Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Log-Lyt
LOGAN, John Alexander, statesman, born in Jackson County, Illinois, 9 February, 1826; died in Washington, D. C, 26 December, 1886. His father, Dr. John Logan, came from Ireland when a young man and settled in Maryland, but moved to Kentucky, thence to Missouri, and finally to Illinois. He served several terms in the legislature, having been chosen as a Democrat, and held several county offices. The son was educated at a common school and under a private tutor. This instruction was supplemented, in 1840, by attendance at Shiloh College. When war with Mexico was declared, he volunteered as a private, but was soon chosen a lieutenant in the 1st Illinois Infantry. He did good service as a soldier, and for some time was acting quartermaster of his regiment. After his return from Mexico he began the study of law with his uncle, Alexander M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was elected clerk of Jackson County, but resigned to continue the study of law. In 1851 he was graduated at Louisville University, admitted to the bar, and became his uncle's partner. He soon grew popular, and his forcible style of oratory, pleasing address, and fine voice, secured his election to the legislature in 1852 and again in 1856. At the end of his first term he resumed practice with such success that he was soon chosen prosecuting attorney for the 3d Judicial District. In 1852 he moved to Benton, Franklin County, Illinois. He was a presidential elector in 1856 on the Buchanan and Breckinridge ticket. In 1858 he was elected to Congress from Illinois as a Douglas Democrat, and was reelected in 1860. In the presidential campaign of that year he earnestly advocated the election of Stephen A. Douglas; but, on the first intimation of coming trouble from the south, he declared that, in the event of the election of Abraham Lincoln, he would "shoulder his musket to have him inaugurated." In July, 1861, during the extra session of Congress that was called by President Lincoln, he left his seat, overtook the troops that were marching out of Washington to meet the enemy, and fought in the ranks of Colonel Richardson's Regiment in the battle of Bull Run, being among the last to leave the field. Returning home in the latter part of August, he resigned his seat in Congress, organized the 31st Illinois Infantry, and was appointed its colonel, 13 September. At Belmont in November he led a successful bayonet-charge and a horse was shot under him. He led his regiment in the attack on Fort Henry, and at Fort Donelson, while gallantly leading "the assault, received a wound that incapacitated him for active service for some time. After he had reported for duty to General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, he was made a brigadier-general of volunteers, 5 March, 1862. He took an important part in the movement against Corinth, and subsequently was given the command at Jackson, Tennessee, with instructions to guard the railroad communications. In the summer of 1862 his constituents urged him to become a candidate for re-election to Congress, but he declined, saying in his letter: "I have entered the field to die, if need be, for this government, and never expect to return to peaceful pursuits until the object of this war of preservation has become a fact established." During Grant's Northern Mississippi Campaign General Logan commanded the 3d Division of the 17th Army Corps under General McPherson, and was promoted major-general of volunteers, to date from 26 November, 1862. He participated in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, and Champion Hills. In the siege of Vicksburg he commanded McPherson's centre, and on 25 June made the assault after the explosion of the mine. His column was the first to enter the captured city, and he was appointed its military governor. He succeeded General Sherman in the command of the 15th Army Corps in November, 1863. In May, 1864, he joined Sherman's army, which was preparing for its march into Georgia, led the advance of the Army of the Tennessee in the fight at Resaca, repulsed Hardee's veterans at Dallas, and drove the enemy from his line of works at Kenesaw Mountain. General Sherman says in his report of the battle of Atlanta, speaking of General McPherson's death: "General Logan succeeded him and commanded the Army of the Tennessee through this desperate battle with the same success and ability that had characterized him in the command of a corps or division." In fact it was mainly his skill and determination that saved Sherman's army from a serious disaster during that engagement. After the fall of Atlanta, 1 September, 1864, he went home and took an active part in the presidential campaign of that year. He rejoined his troops, who had accompanied General Sherman in his famous "march to the sea," at Savannah, and remained in active service with Sherman's army till the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston, 26 April, 1865. On 23 May he was appointed to the command of the Army of the Tennessee; but, as soon as active service in the field was over, he resigned his commission, saying that he did not wish to draw pay when not on active duty. He was appointed minister to Mexico by President Johnson, but declined. In 1866 he was elected a representative from Illinois to the 40th Congress as a Republican, find served as one of the managers in the impeachment trial of President Johnson. He was reelected to the 41st Congress, and did good service as chairman of the committee on military affairs in securing the passage of an act for the reduction of the army. He was re-elected to the 42d Congress, but before that body convened he was chosen by the Illinois legislature U. S. Senator for the term beginning 4 March, 1871. He succeeded Vice-President Wilson as chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs at the beginning of the third session of the 42d Congress, 2 December 1872. After the expiration of his term of service, 3 March, 1877, he resumed the practice of law in Chicago. He was again returned to the U. S. Senate, and took his seat on the convening of that body in extra session, 18 March, 1879. Both in the House and Senate he maintained his reputation for brilliancy and success. While a representative his more important speeches were " On Reconstruction," 12 July, 1867; "On the Impeachment of President Johnson," 22 February, 1868; "Principles of the Democratic Party," 16 July. 1868; and "Removing the Capitol," 22 January, 1870. In the Senate he spoke in "Vindication of President Grant against the Attack of Charles Sumner," 3 June, 1872; in reply to Senator Gordon on the "Ku-klux in Louisiana," 13 January, 1875; "On the Equalization of Bounties of Soldiers. Sailors, and Marines of the late War for the Union," 2 March, 1875; and " On the Power of the Government to enforce the United States Laws," 28 June, 1879. On 6 June, 1880, he delivered an able speech on the Fitz-John Porter case, maintaining, as he always had done, that General Porter had been justly condemned and should not be restored to his rank in the army. At the Republican National Convention in Chicago in June, 1884, on the first ballot for a candidate for president, General Logan received 63 votes against 334 for James G. Blaine, 278 for Chester A. Arthur, and 93 for George F. Edmunds. After the subsequent nomination of Mr. Blaine. General Logan was nominated for vice-president. When General Logan's sudden death was announced to him, James G. Blaine thus briefly summarized his character: "General Logan was a man of immense force in a legislative body. His will was unbending, his courage, both moral and physical, was of the highest order. I never knew a more fearless man. He did not quail before public opinion when he had once made up his mind any more than he did before the guns of the enemy when he headed a charge of his enthusiastic troops. In debate he was aggressive and effective. ... I have had occasion to say before, and 1 now repeat, that, while there have been more illustrious military leaders in the United States and more illustrious leaders in legislative halls, there has, I think, been no man in this country who has combined the two careers in so eminent a degree as General Logan." His personal appearance was striking. He was of medium height, with a robust physical development, a broad and deep chest, massive body, and small hands and feet. He had fine and regular features, a swarthy complexion, long jet-black hair, a heavy moustache and dark eyes. General Logan published "The Great Conspiracy," a large volume relating to the Civil War (New York, 1886), and "The Volunteer Soldier of America" (Chicago, 1887). See "Life and Services of John A. Logan," by George Francis Dawson (Chicago, 1887).—His wife, Mary Simmerson Cunningham, daughter of John M. Cunningham, born in Petersburg, Boone County. Missouri, 15 August, 1838, lived amid the hardships of frontier life, and was subsequently sent to the Convent of St. Vincent in Kentucky. On leaving that institution she assisted in preparing the papers that were needed by her father, who, on his return from the Black Hawk and Mexican Wars, had been elected sheriff and county clerk of Williamson County, and appointed register of the land office at Shawneetown, Gallatin County, Illinois, by President Pierce. Blank forms for any legal documents were then rare, and Miss Cunningham, through her industry in her father's case, supplied the deficiency. While thus engaged she met General Logan, who was at that time prosecuting attorney. She was married, 27 November, 1855, and was identified with her husband's career, becoming his best adviser in the gravest crises of political and civil life. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 5-6.
LOGAN, John Henry, born in Abbeville District, South Carolina, 5 November, 1822: died in Atlanta, Georgia, 28 March, 1885. He was graduated at South Carolina College in 1844, and at Charleston Medical College a few years later. After practicing for some time and teaching at Abbeville. South Carolina, he served as a surgeon in a Confederate regiment, and at its conclusion moved to Talladega County. Alabama He subsequently became professor of chemistry in the Atlanta, Georgia, Medical College. Dr. Logan is the author of a " History of the Upper Country of South Carolina" (vol. L, Charleston, 1859). only the first volume of which was finished, and the "Student's Manual of Chemico-Physics" (Atlanta, 1879). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 6.
LOGAN, John Wesley, bishop of the Zion M. E. Church, born in North Carolina about 1810; died in Syracuse, New York, 23 September, 1872. He was a slave until the age of twenty, when he ran away to Canada. In the anti-slavery days he was a zealous and active agent, with Gerrit Smith, Lewis Tappan, Putnam, Wright, and others, in the "Underground Railroad." He settled in Syracuse in 1847, where he became a minister of the Zion Methodist Episcopal Church, and ultimately a bishop. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 6.
LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, jurist, born in Franklin County, Kentucky, 24 February, 1800; died in Springfield, Illinois, 17 July, 1880. He was educated at Frankfort, Kentucky, and when only thirteen years of age was employed as a clerk in the office of the Secretary of State. He went to Glasgow, Kentucky, in 1817, studied law, and was admitted to the bar before he was twenty-one, but did not at once engage in practice. Subsequently he was appointed commonwealth's attorney, and followed his profession for ten years in Barren and the adjoining counties. Becoming pecuniarily embarrassed, he emigrated in 1832 to Sangammon County, Illinois, and in the following spring opened a law-office in Springfield, where he soon won reputation throughout the state. In 1835 he was elected judge of the 1st judicial circuit of the state, and in 1842 he was chosen to the legislature, and again in 1844 and 1846. In 1847 he was a delegate to the convention that framed the Illinois constitution. His efforts, both in the legislature and in the convention, were specially directed to securing economy in the public expenditures, and to making adequate provision for the payment of the state debt. For the next six years he devoted himself exclusively to his profession, and from 1841 till 1844 had as his law partner Abraham Lincoln. In 1854 he was elected for the fourth time to the lower branch of the general assembly. In 1860 he was a delegate from the state at large to the Chicago Republican National Convention, and early in February, 1861, he was appointed by the governor of Illinois one of five commissioners to represent the state in the National peace Convention at Washington, in which he took an active part. This was Judge Logan's last appearance on any great public occasion. He retired soon afterward from politics, and gradually withdrew from the pursuit of his profession, but maintained his interest in current events. As an advocate he stood at the head of the bar in his adopted state. Judge David Davis has said of him: "In all the elements that constitute a great 'nisi prius' lawyer, I have never known his equal." See " Memorials of the Life and Character of Stephen T. Logan " (Springfield, Illinois, 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 6-7.
