-'3 served in North Carolina, receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry at Kinston. He was made major in the 14th U.S. Infantry, 8 June, 1863, had charge of the draft rendezvous at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1863-'4, and, after special duty in Missouri and Kansas, commanded the defences of New York Harbor in 1864-'6. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army, 13 March, 1865, for his services in the war, and afterward commanded various posts, becoming lieutenant-colonel of the 20th U.S. Infantry, 29 March, 1868. He was transferred to the 4th U.S. Infantry on 25 February, 1881, and promoted to colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry on 19 May. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 316-317.
HUNT, John Wesley, physician, born in Groveland, Livingston County, New York, 10 October, 1834. He was educated at the Wesleyan Seminary, Lima, New York, and graduated at the University Medical College, New York City, in 1859. He served on the house surgical staff in Bellevue Hospital, New York City, and began practice in Jersey City, New Jersey. In May, 1861, he was commissioned as surgeon of a New York regiment, and served at Fortress Monroe, where he was remarkably successful in treating the disease that became known as Chickahominy fever. In May, 1862, he was made brigade-surgeon of volunteers, and placed in charge of the Mill Creek Hospital, near Fortress Monroe. There he demonstrated the practicability of thoroughly ventilating a large building crowded with wounded men. In August, 1862, he was attacked with fever, and returned to the north. He resigned from the army, and after months of illness resumed his practice. He was one of the organizers of the Jersey City Charity Hospital, and first president of its medical board. He has read papers before the Hudson County Medical Society, and contributed to the "Transactions" of the New Jersey Medical Society. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 317-318.
HUNT, Robert Woolston, metallurgist, born in Fallsington, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 9 December, 1&38. He received his early education in Covington, Kentucky, and then studied analytical chemistry with James C. Booth and Thomas H. Garrett in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania During the Civil War he was commandant of Camp Curtin. Harrisburg. with the rank of captain. Meanwhile he had become associated with the Cambria iron company as chemist, and in July, 1860, established the first analytical laboratory connected with any iron or steel works in the United States. Subsequently he assisted George Fritz in constructing the Bessemer steel works of the Cambria company, and after 1808 was superintendent of that department, also having charge during 1805-'G of the experimental steel works in Wyandotte, Michigan. He was called to the charge of the Bessemer steel works of John A. Griswold and County, in Troy, New York, in 1873; was made general superintendent of the Albany and Rensselaer iron and steel company in 1875; and in 1885 of its successor, the Troy Steel and Iron Company. The works of the various Troy companies with which he has been connected have been rebuilt and extended under his supervision. Mr. Hunt has obtained patents for improvements in bottom casting of steel ingots, for making special soft Bessemer steel, for a recarburizer for Bessemer Steel, also a series relating to automatic tables for rolling-mills, and one for a feeding-in device for the same kind of mills. In 1886 he was elected one of the trustees of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Mr. Hunt is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and was president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in 1883-'4. His contributions to literature have consisted of technical papers in the transactions of societies of which he is a member. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 318.
HUNT, Timothy Atwater, naval officer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1805; died there, 21 January, 1884. He was educated at Yale, entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1825, became lieutenant in 1836, commander in 1855, captain in 1862, commodore in 1863, and was retired in 1877. He commanded the supply ship " Electra" in the Mexican War, the "Narragansett" at the beginning of the Civil War, in 1861, and was then attached to the Pacific Squadron. He was ordered home in 1863, and was inspector of ordnance till 1867, when he was assigned to special duty at New London, Connecticut From 1870 till his retirement he was on the reserved list, residing in New Haven. Connecticut. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 319.
HUNT, Edward Bissell, military engineer, born in Livingston County, New York, 15 June, 1822; died in Brooklyn, New York, 2 October, 1863. Bissell was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1845, entered the Corps of Engineers, was commissioned as 2d lieutenant in December, 1845, and was employed as assistant professor of civil and military engineering at West Point in 1846-'9, afterward in the Coast Survey, and in the construction of fortifications and lighthouses. He became a captain on 1 July, 1859, while engaged in the construction of defensive works at Key West, and was instrumental in preventing the forts of southern Florida from falling into the hands of the Confederates at the beginning of the Civil War. In 1862 he served as chief engineer of the Department of the Shenandoah. He was subsequently employed in erecting fortifications on Long Island Sound, and in April, 1862, was detailed to perfect and construct a battery for firing under water, which was invented by him, and which he called the "sea miner." He was promoted major on 3 March, 1863. While making experiments with his submarine battery, he was suffocated by the escaping gases, and killed by falling into the hold of the vessel. He married a daughter of Prof. Nathan W. Fiske. (See Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske.) He contributed papers to the "Transactions" of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and to several literary and scientific periodicals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 319-320.