LOGUEN, Jermain Wesley, 1813-1872, New York, African American, clergyman, speaker, author, former slave, abolitionist leader. American Abolition Society. Bishop, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Supported the anti-slavery Liberty Party. Conductor, Underground Railroad, aiding hundreds of fugitive slaves, in Syracuse, New York. In 1851, he himself escaped to Canada when he was indicted for helping a fugitive slave. Wrote autobiography, The Reverend J. W. Loguen, as a Slave and as a Freeman, A Narrative of Real Life. 1859. (Dumond, 1961, p. 334; Mabee, 1970, pp. 294, 307; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 677-678; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 368; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 848; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 7, p. 358; Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)
LONG, Armistead Lindsay, soldier, born in Campbell County, Virginia, 3 September, 1827. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, 1 July, 1850, assigned to the 2d U.S. Artillery, and promoted 1st lieutenant. 1 July, 1854. He resigned, 10 June, 1861, and the following month was appointed major in the Confederate Army. He was promoted colonel and military secretary to General Robert K. Lee in April, 1862, and brigadier-general of artillery in September, 1863, taking part in all of General Lee's campaigns. General Long is the author of "Memoirs of General Robert E. Lee" (New York, 1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 8.
LONG, Charles Chaille, soldier, born in Princess Anne, Somerset County, Maryland, 2 July, 1842. He was educated at Washington Academy, Maryland, and in 1862 he enlisted in the 1st Maryland Infantry in the National service, and at the close of the Civil War had attained the rank of captain. He was appointed a lieutenant-colonel in the Egyptian Army in the autumn of 1869, was first assigned to duty as professor of French in the Military Academy at Abbassick, and later as chief of staff to the general-in-chief of the army. Early in 1872 he was transferred to General Loring's corps at Alexandria. On 20 February, 1874, he was assigned to duty as chief of staff to General Charles George Gordon, then lieutenant-colonel in the British Army, who had been appointed by the khedive governor-general of the equatorial provinces of Egypt. On 24 April he set out toward the equator on a secret diplomatic and geographical mission inspired by Ismail Pacha, the khedive. He was accompanied only by two soldiers and his servants, and arrived at the capital of Nyanda on 20 June, 1874, being the only white man save Captain Speke that had ever visited that place, and secured a treaty by which King M'Tse acknowledged himself a vassal of Egypt. He then turned north to trace the unknown part of the Nile that still left the question of its source in doubt. In descending the river at M'roole he was attacked by the king of Unyoro Kaba-Rega with a party of warriors in boats and a numerous force on shore. Chaille-Long, with his two soldiers, armed with breech-loading rifles and explosive shells, sustained the attack for several hours, and finally beat off the savages. He was promoted to the full rank of colonel and bey, and decorated with the cross of the commander of the Medjidieh. In January, 1875, he fitted out and led an expedition southwestward of the Nile into the Niam-Niam country, subjected it to the authority of the Egyptian government, and dispersed the slave trading bands. On his return in March, 1875, he was ordered to go to Cairo, where, with orders from the khedive, he organized an expedition ostensibly to open an equatorial road from the Indian ocean along Juba River to the central African lakes. The expedition sailed from Sury on 19 September, 1875, took possession of the coast and several fortified towns, and occupied and fortified Comf, on Juba River. On 1 September, 1877, Chaille-Long resigned his commission in the Egyptian Army, on account of failing health, returning to New York, where he studied law at Columbia. He was graduated and admitted to practice, and in 1882 returned to Egypt to practice in the international courts. The insurrection of Arabi culminated in the terrible massacre at Alexandria of 11 June, 1882, the U. S. consul-general remained away from his post at this juncture, and the U. S. consular agents fled from Egypt. Chaille-Long assisted the refugees, hundreds of whom were placed on board of the American ships, and after the burning of the city, he reestablished the American consulate, and, aided by 160 American sailors and marines, restored order, and arrested the fire. Colonel Chaille-Long moved to Paris in October, 1882, and opened an office for the practice of international law. In March, 1887, he was appointed U. S. consul-general and secretary of legation in Corea. He has published "Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People " (New York, 1877) and "The Three Prophets—Chinese Gordon, the Mahdi, and Arabi Pacha" (1884). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 8-9.
LONG, Crawford W., physician, born in Danielsville, Madison County, Georgia, 1 November, 1815; died in Athens, Georgia, 16 June, 1878. He was graduated at Franklin College, Pennsylvania, in 1835, and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. He then practised in Jefferson, Jackson County, Georgia, until 1851, when he moved to Athens, Georgia He claimed that he performed on 30 March, 1842, the first surgical operation with the patient in a state of anesthesia from the inhalation of ether. In his history of the discovery of anesthesia. Dr. J. Marion Sims says that Dr. Long was the first " to intentionally produce an aesthesia for surgical operations," and that this was done with sulphuric ether; that he did not by accident "hit upon it, but that he reasoned it out in a philosophical and logical manner"; that "Horace Wells, without any knowledge of Dr. Long's labors, demonstrated in the same philosophic way (in his own person) the great principle of anesthesia by the use of nitrous-oxide gas in December, 1844, thus giving Long the priority over Wells by two years and eight months, and over Morton, who followed Wells in 1846." He was named, with William T. G. Morton, Charles T. Jackson, and Wells, in a bill before the U. S. Senate in 1854 to reward the probable discoverers of practical anesthesia. Dr. Long's contributions to medical literature relate chiefly to his discovery. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 9.
LONG, David, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1835-38
LONG, Eli, soldier, born in Woodford County, Ky., 16 June, 1837. He was graduated at the Frankfort, Kentucky, Military school in 1855, and in 1856 appointed 2d lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Cavalry. Prior to 1861, when he was promoted 1st lieutenant and captain, he served with his regiment mainly against hostile Indians. Throughout the Civil War he was actively engaged in the west at Tullahoma, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and in the Atlanta Campaign, as colonel of the 4th Ohio Cavalry, and subsequently in command of a brigade of cavalry. He was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel for " gallant and meritorious services" at Farmington and Knoxville, Tennessee, and Lovejoy's Station, Georgia, respectively. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Selma, Alabama, where he led his division in a charge upon the intrenchments that resulted in the capture of that place. He was severely wounded in the head in the action. For his services during the war he was also brevetted major-general in the regular army and major-general of volunteers, and having been mustered out of the volunteer service, 15 January, 1866, he was retired with the rank of major-general in August, but was reduced to brigadier-general through the operation of the act of 3 March, 1875. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 9.
LONG, John Collins, naval officer, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1795; died in North Conway, New Hampshire, 2 September, 1865. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 18 June, 1812, and served in the " Constitution " in her action with the "Java." He was promoted lieutenant, 5 March, 1817, commander, 25 February, 1838, captain, 2 March, 1849, and commodore on the retired list, 16 July, 1862. He was assigned the duty of bringing Louis Kossuth to this country, but would not allow him to deliver revolutionary harangues at Marseilles, which so annoyed the Hungarian patriot that he left the ship at Gibraltar. Commodore Long was fifty-three years in the service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 9.
LONG, John Dixon, 1817-1894, New Town, Maryland, writer, anti-slavery activist. Wrote Pictures of Slavery in Church and State, in 1857.
LONG, Richard, Ross County, Ohio, Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1835-36, Manager, 1838-39.
LONG, Stephen Harriman, engineer, born in Hopkinton, N. II., 30 December, 1784; died in Alton, Illinois, 4 September, 1864. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1809, and after teaching for some time entered the U. S. Army in December, 1814, as a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. After discharging the duties of assistant professor of mathematics at the U. S. Military Academy until April, 1816, he was transferred to the Topographical Engineers, with the brevet rank of major. From 1818 till 1823 he had charge of explorations between Mississippi River and the Rocky mountains, and of the sources of the Mississippi in 1823-'4, receiving the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. The highest summit of the Rocky Mountains was named Long's Peak in his honor. He was engaged in surveing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from 1827 till 1830, and from 1837 till 1840 was engineer-in-chief of the Western and Atlantic Railroad in Georgia, in which capacity he introduced a system of curves in the location of the road and a new kind of truss bridge, which was called by his name, and has been generally adopted in the United States. On the organization of the Topographical Engineers as a separate corps in 1838, he became major in that body, and in 1861 chief of topographical engineers, with the rank of colonel. An account of his first expedition to the Rocky mountains in 1819-'20 from the notes of Major Long and others, by Edwin James, was published in Philadelphia in 1823, and in 1824 appeared " Long's Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, Lake of the Woods, etc.," by William H. Keating (2 vols., Philadelphia). Colonel Long was retired from active service in June. 1863, but continued, charged with important duties, until his death. He was a member of the American philosophical Society, and the author of a " Railroad Manual" (1829), which was the first original treatise of the kind published in this country. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 10.
LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882, poet. Wrote antislavery poetry. (Hughes, Meltzer, & Lincoln, 1968, p. 105; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV; pp. 10-15. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 382)
LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, poet, born in Portland, Maine. 27 February, 1807; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 24 March, 1882, was the second son in a family that included four sons and four daughters. His birthplace, on Fore Street, is shown in the engraving on page 11. He was named fora brother of his mother, who, a youth of nineteen, lately commissioned lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, and serving before Tripoli under Com. fire-ship " Intrepid," Preble, had perished in the which was blown up in the night of 4 September, 1804. The boyhood of the poet was happy. A sweeter, simpler, more essentially human society has seldom existed than that of New England in the first quarter of this century, and the conditions of life in Portland were in some respects especially pleasant and propitious. The beautiful and wholesome situation of the town on the sea-shore; the fine and picturesque harbor that afforded shelter to the vessels by which a moderate commerce with remote regions was carried on, giving vivacity to the port and widening the scope of the interests of the inhabitants; the general diffusion of comfort and intelligence; the traditional purity and simplicity of life; the absence of class distinctions; the democratic kindliness of spirit; the pervading temper of hopefulness and content—all made Portland a good place in which to be born and grow up. Like the rest of New England it was provincial, it had little part in the larger historic concerns of the world, it possessed no deep wells of experience or of culture, and no memorials of a distant past by which the imagination might be quickened and nurtured; it was a comparatively new place in a comparatively new country. The sweetness of Longfellow's disposition showed itself in his earliest years. He was a gentle, docile, cheerful, intelligent, attractive child; "one of the best boys in school " was his teacher's report of him at six years old. He was fond of books, and his father's library supplied him with the best in English. He was sensitive to the charm of style in literature, and a characteristic glimpse of his taste, and of the influences that were shaping him, is afforded by what he said in later life in speaking of Irving: "Every boy has his first book; 1 mean to say, one book among all others which in early youth first fascinates his imagination, and at once excites and satisfies the desires of his mind. To me this first book was the 'Sketch-Book' of Washington Irving. I was a school-boy when it was published [in 1819], and read each succeeding number with ever-increasing wonder and delight, spell-bound by its pleasant humor, its melancholy tenderness, its atmosphere of reverie. . . . The charm remains unbroken, and whenever I open the pages of the ' Sketch-Book,' I open also that mysterious door which leads back into the haunted chambers of youth." Already, when he was thirteen years old, he had begun to write verses, some of which found place in the poet's corner of the local newspaper. In 1821 he passed the entrance examinations for Bowdoin, but it was not until 1822 that Longfellow left home to reside at the college. Among his classmates was Nathaniel Hawthorne, with whom he speedily formed an acquaintance that was to ripen into a life-long friendship. His letters to his mother and father during his years at college throw a pleasant light upon his pursuits and his disposition; they display the early maturity of his character; the traits that distinguished him in later years are already clearly defined; the amiability, the affectionateness, the candor, and the cheerful spirit of the youth are forecasts of the distinguishing qualities of the man. His taste for literary pursuits, and his strong moral sentiment and purpose, are already developed. A few sentences from his letters will serve to exhibit him as he was at this time. "I am in favor of letting each one think for himself, and I am very much pleased with Gray's poems, Dr. Johnson to the contrary notwithstanding." "I have very resolutely concluded to enjoy myself heartily wherever I am." "Leisure is to me one of the sweetest things in the world." "I care but little about politics or anything of the kind." "I admire Horace very much indeed." "I conceive that if religion is ever to benefit us, it must be incorporated with our feelings and become in every degree identified with our happiness." "Whatever I study I ought to be engaged in with all my soul, for 1 will be eminent in something." "I am afraid you begin to think me rather chimerical in many of my ideas, and that I am ambitious of becoming a rara avit in terris. But you must acknowledge the usefulness of aiming high at something which it is impossible to overshoot, perhaps to reach." He was writing much, both verse and prose, and his pieces had merit enough to secure publication, not only in the Portland paper, but in more than one of the magazines, and especially in the " United States Literary Gazette," published in Boston, in which no fewer than sixteen poems by him appeared in the course of the year 1824-'5. Very few of these were thought by their author worth reprinting in later years, and though they all show facile versification and refined taste, none of them exhibit such original power as to give assurance of his future fame. Several of them display the influence of Bryant both in form and thought. Long afterward, in writing to Bryant, Longfellow said: "Let me acknowledge how much I owe to you, not only of delight but of culture. When I look back upon my earlier verses, I cannot but smile to see how much in them is really yours." He owed much also to others, and in these youthful compositions one may find traces of his favorite poets from Gray to Byron. As the time for leaving college drew near, it became necessary for him to decide on a profession, He was averse to the ministry, to medicine, and, in spite of his father's and grandfather's example, to the law. In 1824 he writes to his father: "I am altogether in favor of the farmer's life." But a few months later he says: "The fact is, 1 most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature. My whole soul burns most ardently for it, and every earthly thought centres in it. . . . Surely there never was a better opportunity offered for the exertion of literary talent in our own country than is now offered. . . . Nature has given me a very strong predilection for literary pursuits, and I am almost confident in believing that, if I can ever rise in the world, it must be by the exercise of my talent in the wide field of literature." In reply to these ardent aspirations his father wisely urged that, though a literary life might be very pleasant to one who had the means of support, it did not offer secure promise of a livelihood, and that it was necessary for his son to adopt a profession that should afford him subsistence as well as reputation: but he gave his consent readily to his son's passing a year in Cambridge, after leaving college, in literary studies previous to entering on the study of a profession. Before the time for this arrived a new prospect opened, full of hope for the young scholar. He had distinguished himself in college by his studious disposition, his excellent conduct, and his capacity as a writer, and when their rank was assigned to the members of his class at graduation, he stood upon the list as the fourth in general scholarship in a class of thirty-eight. Just at this time the trustees of the college determined to establish a professorship of modern languages, and, not having the means to obtain the services of any one that was already eminent in this department, they determined to offer the post conditionally to the young graduate of their own college, who had already given proof of character and abilities that would enable him after proper preparation to fill the place satisfactorily. The proposal was accordingly made to him that he should go to Europe for the purpose of fitting himself for this chair, with the understanding that on his return he should receive the appointment of professor. It was a remarkable testimony to the impression that Longfellow had made and to the confidence he had inspired. Nothing could have been more delightful to him than the prospect it opened. It settled the question of his career in accordance with the desire of his heart, and his father gladly approved. After passing the autumn and winter of 1825-'6 in preparatory studies at home in Portland, Longfellow sailed "for Havre in May, 1826. The distance of Europe from America, measured by time, was far greater then than now. Communication was comparatively infrequent and irregular; the interval of news was often months long; the novelty of such an experience as that on which Longfellow entered was great. "Madam," said a friend to his mother, "you must have great confidence in your son." "It is true, Henry," she wrote, "your parents have great confidence in your uprightness and in that purity of mind which will instantly take alarm on coming in contact with anything vicious or unworthy. We have confidence; but you must be careful and watchful." Sixty years ago Europe promised more to the young American of poetic temperament than it does to-day, and kept its promise better. Longfellow's character was already so mature, his culture so advanced, and his temperament so happy, that no one could be better fitted than he to profit by a visit to the Old World. A voyage to Europe is often a voyage of discovery of himself to the young American: he learns that he possesses imagination and sensibilities that have not been evoked in his own land and for which Europe alone can provide the proper nurture. So it was with Longfellow. He passed eight months in Paris and its neighborhood, steadily at work in mastering the language, and in studying the literature and life of France. In the spring of 1827 he went from France to Spain, and here he spent a like period in similar occupations. It was a period of great enjoyment for him. At Madrid he had the good fortune to make acquaintance with Irving, who was then engaged in writing his "Life of Columbus," of Alexander Everett, the U. S. minister, and of Lieutenant Alexander Slidell, U. S. Navy (afterward honorably known as Commodore Slidell-Mackenzie), who in his "Year in Spain" pleasantly mentions and gives a characteristic description of the young traveller. In December, 1827, Longfellow left Spain for Italy, where he remained through a year that was crowded with delightful experience and was well employed in gaining a rich store of knowledge. His studies were constant and faithful, and his genius for language was such that when he went to Germany at the end of 1828 he had a command of French, Spanish, and Italian such as is seldom gained by a foreigner. He established himself at Gottingen in February, 1829, and was pursuing his studies there when he was called home by letters that required his return. He reached the United States in August, and in September, having received the appointment of professor of modern languages at Bowdoin College, with a salary of $800, he took up his residence at Brunswick. He was now twenty-two years old, and probably, with the exception of Mr. George Ticknor, was the most accomplished scholar in this country of the languages and literatures of modern Europe. He devoted himself zealously to teaching, to editing for his classes several excellent text-books, and to writing a series of lectures on the literatures of France, Spain, and Italy. The influence of such a nature and such tastes and learning as his was of the highest value in a country college remote from the deeper sources of culture. "His intercourse with the students," wrote one of his pupils, "was perfectly simple, frank, and manly. They always left him not only with admiration, but guided, helped, and inspired." In addition to his duties as professor he performed those of librarian of the college, and in April. 1831, he published in the "North American Review" the first of a series of articles, which were continued at irregular intervals for several years, upon topics that were connected with his studies. His prose style was already formed, and was stamped with the purity and charm that were the expression of his whole nature, intellectual and moral. Poetry he had for the time given up. Of those little poetic attempts dating from his college years he wrote, that he had long ceased to attach anv value to them. "I am all prudence now, since t can form a more accurate judgment of the merit of poetry. If I ever publish a volume, it will be many years first." In September, 1831. he married Miss Mary Potter, of Portland. It was a happy marriage. About the same time he began to publish in the "New England Magazine" the sketches of travel that afterward were collected, and, with the addition of some others, published under the title of "Outre Mer; a Pilgrimage beyond the Sea" (New York, 1835). This was his earliest independent contribution to American literature, and in its pleasant mingling of the record of personal experience, with essays on literature, translations, and romantic stories, and in the ease and grace of its style, it is a worthy prelude and introduction to his later more important work. The narrowness of the opportunities that were afforded at Bowdoin for literary culture and conversation prevented the situation there from being altogether congenial to him, and it was with satisfaction that he received in December, 1834, an invitation to succeed Mr. George Ticknor in the Smith professorship of modern languages at Harvard, with the suggestion that, before entering on its duties, he should spend a year or eighteen months in Europe for study in Germany. He accordingly resigned the professorship at Bowdoin, which ne had held for five years and a half, and in April, 1835, he set sail with his wife for England. In June he went to Denmark, and, after passing the summer at Copenhagen and Stockholm studying the Danish, Swedish, and Finnish languages, he went in October to Holland on his way to Germany. At Amsterdam and Rotterdam he was detained by the serious illness of Mrs. Longfellow, and employed his enforced leisure in acquiring the Dutch language. Near the end of November his wife died at Rotterdam. The blow fell heavily upon him; but his strong religious faith afforded him support, and he was not overmastered by vain grief. He soon proceeded to Heidelberg, and sought in serious and constant study a relief from suffering, bereavement, and dejection. For a time he was cheered by the companionship of Bryant, whom he met here for the first time. In the spring he made some excursions in the beautiful regions in the neighborhood of the Rhine, and he spent the summer in Switzerland and the Tyrol. In September he was at Paris, and in October he returned home. In December, 1836, he established himself at Cambridge, and entered upon his duties as professor. For the remainder of his