HUNTER, David Dard (“Black David”), 1802-1886, General, U.S. Army. In 1862, he organized and formed all-Black U.S. Army regiments without authorization from the Union War Department. Established the African American First South Carolina Volunteer Regiment in May 1862. Without authorization, he issued a proclamation that emancipated slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. President Lincoln ordered the Black troops disbanded and countermanded the emancipation order. (Dumond, 1961, p. 372; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 66, 140, 243, 275, 690-691; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 100; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 516)
HUNTER, David, soldier, born in Washington, D. C, 21 July, 1802; died there, 2 February, 1886. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1822, appointed 2d lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Infantry, promoted 1st lieutenant in 1828, and became a captain in the 1st Dragoons in 1833. He was assigned to frontier duty, and twice crossed the plains to the Rocky Mountains. He resigned his commission in 1836, and engaged in business in Chicago. He re-entered the military service as a paymaster, with the rank of major, in March. 1842, was chief paymaster of General John E. Wool's command in the Mexican War, and was afterward stationed successively at New Orleans, Washington, Detroit, St. Louis, and on the frontier. He accompanied President-elect Lincoln when he set out from Springfield for Washington in February, 1861, but at Buffalo was disabled by the pressure of the crowd, his collar-bone being dislocated. On 14 May he was appointed colonel of the 6th U. S. Cavalry, and three days later was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the main column of McDowell's army in the Manassas Campaign, and was severely wounded at Bull Run, 21 July, 1861. He was made a major-general of volunteers, 13 August, 1861, served under General Fremont in Missouri, and on 2 November succeeded him in the command of the Western Department. From 20 November, 1861, till 11 March, 1862, he commanded the Department of Kansas. Under date of 19 February, 1862, General Halleck wrote to him: "To you, more than any other man out of this department, are we indebted for our success at Fort Donelson. In my strait for troops to reinforce General Grant, I applied to you. You responded nobly, placing your forces at my disposition. This enabled us to win the victory." In March, 1862, General Hunter was transferred to the Department of the South, with headquarters at Port Royal, South Carolina. On 12 April he issued a general order in which he said: "All persons of color lately held to involuntary service by enemies of the United States, in Fort Pulaski and on Cockspur Island, Georgia, are hereby confiscated and declared free in conformity with law, and shall hereafter receive the fruits of their own labor." On 9 May, in general orders declaring Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina (his department) under martial law, he added, " Slavery and martial law, in a free country, are altogether incompatible. The persons in these three states, heretofore held as slaves, are therefore declared forever free." Ten
days later this order was annulled by the president. (See Lincoln, Abraham.) In May General Hunter organized an expedition against Charleston, in which over 3,000 men were landed on James Island, but it was unsuccessful. Later he raised and organized the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment of black troops in the National service. Thereupon a Kentucky representative introduced into Congress a resolution calling for information on the subject. This being referred to General Hunter by the Secretary of War, the general answered: "No regiment of fugitive slaves has been or is being organized in this department. There is, however, a fine regiment of persons whose late masters are fugitive rebels—men who everywhere fly before the appearance of the National flag, leaving their servants behind them to shift, as best they can, for themselves." In August Jefferson Davis issued a proclamation to the effect that, if General Hunter or any other U. S. officer who had been drilling and instructing slaves as soldiers should be captured, he should not be treated as a prisoner of war, but held in close confinement for execution as a felon. In September General Hunter was ordered to Washington and made president of a court of inquiry, to investigate the causes of the surrender of Harper's Ferry, and other matters. In May, 1864. he was placed in command of the Department of West Virginia. He defeated a Confederate force at Piedmont on 5 June, and attacked Lynchburg unsuccessfully on the 18th. From 8 August, 1864, till 1 February, 1865, he was on leave of absence, after which he served on courts-martial, being president of the commission that tried the persons who conspired for the assassination of President Lincoln. He was brevetted major-general U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, and mustered out of the volunteer service in January, 1866, after which he was president of a special-claims commission and of a board for the examination of cavalry officers. He was retired from active service, by reason of his age, 31 July, 1866, and thereafter resided in Washington. General Hunter married a daughter of John Kinzie, who was the first permanent citizen of Chicago. Mrs. Hunter survived her husband. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321.