life Cambridge was to be his home. Lowell, in his delightful essay, "Cambridge Thirty Years Ago," has preserved the image of the village much as it was at this period. The little town was not yet suburbanized; it was dominated by the college, whose professors, many of them men of note, formed a cultivated and agreeable society. Limited as were its intellectual resources as compared with those that it has since acquired, its was the chief centre in New England of literary activity and cultivated intelligence. Longfellow soon found friends, who speedily became closely attached to him, both in Boston and Cambridge, alike of the elder and younger generation of scholars, chief among whom were George Ticknor, William H. Prescott, Andrews Norton, John G. Palfrey, Cornelius C. Felton, Charles Sumner, George S. Hillard, and Henry R. Cleveland. His delightful qualities of heart and mind, his social charm, his wide and elegant culture, his refinement, the sweetness of his temper, the openness of his nature, and his quick sympathies, made him a rare acquisition in any society, and secured for him warm regard and affection. He employed himself busily in instruction and the writing of lectures, and in 1837 he began once more to give himself to poetry, and wrote the poems that were to be the foundation of his future fame. In the autumn of this year he took up his residence at Craigie House, a fine old colonial mansion, consecrated by memories of Washington's stay in it, which was thenceforward to be his abode for life. Here, in 1837, he. wrote "The Reaper and the Flowers," and in June, 1838, "The Psalm of Life," which, on its publication in the " Knickerbocker Magazine" for October, instantly became popular, and made its author's name well known. It was the sound of a new voice, a most musical and moving one, in American poetry. In February, 1838, he was lecturing on Dante: in the summer of that year his course was on "The Lives of Literary Men." He was writing also for the "North American Review," and during the year he began his " Hyperion." It was a busy and fruitful time. "Hyperion" was published in New York in 1839. It was a romance based upon personal experience. The scene was laid among the sites he had lately visited in Europe; the characters were drawn in part from life. He put into his story the pain, the passion, and the ideals of his heart. It was a book to touch the soul of fervent youth. It had much beauty of fancy, and it showed how deeply the imagination of the young American had been stirred by the poetic associations of Europe, and enriched by the abundant sources of foreign culture. It was hardly out of press before it was followed by the publication, in the late autumn, of his first volume of poems, "Voices of the Night." This contained, in addition to his recent poems, a selection of seven of his early poems—all that he wished to preserve —and numerous translations from the Spanish, Italian, and German. The little volume of 144 pages contained poems that were stamped with the impress of an original genius whose voice was of a tone unheard before. "The Psalm of Life," " The Reaper and the Flowers," " The Footsteps of Angels, "The Beleaguered City," speedily became popular, and have remained familiar to English readers from that day to this. "Nothing equal to some of them was ever written in this world—this western world, I mean," wrote his friend Hawthorne. Before a year was out the volume had come to a third edition. From this time Longfellow's fame grew rapidly. Success and reputation were to him but stimulants to new exertions. Essentially modest and simple, praise or flattery could do him no harm. His genial and sound nature turned all experience to good. During the next two or three years, while his laborious duties as instructor were faithfully and successfully discharged, he still found time for study, and his vein of poetry was in full flow. In 1841 his second volume of poems was published; it was entitled " Ballads and other Poems," and contained, among other well-known pieces." The Wreck of the Hesperus," "The Village Blacksmith," and "Excelsior." It confirmed the impression that had been made bv the " Voices of the Night," and henceforth Longfellow stood confessedly as the most widely read and the best beloved of American poets. In the spring of 1842, his health having been for some time in an unsatisfactory state, he received leave of absence for six months from the college, and went abroad. After a short stay in Paris ne made a journey, abounding in interest and poetic suggestions, through Belgium, visiting Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, and Brussels, and proceeded to Marienberg-on-the-Rhine. where he spent a quiet but pleasant summer at a water-cure establishment. Here he made acquaintance with the German poet Freiligrath, and the cordial friendship then formed with him was maintained by letters until Freiligrath's death, more than thirty years afterward. In October he passed some delightful days in London, as the guest of Charles Dickens, with whom he had come into very cordial relations in America early in the same year, and in November he was again at home engaged in his familiar pursuits. On the return voyage he wrote "Poems on Slavery," which were published in a thin pamphlet before the end of the year. They were the expression not so much of poetic emotion as of moral feeling. They attracted much attention, as the testimony of a poet, by nature disinclined to censure, against the great national crime of which the worst evil was its corrupting influence upon the public conbl. It was to that conscience that these poems appealed, and they were received on the one hand with warm approval, on the other with still warmer condemnation. In June, 1843, he married Frances Appleton, daughter of the Hon. Nathan Appleton. of Boston. He had been attached to her since their first meeting in Switzerland in 1836, and something of his feeling toward her had been revealed in his delineation of the character of Mary Ashburton in "Hyperion." She was a woman whose high and rare qualities of character found harmonious expression in beauty of person and nobility of presence. Seldom has there been a happier marriage. From this time forward for many years Longfellow's life flowed on as peacefully and with as much joy as ever falls to man. His fortunes were prosperous. His books were beginning to bring him in a considerable income: his wife's dowry was such as to secure to him pecuniary ease; Craigie House, with the pleasant fields in front of it reaching to the river Charles, was now his own, and his means enabled him to gratify his taste for a refined hospitality no less than to satisfy the generous impulses of his liberal disposition, and to meet the multitude of appeals for help that came to him from the poor and suffering, who, though they might be remote and unknown to him, felt confident of his sympathy. The general character of these years and of their influence on him is reflected in his work. His genius found in them the moment of its fullest expansion and happiest inspiration. In the year of his marriage "The Spanish Student" was published in a volume. It had been mainly written three years before, and was first printed in "Graham's Magazine" in 1842. In 1846 " The Belfry of Bruges and other Poems" appeared; among the "other Poems" were "The Old Clock on the Stairs" and "The Arsenal at Springfield." This was followed by "Evangeline" (1847), of which Hawthorne wrote to him: "I have read it with more pleasure than it would be decorous to express," and which thousands upon thousands have read, and will read, with hearts touched and improved by its serene and pathetic beauty. Then appeared "Kavanagh," a tale in prose (1849); "The Seaside and the Fireside," containing "The Building of the Ship," "Resignation," " The Fire of Driftwood," and twenty other poems (1850): and " The Golden Legend " (1851). During all these years he had continued to discharge the active duties of his professorship, but they had gradually become irksome to him, and in 1854. after nearly eighteen years of service at Harvard, he resigned the place. "I want to try, he wrote to Freiligrath, " the effect of change on my mind, and of freedom from routine. Household occupations, children, relatives, friends, strangers, and college lectures so completely fill up my days that I have no time for poetry; and, consequently, the last two years have been very unproductive with me. I am not, however, very sure or sanguine about the result." But he was hardly free from the daily duties of instruction before he was at work upon " Hiawatha," and in the course of the year he wrote many shorter pieces, among his best, such as "The Rope-Walk," "My Lost Youth," and "The Two Angels." "Hiawatha" was published in 1855, and in 1858 appeared "The Courtship of Miles Standish," with about twenty minor poems. But the days of joyful inspiration and success were drawing to their close. In July, 1861, an inexpressible calamity, by which all his later life was shadowed, fell upon him, in the sudden and most distressing death of his wife by fire. His recovery from its immediate, shattering effect was assisted by the soundness of his nature, the strength of his principles, and the confidence of his religious faith, but it was long before he could resume his usual occupations, or find interest in them. After several months, for the sake of a regular pursuit that might have power more or less to engage his thought, he took up the translation of the ' Divine Comedy." He found the daily task wholesome, and gradually he became interested in it. For the next three or four years the translation, the revision of it for the press, and the compilation of the notes that were to accompany it, occupied much of his time. The work was published in 1867, and took rank at once as the best translation in English of Dante's poem. The accomplishment of this task had not only been a wholesome restorative of intellectual calm, but had been the means of bringing about in a natural and simple way the renewal of social pleasures and domestic hospitalities. In the revision of the work. Longfellow had called to his aid his friends, James Russell Lowell and the present writer; and the "Dante Club" thus formed met regularly at Craigie House one evening every week for two or three winters. Other friends often joined the circle, and the evenings ended with a cheerful supper. Thus, by degrees, with the passing of time, the current of life began once more to run on in a tranquil course, and though without a ray of the old sunlight, equally without a shadow of gloom. At the end of 1863 he published "Tales of a Wayside Inn," a volume in which there was no lowering of tone, no utterance of sorrow, but full vigor and life in such poems as " Paul Revere's Ride," " The Birds of Killingworth," "The Children's Hour," and others. The printing of the translation of the "Divine Comedy' was begun about the same time, and the text of the "Inferno " was completed in season to send to Florence the volume, not yet published, as an offering in honor of Dante, on occasion of the celebration in that city of the sixth centenary of the poet's birth in May, 1865. The whole translation, with its comment, was finally published in 1867. In the same year appeared a little volume of original poems, entitled " Flower de Luce," and in succeeding years, at irregular intervals, he wrote and published " The New England Tragedies" (1868); "The Divine Tragedy" (1871); "Three Books of Song" (1872); "Aftermath " (1874); "The Masque of Pandora" (1875)', "Keramos" (1878); and "Ultima Thule" (1880). A little volume containing his last poems was published in 1882, after the poet's death, with the title of " In the Harbor." These years had been marked by few striking events in his external life. They had been spent for the most part at Cambridge, with a summer residence each year at Nahant. His interests were chiefly domestic and social; his pursuits were the labors and the pleasures of a poet and a man of letters. His hospitality was large and gracious, cordial to old friends, and genial to new acquaintances. His constantly growing fame burdened him with a crowd of visitors and a multitude of letters from "entire strangers." They broke in upon his time, and made a vast tax upon his good nature. He was often wearied by the incessant demands, but he regarded them as largely a claim of humanity upon his charity, and his charity never failed. He had a kind word for all, and with ready sacrifice of himself he dispensed pleasure to thousands. In 1868 and 1869. accompanied by his daughters, he visited Europe for the last time, and enjoyed a delightful stay in England, in Paris, and especially in Italy. Fame and the affection that his poems had awakened for him, though personally unknown, in the hearts of many in the Old World not less than in the New, made his visit to Europe a series of honors and of pleasures. But he returned home glad to enjoy once more its comparative tranquillity, and to renew the accustomed course of the day. His last years were the fitting close of such a life. In 1875 he read at Brunswick, on the fiftieth anniversary of his graduation, the beautiful poem "Morituri Salutamus." It ended with the characteristic verse— "Kor age is opportunity no less Than youth itself, though in another dress, And as the evening twilight fades away, The sky is filled with stars, invisible by day." On his seventy-fourth birthday, 27 February, i«81, he wrote in his diary: "I am surrounded by roses and lilies. Flowers everywhere— 'And that which should accompany old age, As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends.'" But he had had already warnings of declining health, and in the course of this year he suffered greatly from vertigo, followed by nervous pain and depression. The serenity of his spirit was unaffected. On the 18th he suffered a chill, and became seriously ill. On the 24th he sank quietly in death. The lines given in fac-simile were the last written by the poet. 15 March, 1882, and are from the closing stanza of the " Bells of San Bias." No poet was ever more beloved than he; none was ever more worthy of love. The expressions of the feeling toward him after death were deep, affecting, and innumerable. One of the most striking was the placing of his bust in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey in March, 1884. It was the passing through various hands, it was purchased on 1 January, 1793, by Andrew Craigie, who built the west wing. Mr. Craigie had made a fortune as apothecary-general to the Continental Army, and he entertained in the house with lavish hospitality. After his death his widow, whose income had become reduced, let rooms to various occupants, among whom were Jared Sparks and Edward Everett. Finally the house passed into Longfellow's hands, as is related above. It is now (1887) occupied by his eldest daughter. His study remains unaltered as he left it. Mr. Longfellow had two sons and three daughters, by his second wife. His eldest son, Charles, entered the National service in 1861, and was badly wounded at Mine Run. His daughters, as children, were the subjects of a celebrated portrait group by Thomas Buchanan Read.