HUNTER, Lewis Boudinot, surgeon, born in Princeton, New Jersey, 9 October, 1804; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 24 June, 1887, was graduated at Princeton in 1824, and at the Medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1828. He then entered the U. S. Navy as a surgeon, and was on the "Princeton" when the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Navy were killed by the bursting of a gun in 1843. He served during the Mexican War on the "Saratoga," and during the Civil War as fleet-surgeon of the North Atlantic Squadron under Admiral Porter. On 3 March, 1871, he was made medical director, with the rank of commodore, and retired. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321.
HUNTER, Morton Craig, soldier, born in Versailles, Indiana, 5 February, 1825. He was graduated at the law department of Indiana University in 1849, and elected a member of the legislature of that state in 1858. He was colonel of the 82d Regiment of Indiana Infantry in the Civil War, until the fall of Atlanta. He then commanded a brigade in the 14th Army Corps till the end of the war, taking part in Sherman's march to the sea. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and was afterward elected to Congress from Indiana as a Republican, serving from 4 March, 1867. till 3 March, 1869, and again from 1 December, 1873, till 4 March, 1879. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 322.
HUNTER, Robert Mercer Taliaferro, statesman, born in Essex County, Virginia, 21 April, 1809; died there, 18 July, 1887. He was educated at the University of Virginia, studied at the Winchester, Virginia, law-school, and began practice in 1830. After serving in the Virginia legislature in 1833, he was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1836 and 1838, and in 1839 chosen speaker of the House of Representatives. He was defeated in 1842, reelected in 1844, and in 1846 was chosen U. S. Senator, taking his seat in December, 1847. Meanwhile he bore a conspicuous part in the political discussions of the day. He favored the annexation of Texas and the compromise of the Oregon question, took an active part in favor of the retrocession of the city of Alexandria by the general government to Virginia, supported the tariff bill of 1846, originated the warehouse system, and opposed the Wilmot Proviso. From 1847 till 1861 he was U. S. Senator. He voted for the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean, opposed the abolition of the slave-trade in the District of Columbia or any interference with that institution in the states and territories, opposed the admission of California, and supported the Fugitive-Slave Law. As chairman of the Finance Committee, he made an elaborate report on the gold and silver coinage of the country, and proposed the reduction of the value of the silver coins of fifty cents and less, by which shipment to foreign countries was assisted. In the presidential canvass of 1852 he delivered an address in Richmond, Virginia, urging the soundness of the state-rights policy. He advocated the bill of 1855, forbidding the use of the army to enforce the acts of the pro-slavery Kansas legislature, and the repeal of the Missouri pro-slavery law, which declared the death penalty for nearly fifty slavery offences. Mr. Hunter framed the Tariff Act of 1857, by which the duties were considerably lowered, and the revenue reduced. In the session of 1857-'8 he advocated the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution with slavery. In 1860 he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for president, receiving upon several ballots in the Charleston Convention the next highest vote to that for Stephen A. Douglas, and in January of this year made an elaborate speech in the senate in favor of slavery and the right of the slave-holder to carry his slaves into the territories. He took an active part in the secession movement, and in July, 1861, was formally expelled from the senate. He was a member of the Provisional Confederate Congress, and according to the original scheme he was to have been president of the new government, with Jefferson Davis as commander-in-chief of the army. He was for a short time Confederate Secretary of State, and afterward was elected to the senate, in opposition to the administration of Mr. Davis. In February, 1865, he was one of the Peace Commissioners that met President Lincoln and William H. Seward upon a vessel in Hampden Roads. The conference was futile, as Mr. Lincoln refused to recognize the independence of the Confederacy. Hunter then presided over a war meeting in Richmond, at which resolutions were passed that the Confederates would never lay down their arms till they should have achieved their independence. When a bill came before the Confederate Congress, shortly afterward, freeing such Negroes as should serve in the Confederate Army, Mr. Hunter at first opposed it, but, having been instructed by the Virginia Legislature to vote in its favor, did so, accompanying his vote with an emphatic protest. At the close of the war he was arrested, but was released on parole, and in 1867 was pardoned by President Johnson. He was an unsuccessful candidate for U. S. Senator in 1874, became Treasurer of Virginia in 1877, and in 1880 retired to the farm in Essex County, Virginia. A few months previous to his death he was appointed collector at Rappahannock, Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 323.