His bust stands near the tomb of Chaucer, between the memorials to Cowley and Dryden. (See illustration on page 14.) On this occasion Mr. Lowell, then II. S. minister in England, said: "Never was a private character more answerable to public performance than that of Longfellow. Never have I known a more beautiful character." A bronze statue of Longfellow, by Franklin Simmons, will be erected in Portland in the spring of 1888. His "Life" has been written by his brother Samuel, in three volumes (Boston, 1886-'7). This work, mainly compiled from the poet's diaries and letters, is a full and satisfactory picture of the man. In this life there is a bibliography of his works. The meadow, across the street, in front of the poet's home, stretching down to the river Charles, so often commemorated in his verse, was given by his children shortly after his death to the Longfellow memorial Association, on condition that it should be kept open forever, and properly laid out for public enjoyment. The view over the river, of the hills of Brighton and Brookline, as seen from the windows of Longfellow's study, will thus 1x3 kept open, and associated with his memory. The vignette on page 10 is from a portrait made in 1856 by Samuel Laurence; the frontispiece on steel is a copy of one of the latest photographs of the poet. The illustration on page 12 represents Longfellow's home, Craigie House. It was built by Colonel John Vassall in 1759, and on his flight to England, at the beginning of the Revolution, was confiscated. It served as Washington's headquarters till the evacuation of Boston, and then, after 1878 he became the minister of a church in Germantown. Pennsylvania In 1882 he again returned to Cambridge. In addition to writing several essays that appeared in the "Radical" (1866-'71), and many hymns that have a place in other collections than his own, he compiled, in association with Reverend Samuel Johnson, "A Book of Hymns" (Boston. 1846; revised ed., entitled " Hymns of the Spirit," 1864). He published "A Book of Hymns and Tunes," for congregational use (1859). and a small volume for the vesper service that he had instituted. He is also the editor, in connection with Thomas W. Higginson, of " Thalatta, a Book for the Seaside," a collection of poetry, partly original (1853). His latest publications are the "Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow" (2 vols.. 1886), and "Final Memorials of Henry W. Longfellow' (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 10-15.
LONGNECKER, Henry Clay, lawyer, born in Allen, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 17 April, 1820; died in Allentown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, 16 September, 1871. He was educated at the Norwich Military Academy. Vermont, and entered Lafayette College in 1841, but was not graduated. He was admitted to the bar in January, 1843, and practised in Northampton and Lehigh Counties. He served in the Mexican War in 1847-'8 as 1st lieutenant and adjutant of voltigeurs, being wounded at Chapultepec, and in 1848 was chosen district attorney of Lehigh County. He was a member of state Democratic Conventions in 1851 and 1854, but in 1850 became a Republican, and in 1859-'61 was a member of Congress, where he served on the committee on military affairs. He became colonel of the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1861, led a brigade in western Virginia at the beginning of the Civil War. and commanded a brigade of militia at Antietam. In 1867 he became an associate judge of Lehigh County. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 16.
LONGSTREET, James, soldier, born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, 8 January, 1821. He moved with his mother to Alabama in 1831, and was appointed from that state to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1842. and assigned to the 41th Infantry. He served at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, in 1842-'4, on frontier duty at Natchitoches, Louisiana, in 1844-'5, in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-6, and in the war with Mexico, being engaged in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, the siege of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, San Antonio, Churubusco, and Moleno del Rey. For gallant and meritorious conduct in the two latter battles he was brevetted captain and major, and he had previously been promoted 1st lieutenant, 23 February, 1847. At the storming of Chapultepec, 8 September, 1847, he was severely wounded in the assault on the fortified convent. He served as adjutant, 8th U.S. Infantry, from 8 June, 1847, till 1 July, 1849, and on frontier and garrison duty, chiefly in Texas, till 1858, being made captain, 7 December, 1852. He became paymaster, 19 July, 1858, and resigned, 1 June, 1861. He was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate service, and at the first battle of Bull Run commanded a brigade on the right of the Confederate line, where he held a large force of the National Army from operating in support of McDowell's flank attack. On General Joseph E. Johnston's retreat before McClellan at Yorktown, Longstreet commanded the rear-guard, having been made a major-general. On 5 May, 1862, he made a stand at Williamsburg, and was at once attacked by Heintzelman, Hooker, and Kearny. He held his ground until his opponents were re-enforced by Hancock, when he was driven back into his works. He took part in the seven days' battles around Richmond, and at the second battle of Bull Run, when in command of the 1st Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, came to the relief of Jackson, when he was hard pressed by Pope's army, and by a determined charge in flank decided the fortunes of the day. At Fredericksburg he held the Confederate left. In 1863 he was detached with two of his divisions for service south of James River. On Hooker's movement, which led to the battle of Chancellorsville, Longstreet was ordered to rejoin the army of Lee, but did not arrive in time to participate in the battle. He commanded the right wing of the Army of Northern Virginia at the battle of Gettysburg, and tried to dissuade Lee from ordering the disastrous charge on the third day. When Lee retreated to Virginia. Longstreet, with five brigades, was transferred to the Army of Tennessee under Bragg, and at the battle of Chickamauga held the left wing of the Confederate Army. He was then detached to capture Knoxville, but found it too strongly fortified to be taken by assault. Early in 1864 he rejoined Lee, and was wounded by the fire of his own troops in the battle of the Wilderness. He commanded the 1st Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia in all the operations in 1864, and was included in the surrender at Appomattox, 9 April, 1865. He was known in the army as "Old Pete," and was considered the hardest fighter in the Confederate service. He had the unbounded confidence of his troops, who were devoted to him, and the whole army felt better when in the presence of the enemy it was passed along the line that "Old Pete was up." After the war General Longstreet established his residence in New Orleans, where he engaged in commercial business in the firm of Longstreet, Owens and Company. He was appointed Surveyor of Customs of the Port of New Orleans by President Grant, supervisor of internal revenue in Louisiana, postmaster at New Orleans, and minister from the United States to Turkey by President Hayes, and U. S. Marshal for the District of Georgia by President Garfield. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 16.
LONGSTREET, William, inventor, born in New Jersey about 1760;died in Georgia in 1814. He moved in boyhood to Augusta, Georgia As early as 26 September, 1790, he addressed a letter to Thomas Telfair, then governor of Georgia, asking his assistance, or that of the legislature, in raising funds to enable him to construct a boat to be propelled by the new power. This was three years before Fulton's letter to the Earl of Stanhope announcing his theory "respecting the moving of ships by the means of steam." Failing to obtain public aid at that time, Longstreet's invention remained for several years in abeyance until, at last securing funds from private sources, he was enabled to launch a boat on Savannah River, which moved against the current at the rate of five miles an hour. This was in 1807, a few days after Fulton had made a similarly successful experiment on the Hudson. Besides this invention, Longstreet patented a valuable improvement in cotton-gins, called the "breast roller," moved by horse power, which entirely superseded the old method. He set up two of his gins in Augusta, which were propelled by steam and worked admirably; but they were destroyed by fire within a week. He next erected a set of steam mills near St. Mary's, Georgia, which were destroyed by the British in 1812. These disasters exhausted his resources and discouraged his enterprise, though he was confident that steam would soon supersede all other motive powers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 16.
LONGSTREET, Augustus Baldwin, author, born in Augusta, Georgia, 23 September, 1790:died in Oxford, Mississippi, 9 September, 1870, was graduated at Yale in 1813, studied in the law school at Litchfield. Connecticut, and was admitted to the bar in Richmond County, Georgia, in 1815, but moved to Greensboro, Georgia, where he soon rose to eminence in his profession. He represented Greene County in the legislature in 1821, and in 1822 became judge of the Ocmulgee judicial District, which office he held for several years, and then declined re-election. He then resumed the practice of the law, becoming well known for his success in criminal cases, and, removing to Augusta, he established there the "Augusta Sentinel," which was consolidated in 1838 with the "Chronicle," continuing, meanwhile, the practice of the law. In 1838 he became a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was stationed at Augusta. During this period of his ministry the town was visited with yellow fever, but he remained at his post, ministering to the sick and dying. In 1839 he was elected president of Emory College, Oxford, Georgia, where he served nine years, after which he became president of Centenary College, Louisiana. Shortly afterward he became president of the University of Mississippi, at Oxford, Mississippi, which post he held for six years, resigning at that time to devote himself to agricultural pursuits. But in 1857 he was elected to the presidency of South Carolina College, Columbia, South Carolina, where he remained till just before the Civil War, when he returned to the presidency of the University of Mississippi. In 1844 he was a member of the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was conspicuous in the discussions that led to a rupture of the church, siding throughout with his own section. In politics he belonged to the Jeffersonian school of strict construction and state rights. At an early age he began to write for the press, and he made speeches on all occasions through his life. "I have heard him," writes one who knew him, " respond to a serenade, preach a funeral sermon, deliver a college commencement address, and make a harangue over the pyrotechnic glorifications of seceding states. He could never be scared up without a speech." His pen was never idle. His chief periodical contributions are to be found in " The Methodist Quarterly," "The Southern Literary Messenger," " The Southern Field and Fireside,'' "The Magnolia," and "The Orion," and include "Letters to Clergymen of the Northern Methodist Church" and "Letters from Georgia to Massachusetts." His best-known work is a series of newspaper sketches of humble life in the south, "Georgia Scenes, Characters, Incidents, etc., in the First Half Century of the Republic, by a Native Georgian," which were collected into a book that appeared first at the south and then in New York (1840). A second edition was issued in 1867, and though it purported to be revised, he would, it is said, have nothing to do with it. It is said that he sent men through the country to collect and destroy all copies of the first edition. This book is full of genuine humor, broad, but irresistible, and by many these sketches are considered the raciest, most natural, and most original that appeared at the south before the Civil War. He also published "Master William Mitten," a story (Macon, Georgia, 1864). Many unpublished manuscripts were best roved with his library during the war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 17.
LONGYEAR, John Wesley, jurist, born in Shandaken, Ulster County, New York, 22 October, 1820; died in Detroit, Michigan. 10 March, 1875. He was educated at Lima, New York, and, moving in 1844 to Michigan, was admitted to the bar in 1846, settling the next year in Lansing, where he acquired an extensive practice. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1862, served till 1867, and during both terms was chairman of the committee on Expenditures on the Public Buildings. He was a delegate to the Loyalists' Convention in Philadelphia in 1866, a member of the Michigan Constitutional Convention in 1867, and in 1870 became U. S. Judge of the Southern District of the state. His decisions, especially those in admiralty and bankruptcy cases, were extensively quoted. , New York, 1879) Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 17.
LOOMIS, Dwight, lawyer, born in Columbia. Connecticut, 27 July, 1821. He studied law in New Haven, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. Settling in Rockville, Connecticut, he followed his profession there until 1851, when he was elected to the Connecticut legislature. In 1856 he served as a delegate at the People's Convention held in Philadelphia, and in 1857 was sent to the state senate. He was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives, and served from 5 December, 1859, till 3 March, 1863. In 1864 he was appointed a judge of the superior court of Connecticut, and in 1875 was advanced to the supreme court, where he has since remained. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 18.
LOOMIS, Gustavus, soldier, born in Thetford, Vermont, 23 September, 1789; died in Stratford, Connecticut, 6 March, 1872. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1811, and assigned to the artillery. For two years he served on garrison duty in New York Harbor, and then he was sent to the northern frontier, where he was at the capture of Fort George in May, 1813, and was taken prisoner at the surprise of Fort Niagara in December of that year. Meanwhile he had been made assistant deputy quartermaster-general, with the rank of captain, and he subsequently served in various garrisons. On the reorganization of the army in 1821 he was made captain in the 1st U.S. Infantry, and in 1838 received his commission as major, after serving in the campaigns against the Indians in Florida and Texas. In 1840 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 6th U.S. Infantry, and, after garrison duty on the frontier, served in that rank during the Mexican War and until 1851, when he was made colonel of the 5th U.S. Infantry, and given various commands in the Indian Territory. Colonel Loomis participated in the Florida Campaigns of 1856-'8 against the Seminole Indians, and had charge of that department in 1857-'8. During the Civil War he was engaged at first on mustering duty, but later was put at the head of the general recruiting service at Fort Columbus, New York. He was retired from active service on 1 June. 1863. but continued to be occupied on court-martial duty. In 1865 he received the brevet of brigadier-general for long and faithful service in the army. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 19.
LOOMIS, Silas Laurence, physician, born in Coventry, Connecticut, 22 May, 1822. He was graduated at Wesleyan in 1844, after teaching mathematics and natural sciences in Holliston Academy. Massachusetts After his graduation he returned to teaching, becoming in 1855 principal of the Western Academy in Washington, D. C, and meanwhile was graduated from the medical department of Georgetown College in 1856, and was professor of physiology in that department in 1859-'60. He held the office of astronomer to the U. S. Coast Survey in 1857, and in 1860 was special instructor in mathematics to the U. S. naval cadets while on a cruise. In 1861—'7 he was professor of chemistry and toxicology in Georgetown College, also surgeon on General George B. McClellan's staff in 1862-3,and acting assistant surgeon on the steamer "State of Maine," and in Patent office, Finley, and Mount Pleasant Hospitals in 1863-'5. He became professor of practice of medicine in the medical department of Howard University in 1867, later dean and professor of chemistry and toxicology in that institution until 1872. In 1873 he returned to the practice of his profession, and in 1877 was called to the presidency of the Swede iron and coal Company, which he held until 1881. He invented a process for producing a textile fabric from palmetto in 1878, and in 1879 discovered a method by which ores of chromium, which were formerly condemned, have become valuable. Dr. Loomis' has also made improvements in various instruments of precision. He has held the offices of president of the Washington scientific Association in 1862, and president of the American union Academy of literature, Science, and art in 1872. Besides various magazine articles and college addresses he has published " Normal Arithmetic" (Philadelphia, 1859); "Analytical Arithmetic" (1860); and " Key to the Normal Course" (1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 19.
LOOMIS, Lafayette Charles, educator, born in Coventry, Connecticut, 7 July. 1824, was graduated at Wesleyan in 1844, and then taught, becoming in 1853 principal of the Irving Institute in Tarrytown, New York. A year later he was appointed professor of natural sciences in Wesleyan Female College, Wilmington, Delaware, and became its president in 1857-'8. He was principal of the Lafayette Institute, Washington, D. C, during 1859-63, and, after being graduated at the medical department of Georgetown University in 1865, was acting assistant surgeon in the Army of the Potomac. Dr. Loomis then held the presidency of the Wheeling Female Seminary in West Virginia during 1865, and three years later was appointed professor of physiology in Howard University, Washington, D. C. Subsequently he spent several years in travel and study in Europe, and he has also lectured on art. In addition to magazine articles he has published " Mizpah, Prayer and Friendship " (Philadelphia, 1858); "Mental and Social Culture" (New York, 1867); and " Handbook of Art and Travel in Europe " (1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 19.
LORAIN, Lorenzo, soldier, b in Philipsburg, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 3 August, 1831; died in Baltimore. Maryland, 6 March, 1882. He had early showed much mechanical skill, and had declined the superintendence of large machine-works to follow civil engineering, when he was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy. After his graduation in 1856 he was on the frontier till the Civil War, in the early part of which he was disabled by a wound at Blackburn's ford, and saw no further active service. He was promoted to a captaincy on 28 February, 1862, and served as assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at West Point till 1870. He was then on garrison duty, with the exception of a year in 1871-'2, when he held the chair of physics at Lehigh University till 1875, at which time he became instructor of engineering in the artillery-school for practice at Fort Monroe. Here he placed his department on a practical footing, obtaining new instruments, introducing field rcconnoissances, and establishing a photographic department. He held this post till his promotion to major in 1881. He invented the “ Lorain telescopic sight" for large rifled guns, and left a range-finder that he had not perfected at the time of his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 23.
LORD, John Chase, clergyman, born in Buffalo, New York, 9 August. 1805; died in Buffalo, New York, 21 January, 1877, was educated at Hamilton College, but was not graduated. Settling in Buffalo, he studied law. and in 1828 was admitted to the bar, but afterward entered Auburn theological seminary, was graduated in 1833, and from 1835 until his resignation in 1873 was pastor of the Central Presbyterian Church, which he had organized. In 1851 he published a sermon on the fugitive-slave law, in which he took the ground that no citizen had a right to resist laws that protected slavery. This sermon was distributed as a campaign document, and was described by President Fillmore in a personal letter to its author as "rendering the nation a valuable service." On the secession of the south Dr. Lord was an earnest Unionist. He was moderator of the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 1852. His published works include, besides separate sermons and lectures, "Land of Ophir and other Lectures " (Buffalo, New York, 1851), and ' Occasional Poems" (1869). See "Memoir of John C. Lord" (Buffalo, 1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 23.
LORD, William Wilberforce, clergyman, born in Madison County, New York, 28 October, 1819. He was educated at the University of Western New York (since discontinued), studied theology at Princeton and Auburn theological seminaries, was tutor in mental and moral science at Amherst in 1847, and subsequently took orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church, officiating as rector in the south and southwest, and for many years at Vicksburg, Mississippi. During the Civil War he was a chaplain in the Confederate Army, he has published "Poems" (New York, 1845), that were praised by Wordsworth and ridiculed by Edgar A. Poe: "Christ in Hades" (1851); and "Andre, a Tragedy" (1856). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 25.
LORD, Nathan, 1793-1870, Hanover, New Hampshire, abolitionist, clergyman. American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1833-1834. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol IV. p. 25.
LORD, Nathan, clergyman, born in Berwick, Me., 28 November, 1793; died in Hanover, N.H., 9 Sept., 1870. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1809, and at Andover theological seminary in 1815. He was pastor of the Congregational Church in Amherst, New Hampshire, from 1816 till 1828, and at the latter date, on the resignation of Reverend Bennett Tyler, became president of Dartmouth. Under his administration the professorships of Greek literature and language, of astronomy and meteorology, of modern languages, of intellectual philosophy, and of natural history were established, three new halls and a chapel were built, the observatory was added, the “Chandler scientific Department” was founded by the gift of $50,000 from Abiel Chandler, and 1,824 students were graduated. He retired in 1863. Dr. Lord upheld the institution of slavery, and thus incurred the censure of most northern people; but while he advocated his views in letters and sermons. Dartmouth was the only college in the United States for many years where colored students were admitted, and while under his care they were treated with uniform kindness and courtesy. He inclined to the old-school system of theology, and to a literal interpretation of the prophesies. Dartmouth gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1864, and Bowdoin that of D. D. in 1828. He occasionally contributed to theological reviews, edited with an introductory notice, the selected sermons of his son, Reverend John King Lord (Boston, 1850), and published numerous sermons, essays, and letters. Among the latter are “Letter to Reverend Daniel Dana, D. D., on Park's ‘Theology of New England’” (1852); “An Essay on the Millennium,” read to the General Convention of New Hampshire (1854); and “Two· Letters to Ministers of all Denominations on Slavery” (1854-'5), in which he endeavored, by biblical arguments, to prove the lawfulness of that institution. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV. p. 25
LORD, Otis Phillips, jurist, born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, 11 July, 1812; died in Salem, Massachusetts, 13 March, 1884. He was graduated at Amherst in 1832, and at the Harvard law-school in 1836, subsequently settling in Ipswich and afterward in Salem, where he practised his profession. He was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1847-54, serving in the latter year as speaker, was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1853, and from 1859 till 1875 an associate justice of the state superior court. On the dissolution of the Whig Party. of which he had been a member, he was nominated for Congress in 1858 by an independent convention, and was defeated then, and again in 1860, when he was the candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. During the Civil War he was pro-slavery in his politics, and in 1866 he published a series of articles opposing the 15th Constitutional Amendment, he was elevated to the supreme bench in 1875, and held office till his retirement in 1882. Amherst gave him the degree of LL. D., in 1869. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 25-26.