HUNTER, Charles, naval officer, born in Newport, R. L, in 1813; died at sea, 22 November, 1873, entered the U. S. Navy in 1831, was commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1841, and retired at his own request in 1855. When the Civil War began he volunteered in the U. S. Navy, was commissioned commander, and assigned to the steamer " Montgomery " of the Gulf Squadron. In 1862, while in command of this ship, he chased a British blockade runner into Cuban waters, and fired on her. This breach of neutrality was investigated, and Commander Hunter was placed on the retired list. In 1866, by an act of Congress, he was made captain on the retired list, and he afterward resided at Newport, Rhode Island. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 324.
HUNTINGTON, Collis Potter, railroad-builder, born in Harwinton, Litchfield County, Connecticut, 22 October, 1821. He was educated in a local school, secured his freedom from his father when fourteen years old by promising to support himself, and, engaging in mercantile business, spent ten years in travelling through the south and west, subsequently settling with an elder brother in Oneonta, Otsego County, New York. In October, 1848, the brothers made a shipment of goods to California, which Collis followed in March. After spending three months in trading on the isthmus, he began business in a tent in Sacramento, dealing in the various articles that are required in mining life. He afterward opened a large hardware-store in the city, became associated in business with Mark Hopkins, and in 1860 matured a scheme for a transcontinental railroad, Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, and Mr. Hopkins having united with him in paying the expenses of a survey across the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Five men organized the Central Pacific Railroad Company, of which Mr. Stanford was elected president, Mr. Huntington, vice-president, and Mr. Hopkins, treasurer. After Congress had agreed to aid the enterprise by an issue of bonds, Mr. Huntington and his associates carried on the construction of the railroad out of their private means until the bonds became available by the completion of a stipulated mileage. In addition to this undertaking, Mr. Huntington planned and perfected the whole California railroad system, which extends over 8,900 miles of steel track, built an Atlantic system, which, by the Southern Pacific Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, forms a continuous line 4,000 miles long from San Francisco to Newport News, and developed an aggregate of 16,900 miles of steam water-lines, including the route to China and Japan. He is president of the Newport News and Mississippi Valley Company, and vice-president of the Central Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad Companies. He resides in New York City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 324-325.
HUNTON, Eppa, soldier, born in Fauquier County, Virginia, 23 September, 1823. His early education was limited. He studied and practised law, and was commonwealth attorney for Prince William County from 1849 till 1862. He was elected to the Virginia Convention of 1861, and after serving through its first session entered the Confederate Army as colonel of the 8th Virginia Infantry. After the battle of Gettysburg he was promoted and served through the rest of the war as brigadier-general. He was captured at Sailor's Creek, 6 April, 1865, and imprisoned in Fort Warren, but was released in July, 1865. General Hunton was elected a representative to Congress as a Democrat in 1873, and re-elected to the three succeeding Congresses. He was a member of the joint committee that formed the electoral bill in the 44th Congress, and one of the electoral commission of 1876-'7. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 327.
HURLBUT, Stephen Augustus, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 29 November, 1815: died in Lima, Peru, 27 March, 1882. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and practised in Charleston until the Florida War, in which he served as adjutant in a South Carolina regiment. In 1845 he went to Illinois and practised his profession in Belvidere. He was a presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1848, was a member of the legislature in 1859. 1861, and 1867, and presidential elector at large on the Republican ticket in 1868. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded at Fort Donelson after its capture in February, 1862. When General Grant's army moved up Tennessee River, Hurlbut commanded the 4th Division, and was the first to reach Pittsburg Landing, which he held for a week alone. He was promoted major-general for meritorious conduct at the battle of Shiloh, was then stationed at Memphis, and after the battle of Corinth, in October, 1862, pursued and engaged the defeated Confederates. He commanded at Memphis in September, 1863. led a corps under Sherman in the expedition to Meridian in February, 1864, and succeeded General Nathaniel P. Banks in command of the Department of the Gulf, serving there from 1864 till 1865, when he was honorably mustered out. He was minister resident to the United States of Colombia from 1869 till 1872, and then elected a representative to Congress from Illinois as a Republican for two consecutive terms, serving from 1873 till 1877. In 1881 he was appointed minister to Peru, which office he retained till his death. — His brother, William Henry, journalist, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 3 July, 1827, was graduated at Harvard in 1847, at the divinity-school there in 1849, and then studied in Berlin, Rome, and Paris. After a few years in the Unitarian ministry, he entered Harvard Law School in 1852, in 1855 was a writer on " Putnam's Magazine " and the " Albion," and joined the staff of the New York " Times " in 1857. While visiting the south in 1861, he was arrested by a vigilance committee in Atlanta, Georgia, imprisoned for a time, and then released, but he was refused a passport unless upon conditions with which he would not comply, and finally in August, 1862, made his escape through the Confederate lines, and reached Washington. He became connected with the New York " World " in 1862,and in 1864 purchased the “Commercial Advertiser," intending to publish it as a free-trade paper, but. he and his associates in the enterprise failing to agree, the paper was sold in 1867 to Thurlow Weed. He went to Mexico in 1860, and was invited to the capital by Maximilian, represented the New York "World" at the World's Fair at Paris in 1867, and the Centenary Festival of St. Peter at Rome, and in 1871 accompanied the U. S. expedition to Santo Domingo, during which time he wrote and published the most complete account in any language of the modern history of that Island. In 1876-83 he was editor-in-chief of the " World," and in the latter year went to Europe, where he has since chiefly resided. He has contributed largely to American periodicals and to the " Edinburgh " and other British magazines, and has published "Gan-Eden" (Boston, 1854): " General McClellan and the Conduct of the War" (New York, 1804), and other works, besides several hymns and poems. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 328.