LORING, Ellis Gray, 1803-1858, Boston, Massachusetts, lawyer, abolitionist leader. Manager and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), December 1833. Manager, AASS, 1833-1840, 1840-1843, Executive Committee, 1843-1844. Husband to abolitionist Louisa Loring of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS). Auditor, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1844-1845. Co-founded and wrote the constitution of the New England Anti-Slavery Society (NEASS) in 1833. Financially aided the abolitionist newspaper the Liberator. Was the attorney for the defense of a slave child in Massachusetts Supreme Court. This resulted in a landmark ruling that every slave brought to the state by the owner was legally free. Life member of the BFASS. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 186, 317; Mabee, 1970, p. 124; Sinha, 2016, 222-223; Yellin, 1994, p. 51; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 27; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 416; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 318)
LORING, Ellis Gray, lawyer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1803; died there, 24 May, 1858. He entered Harvard College in 1819, but was not graduated with his class, afterward studied law, was admitted to the Suffolk bar, and became eminent. He was one of the twelve that formed the first anti-slavery society in Boston in 1833. He distinguished himself chiefly in the defence of the slave-child " Med" in the Massachusetts supreme court, where he succeeded in obtaining the decision that every slave brought on Massachusetts soil by the owner was legally free; a case precisely analogous to the celebrated "Somerset" case in England. By this argument he achieved the unusual success of convincing the opposing counsel, Benjamin R. Curtis, afterward justice of the U. S. supreme court, who shook hands with him after the trial, saying: "Your argument has entirely converted me to your side, Mr. Loring." He also attracted some attention as the author of a " Petition in behalf of Abner Kneeland," which was headed by the name of Reverend Dr. William E. Channing. Abner Kneeland (q. v.) was a professed atheist who was indicted for blasphemy, and Mr. Loring's petition was a strong plea in behalf of freedom of speech. Several of Mr. Loring's arguments and addresses were published at different times, including "An Address before the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society" (Boston, 1838). At the New England Anti-Slavery Convention, 27 May, 1858, two days after his death, Wendell Phillips said: "The great merit of Mr. Loring's anti-slavery life was, he laid on the altar of the slave's needs all his peculiar tastes. Refined, domestic, retiring, contemplative, loving literature, art, and culture, he saw there was no one else to speak, therefore he was found in the van. It was the uttermost instance of self-sacrifice— more than money, more than reputation, though he gave both." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 27.
LORING, Louisa, Boston, Massachusetts, leader of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS), wife of Ellis Gray Loring (Yellin, 1994, pp. 47-51, 62, 250n, 253n, 262, 269)
LORING, William Wing, soldier, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, 4 December, 1818; died in New York City, 30 December, 1886. When he was about thirteen years old he enlisted in a company of volunteers to fight the Seminole Indians in Florida, participated in several battles, and was promoted to a 2d lieutenancy. 16 June, 1837. He was sent to school at Alexandria, Virginia. and subsequently at Georgetown, D. C. was graduated in the law in 1842. and, returning to Florida, was elected to the legislature. Early in 1846 he was made senior captain of a new regiment of mounted riflemen, and on 16 February, 1847. was placed in command, with the rank of major. In the assault on the Mexican intrenched camp at Contreras, Loring's regiment was temporarily detached for special service, which resulted in its being first in the main works of the Mexicans, and leading in the pursuit of the enemy as far as San Angel. But at this moment counter orders were received. Loring and his regiment were the first to enter the Mexican batteries at Chapultepec on the side next the capital, and, though without orders, he led the fighting on the causeway from that point to the Belen Gate, where he received a wound that necessitated the amputation of his left arm. For "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Contreras and Churubusco he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, and for Chapultepec and Garita de Belen that of colonel. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 5 March. 1848. The citizens of Appalachicola. Florida, presented him with a sword on which were engraved the words that General Scott had addressed to the Rifles on the field of Chapultepec: "Brave Rifles, you have gone through fire and blood, and come out steel." In April, 1849, he successfully marched across the continent to Oregon as escort to a party of gold-seekers, and on 3 October he was assigned to the command of the 11th Military Department. Sometime afterward he was ordered to Texas, where he remained till August, 1856. and was promoted to the rank of colonel on 30 December till 8 April, 1858. He was engaged against hostile Indians in New Mexico, and he afterward took part in the Utah Expedition of 1858. In 1859 he received leave of absence to visit Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land, and on his return he commanded the Department of New Mexico until 13 May, 1861, when he resigned and was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate Army. He served in the Army of Northern Virginia, on 15 February, 1862. was promoted to major-general, and led a division till the end of the Civil War, frequently commanding a corps. In the spring of 1863, when General Grant was operating for the investment of Vicksburg, Loring was sent to Fort Pemberton, where he mounted two heavy siege-guns that silenced the fire of the U. S. gun-boat "Chillicothe." His exclamation, "Give her a blizzard, boys!" on this occasion, was the origin of the name of "Old Blizzard," by which he was afterward known. General Loring accepted service in the army of the khedive of Egypt in December, 1869, as a liwa pacha, or general of brigade. Shortly after his arrival in Cairo he was assigned to the command of Alexandria and its defences extending along the coast to the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. On 10 December, 1875, he was ordered to accompany, as chief of staff and military adviser, the general-in-chief of the Egyptian Army, Ratib Pacha, who was ordered to the command of an expedition to Abyssinia. Ratib refused to follow the counsel of General Loring and his staff of American officers, and the Egyptian Army was almost annihilated by the Abyssinians at the battle of Kaya-Khor. General Loring, shortly after his return to Egypt, was decorated by the khedive with the imperial order of the Osmariah and promoted to ferik, or general of division. In 1879, with the American officers, he was mustered out of the Egyptian service and returned to the United States. General Loring published "A Confederate Soldier in Egypt" (New York, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 28-29.
LOSSING, Benson John, author, born in Beekman, Dutchess County, New York, 12 February, 1813. His father, a farmer, died when the son was an infant. After attending school, Benson was apprenticed to a watchmaker in Poughkeepsie, who, when he had served nearly seven years, took him into partnership. Two years later he became joint proprietor and editor of the Poughkeepsie "Telegraph," and in 1836 he began with his partner the publication of a literary journal called the "Poughkeepsie Casket." Mr. Lossing placed himself under the instruction of a wood-engraver in New York, became an engraver on wood, and was engaged in 1838 by the publisher of the "Family Magazine" to become its editor and illustrator. He performed this service for the last two of the eight volumes of this the earliest fully illustrated American magazine. In 1839 he established himself in New York as a professional wood-engraver, a craft that had then but three practitioners besides himself in the city, and two years later he severed his business connection with the Poughkeepsie publications. In 1848 he matured the plan of his principal work, the "Pictorial Field book of the Revolution," which was published in thirty illustrated numbers (New York, 1850-'2). For twenty years Mr. Lossing was a frequent contributor of illustrated papers to Harper s " Magazine." For the London "Art Journal" he prepared a series of articles descriptive of the scenery, history, and legends of the Hudson River, which were published, with illustrations from his sketches, in that monthly in 1860-'l,and afterward in a volume entitled " The Hudson, from the Wilderness to the Sea " (New York, 1866). From the papers, letters, and orderly books of General Philip Schuyler he prepared " The Life and Times of Philip Schuyler" (2 vols.. New York, 1860; new ed., 1880). Early in 1862 he began the compilation of a "Pictorial Field-Book of the Civil War in the United States," which was issued in three illustrated volumes (vol. L Philadelphia. 1866: vols. ii. and iii.. Hartford, 1869). On its completion he prepared a "Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812 h (New York, 1868). Since 1868 Mr. Lossing has resided on a farm near Dover Plains. Duchess County, New York. In 1873 he received from Michigan University the degree of LL. D. In 1872-'5 he edited the " American Historical Record and Repository of Notes and Queries," published in Philadelphia. Besides the works a! read v mentioned he is the author of "Outline History of the Fine. Arts" (New York, 1841); "Lives of the Presidents of the United States" (1847); "Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-Six, or the War for Independence" (1847); "Life of General Zachary Taylor" (1847); "Life of General Winfield Scott "(1847); "The New World" (1847); "Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence" (1848); an illustrated "History of the United States for Schools" (1854), which was followed by the other volumes of a graded series; "Biographies of Eminent Americans" (1855); "Mount Vernon and its Associations" (1859); "Life of Washington," illustrated (1860); "Vassar College and its Founder" (1867); "Pictorial Description of Ohio" (1869); "Memorial of Lieutenant John Trout Greeble" (printed privately, 1870); an illustrated "Memoir of Dr. Alexander Anderson," the first engraver on wood in America, published by the New York Historical Society (1870); a "History of England" for schools (1871); a large history of the United States entitled "Our Country," with 500 illustrations by Felix O. C. Darley (3 "vols., 1873); an illustrated work on the progress of industries in the United States between 1776 and 1876, entitled "The American Centenary " (Philadelphia, 1876); "Story of the United States Navy for Bovs " (New York. 1880); "Cyclopaedia of United States History," with over 1,000 illustrations (1881); "Biography of James A. Garfield" (1881); an illustrated "History of New York City "(1884); "Mary and Martha Washington " (1886); "Two Spies : Nathan Hale and John Andre '" (1886); and "The Empire State, a Compendious History of the Commonwealth of New York" (1887). Mr. Lossing annotated Francis Hopkinson’s "Pretty Story," with a biography of the author of the allegory, which was published under the title of " The Old Farm and the New Farm " (New York, 1857). W7ith Edwin Williams he compiled the " Statesman's Manual" (4 vols., 1858) and the "National History of the United States" (2 vols., 1858). He also edited and annotated the "Diaries of Washington" (1859), and the "Recollections and Private Memoirs of Washington," by George W. P. Custis (1860). edited the "Poems" of William Wilson, with an accompanying biography (Poughkeepsie. 1869). and prepared an edition of John Trumbull's "McFingal," with a life (New York. 1871). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 31.
LOTHROP, Charles Henry, surgeon, born in Taunton, Massachusetts, 3 September, 1831. He was educated at Brown, and graduated in medicine at the University of New York in 1859, and established himself in practice at Lyons, Iowa. He has successfully performed many difficult surgical operations, and is the inventor of an apparatus for treating fractures of the leg, and of a rubber appliance for club-foot. He served during the Civil War as surgeon of the 1st Iowa Cavalry, and has been an examining surgeon for pensions since 1868. In 1870 he edited the "Southern Medical Record." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 32.
LOTHROP, George Van Ness, lawyer, born in Easton, Bristol County, Massachusetts, 8 August, 1817. He was graduated at Brown in 1838. and entered the Harvard law-school, but on account of ill health joined his brother in 1839 on a farm near Schoolcraft, Michigan In March, 1843, he went to Detroit, completed his preparation for the bar, and began practice in the following spring. He was Attorney-General of Michigan in 1848-'51, recorder of the city in 1851-'3, an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1856 and 1860, and in 1860 a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, where he supported the nomination of Stephen A. Douglas. he was also nominated three times by the Democratic Party for U. S. Senator, and was a delegate to the state constitutional Convention in 1867. From 1854 till 1880, when he resigned, he was general counsel for the Michigan Central Railroad Company. In May, 1885, he was appointed U. S. minister to Russia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 32.
LOTHROP, Stillman, Watertown, Massachusetts, abolitionist. Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1838-1840, 1840-1854.