HUSSEY, Erastus, 1800-1889, Battle Creek, Michigan, political leader, abolitionist leader, agent, Underground Railroad. Helped more than one thousand slaves escape after 1840. Co-founder of the Republican Party. Member of the Free-Soil and Liberty Parties. (Dumond, 1961, p. 339)
HUSSEY, Sarah, 1799-1858, Massachusetts, abolitionist, women’s rights activist. Founder and organizer of Worcester Anti-Slavery Sewing Circle and Worcester County Anti-Slavery Society, South Division. Wife of abolitionist John Milton Earle. Organized anti-slavery fairs. Cousin of Lucretia Mott.
HUTCHINS, Wells A., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
HUTCHINSON Family, Jesse, 1778-1851, Jesse Jr., Judson, Asa, John, born 1821, Abby, born 1829; family singers. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 334; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936)
HUTCHINSON, Jesse, farmer, born in Middleton. Massachusetts. 3 February, 1778; died in Milford, New Hampshire. 16 February, 1851. His ancestor, Richard, came to this country from England in 1634. acquired much land in Salem, Massachusetts, and was paid a premium by the state for "setting up" the first plough in Massachusetts. He married Mary Leavitt, of Mount Vernon, New Hampshire, in 1800, and resided on a farm in Milford for several years. They occasionally sang in chorus, taking parts in the quartets of ballads and sacred music, and were the parents of the "Hutchinson family," who achieved a reputation as popular singers, and were identified with the anti-slavery and temperance movements. The religious sentiment of New England was noticeable in their productions and repertory. The family became abolitionists when it required courage to face political prejudice, and some of them were excommunicated from the Baptist Church on this account. The children numbered sixteen, three of whom died in infancy. All inherited musical talent, and people came from far and near to hear them sing in chorus in prayer-meetings, or at home. They were often urged to appear in public, and in the summer of 1841 the four youngest children, Judson, John, Asa, and Abby, made a successful concert-tour in New England. In 1843 the family appeared in New York City, and achieved an immediate success. N. P. Willis spoke of them as a "nest of brothers with a sister in it." They accompanied themselves with a violin and violoncello, and excelled in sacred and descriptive songs, and in ballads, both humorous and pathetic. Their own productions were received with most enthusiasm by the popular taste, although their melodies were simple and crudely harmonized. They were coworkers with Garrison, Greeley, Rogers, and other leaders of anti-slavery reform, often aiding in mass conventions, singing popular and original songs with their quartet chorus. In 1845 they travelled in Great Britain and Ireland, and met with popular success. They travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the political canvasses of 1856 and 1860, forming several bands from a third generation in their family. During the Civil War some of these bands visited recruiting-stations to encourage volunteer enlistments, and after the battle of Bull Run they went to Virginia, where they were expelled from the National lines by General McClellan because they sang Whittier's "Ein Feste Burg " as an anti-slavery song. Appeal was made to President Lincoln, who said, after Secretary Chase read the obnoxious song in a cabinet-meeting: "It is just the character of song that I desire the soldiers to hear." By the unanimous consent of the cabinet and the order of President Lincoln, they were re-admitted to the National camps.— The eldest son, Jesse, wrote many songs for popular airs, which he sang with effect. The principal of these were the "Emancipation Song," " Family Song," " Old Granite State," "Good Old Days of Yore," "The Slave Mother," "The Slave's' Appeal," "Good Time Coming," and "Uncle Sam's Farm." It was he that organized the company. —Judson was the humorist, excelling in burlesque and political songs, some of which were an Italian burlesque, "The Bachelor's Lament," "Away Down East," "The Modern Belle," "Anti-Calomel," “Jordan" and "The Humbugged Husband." —Asa was the basso, and the executive member of the troupe.—John, born in Milford, New Hampshire, 4 January, 1821, possessed the most vocal talent. Among his songs and those of his son Henry were " Will the New Year come To-Night, Mother?" "Bingen on the Rhine," "The Newfoundland Dog," "The Bridge of Sighs," "The People's Advent." and Russell's " Ship on Fire."—Abby, the contralto, born in Milford, New Hampshire, 29 August, 1829, began at an early age to sing with her brothers. She was admired for her simplicity and archness, and sang "Over the Mountain and over the Moor," "The Slave's Appeal," "The Spider and the Fly, "Jamie's on the Stormy Sea," and "The May Queen." She married Ludlow Patton, of New York City, in 1849, and has since lived in retirement. Her brothers continued to appear in concerts, and from time to time have brought before the public their own families of young singers. They were followed by many bands of imitators. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 333.
HYATT, Alpheus, naturalist, born in Washington, D. C, 5 April, 1838. He was educated at the Maryland Military Academy, at Yale College, and at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard, where he was graduated in 1802. Subsequently he served during the Civil War in the 47th Massachusetts Volunteers, and attained the rank of captain. He then renewed his studies under Louis Agassiz, and in 1867 became a curator in the Essex Institute. While holding this office in connection with Edward S. Morse, Alpheus S. Packard, Frederick W. Putnam, and the officers of the Essex Institute, he founded the Peabody academy of science. Its museum was planned by these four naturalists, together they formed its first scientific staff, and in 1869 Mr. Hyatt was made one of its curators. He was also associated with these gentlemen in establishing the "American Naturalist," and was one of its original editors. In 1870 he was elected custodian and in 1881 curator of the Boston society of natural history. He has also charge of the fossil invertebrates in the Museum of comparative zoology at Cambridge, and since 1881 has held the professorship of zoology and paleontology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prof. Hyatt also has a class in the Boston University, and in connection with the Society of natural history is manager of the Teachers' school of science, which was founded in 1870. A general laboratory of natural history was founded at Annisquam, Massachusetts, by the Woman's educational society of Boston, and Prof. Hyatt is also in charge of this enterprise, the origin of which is due to him. He was elected a fellow of the American academy of arts and sciences in 1869, and in 1875 was made a member of the National academy of science. The American Society of naturalists was organized in consequence of suggestions that were made by him, and at the first meeting in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1883, he was elected its president. Prof. Hyatt has devoted special attention to the lower forms of animal life. Among his important researches are "Observations on Polyzoa " (I860);" Fossil Cephalopodsof the Museum of Comparative Zoology" (1872); "Revision of North American Perofera '(1875-'7), which is the only work on North American commercial sponges, and is recognized throughout the world as an authority; "Genesis of Tertiary Species of Planorbis at Steinheim" (1880), giving the details of his study at Steinheim of the fossils, which were at that time regarded in Europe as the only positive demonstration of the theory of evolution: and "Genera of Fossil Cephalopoda" (1883). containing important contributions to the theory of evolution. "Larval Theory of the Origin of Cellular Tissue" (1884) contains his theory of the origin of sex. Besides the foregoing, Prof. Hyatt has edited a series of "Guides for Science Teaching," and is himself the author of several of the series, including "About Pebbles." "Commercial and other Sponges," "Common Mydroids, Corals. and Echinoderms," "The Oyster, Clam, and other Common Mollusks," and " Worms and Crustaceans." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 335-336.
HYATT, Thaddeus, 1816-1901, inventor, abolitionist. Supporter of militant abolitionist John Brown.
HYDE, James Nevins, surgeon, born in Norwich, Connecticut, 21 June, 1840. He was graduated at Yale in 1861, began the study of medicine in the New York College of physicians and surgeons, entered the U. S. Navy in 1863 as assistant surgeon, and served during the Civil War and afterward on the "Ticonderoga," of the Mediterranean Squadron, under Admiral Farragut. In 1869 he resigned, was graduated in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, and settled in Chicago, Illinois. He is professor of dermatology and orthopedic surgery in the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons, and clinical instructor in the Southside Dispensary, associate editor of the "Chicago Medical Journal and Examiner," a contributor to the New York "Archives of Dermatology," and a member of various medical societies.