LOUGHBOROUGH, James Moore (luff -burro), lawyer, born near Shelbyville, Kentucky, 2 November, 1833; died in Little Rock, Arkansas, 31 July, 1876. He left college at the age of nineteen, to become a clerk under his father, who was the land-agent for Illinois and Missouri. He served throughout the Civil War as a colonel on the staff of the Confederate General Sterling Price, and was for some time a prisoner. After the war he practised law in St. Louis, Missouri, superintended the land-sales of the Iron Mountain Railway, removing to Little Rock, and was a member in 1874-'5 of the Arkansas legislature, where he introduced a bill for the conversion of depreciated certificates into a funded debt, which did much to restore the financial credit of the state.— His wife, Mary Webster, author, born in New York City, 27 August, 1836; died in Little Rock, Arkansas, 27 August, 1887, was taken to St. Louis, Missouri, in her infancy, graduated at Monticello seminary, Godfrey, Illinois, in 1853, and in 1857 was married. She accompanied her husband during the Civil War, and kept a diary of the siege of Vicksburg. from which she prepared her first book, entitled "My Cave Life in Vicksburg" (New York, 1864). She afterward contributed stories relating to the early history of St. Louis to " The Land We Love." In 1871 she moved with her husband to Little Rock. She wrote for various newspapers, and in 1883 established the "Southern Ladies' Journal," which she edited till her death. In it she published a serial entitled " For Better, for Worse. Mrs. Loughborough established also a Woman's exchange in Little Rock with the object of opening a wider range of remunerative employment for her sex. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 32.
LOVE, George Maltby, soldier, born in Buffalo, New York, 1 January, 1831; died there, 19 March, 1887. In the beginning of the Civil War he entered the army as a three months' volunteer, and served as sergeant and sergeant-major. On his discharge he re-enlisted, and was commissioned 1st lieutenant in the 44th New York Infantry. He was promoted captain on 2 January, 1862, and participated in the siege of Yorktown and the battles of Hanover Court House and Malvern Hill. After his second term of service had expired he was appointed major of the 116th New York Volunteers on 5 September, 1862, commanded the regiment in the Department of the Gulf, and was severely wounded in the assault on Port Hudson. He was promoted colonel on 16 July, 1863, and engaged at Cox's Plantation, at the battles of Sabine Cross-roads and Pleasant Hill, and the skirmishes at Cane River Crossing and Mansura. He afterward commanded a brigade in the 19th Corps for eighteen months, serving through the Shenandoah Campaign. He was engaged at Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and for gallantry at Cedar Creek received the brevet of brigadier-general and a bronze medal of honor. He was mustered out on 8 June, 1865. On 7 March, 1867, he was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the regular army, and received four brevets for services in the war. He was promoted 1st lieutenant on 1 March, 1875, and engaged in garrison and frontier service until he was retired on 15 March. 1883, for disability incurred in the line of duty. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 32.
LOVE, Smoloff Palace, soldier, born in Lincoln County, Kentucky, 10 May, 1826. He was educated at Columbia "Academy, Missouri, and at the age of twenty enlisted in Colonel Doniphan's 1st Missouri Volunteers and went on the expedition to Santa Fe, participating in the battles of Bracito and Sacramento. He was mustered out of service in 1847, returned to Muhlenburg County, Kentucky. and engaged in teaching from 1849 till 1857. At the beginning of the Civil War he aided in raising the 11th Kentucky Infantry for the National Army, became its lieutenant-colonel, and fought with it at Shiloh, Corinth, Perryville, Stone River, and Bowling Green. He was promoted colonel, joined Burnside in cast Tennessee, and was with Sherman in the engagements around Atlanta. At the close of the war he settled at Greenville, Kentucky, qualified for the bar, and began practice in 1865. From 1866 till 1874 he was presiding judge of Muhlenburg County, and in 1872 was a presidential elector. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 34.
LOVEJOY, Elijah Parrish, 1802-1837, Albion, Maine, newspaper publisher, editor, writer, clergyman, abolitionist leader. Murdered by anti-abolitionists. In 1833, he became editor of the St. Louis newspaper the Observer. In the paper, he opposed slavery and supported graduate emancipation. Due to threats, he moved the paper to Alton, Illinois, in 1836. There, his life was threatened and his press was destroyed three times by pro-slave mobs. A fourth press was established on November 7, 1837, and was immediately destroyed and during the attack, Lovejoy was shot and killed by the mob. (Blue, 2005, pp. 6, 20, 90-94, 96, 105, 269; Dumond, 1961, pp. 92, 223-226, 232; Pease, 1965, pp. 268-272, 318; Mabee, 1970, pp. 38-50, 67, 116, 249, 277, 292, 293, 295, 296, 279, 375, 377; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 378-380, 601-602; Wilson, 1872, pp. 374-389; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 34-35; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 434; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 541-543; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 4; Dillon, Merton L. Elijah P. Lovejoy: Abolitionist Editor. 1961.)
Biography from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography:
LOVEJOY, Elijah Parish, abolitionist, born in Albion, Maine, 9 November, 1802; died in Alton, Illinois, 7 November, 1837. He was the son of a Presbyterian clergy-man, was graduated at Waterville College in 1826, and in 1827 went to St. Louis, Mo., and established a school. He contributed prose and verse to the newspapers, was known of as a vigorous writer, and in 1829 became editor of a political paper, in which he advocated the claim of Henry Clay as a candidate for the presidency. In as 1832, in consequence of a change in his religious views, he decided to become a minister, and, after a course of theological study at Princeton, was licensed to preach by the Philadelphia presbytery on 18 April, 1833. On his return to St. Louis he established a religious he paper called the “Observer,” in which he reprobated slavery. Repeated threats of mob violence impelled him to remove his paper in July, 1836, to Alton, Illinois His press was destroyed by mobs three times within a year; yet he procured a fourth one, and was engaged in setting it up, when a mob, composed mostly of Missourians, again attacked the office. With his friends he defended the building, and one of his assailants was killed. After the attacking party had apparently withdrawn, Mr. Lovejoy opened the door, when he was instantly pierced by five bullets and died in a few minutes. His “Memoir” was published by his brothers, Joseph C. and Owen, with an introduction by John Q. Adams (New York, 1838). See also, “Narrative of Riots at Alton, in Connection with the Death of Lovejoy,” by Edward Beecher at (Alton, 1838), and “The Martyrdom of Lovejoy,” by Henry Tanner (Chicago, 1881). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 34-35.
Chapter: “The Alton Tragedy, --Murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872.
On the 7th of November, 1837, the cause of freedom received its first baptism of blood. On that day Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy was murdered by a mob at Alton, Illinois. No previous event had so startled, alarmed, and fixed the attention of the more conscientious and thoughtful portion of the country. Nothing had so clearly indicated to antislavery men the nature of the conflict in which they were engaged, the desperate character of the foe with which they were grappling.
Mr. Lovejoy was a native of Maine, and a graduate of Waterville College in 1826. At the age of twenty-four he went to the West, and became a teacher in St. Louis. Two years afterward he became the editor of a political journal of the National Republican Party, and an active supporter of Henry Clay. In 1832 he united with the Presbyterian Church, entered for a brief period the Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and, in the autumn of that year, returned to Missouri, and established the St. Louis " Observer," a weekly religious journal. During the ensuing year, while avowing his hostility to immediate emancipation, he expressed the opinion that, if slavery could be removed from Missouri, that great State would start forward in a race of energy and improvement which would place her in the front rank of her sister States. While absent from the city, at a meeting of the synod, an excitement commenced in regard to his strictures on slavery; and the alarmed proprietors of the paper issued a card, declaring their opposition to the wild scheme of the Abolitionists. Before leaving home, he had received a communication from nine leading citizens of St. Louis, friends and supporters of the “Observer," begging him to "pass over in silence everything connected with the subject of slavery." Upon that communication he made the indorsement that he did not yield to the wishes expressed, had been persecuted for not doing so, but had kept a good conscience, which had more than repaid him for all he had suffered. “I have sworn eternal hostility to slavery, and by the blessing of God I will never go back."
Returning to St. Louis, Mr. Lovejoy issued an address to his excited fellow-citizens, in which he maintained with signal boldness the right to discuss questions pertaining to slavery, or any other evil which concerned the interests of humanity. “I deem it he said, “my duty to take my stand upon the Constitution. Here is firm ground; I feel it to be such; and I do most respectfully but decidedly declare to you my fixed determination to maintain this ground. We have slaves, it is true; but I am not one." While avowing his purpose never to surrender the freedom of speech and of the press, he expressed the hope that he should maintain these rights with the meekness and humility that became a Christian, but especially a Christian minister. He reminded the inflamed people of St. Louis that blood kindred to that which flowed in his veins had flowed freely on the plains of Lexington and on the heights of Bunker Hill, and he assured them that his blood should flow as freely as if it were water, " ere," he said," I surrender the right to plead the cause of truth and righteousness before my fellow-citizens and in the face of all opposers." Protesting against all attempts, by whosoever made, to interfere with the liberty of the press, he declared his fixed purpose to submit to no such dictation. “I am," he said,” prepared to abide the consequences. I have appealed to the Constitution and the laws of my country; if they fail to protect me, I appeal to God, and with him I cheerfully rest my cause."
At the request of the proprietors of the "Observer,'' he surrendered its editorship, and moved to Alton. The paper soon passing into other hands as payment of a debt, its new owner presented it to him, and he at once returned and entered upon its publication. In the spring of 1836 an excited mob took Francis J. Mcintosh, a mulatto, from the jail, where he had been lodged for fatally stabbing one officer and wounding another who had arrested him, carried him out of the city, chained him to a tree, and burned him to death. As the matter came before the grand jury, Judge Lawless in his charge expressed the astounding sentiment that if a mob be hurried on to its deeds of violence and blood by some “mysterious, metaphysical, and almost electric frenzy," participators in it are absolved from guilt, and are not proper subjects of punishment. If such be the fact, he said, “act not at all in the matter; the case then transcends your jurisdiction, it is beyond the reach of human law."
For commenting on this revolting deed, and the still more revolting judicial opinion, Mr. Lovejoy's office was entered and destroyed by a mob. He moved the press to Alton; only, however, to see it seized upon the bank of the river and broken into fragments. A meeting of citizens was held at once, and a pledge given to reimburse him for his loss. Mr. Lovejoy assured them that it was not his purpose to establish an abolition, but a religious press. Indeed, he was not an Abolitionist, though he expected to live and die an uncompromising enemy to slavery, and should hold himself at liberty to speak and write as he pleased on any subject. In July, 1837, a public meeting assembled, bitterly denounced the “Observer " for its publication of articles favorable to abolitionism, and censured its editor. To a committee appointed by this meeting Mr. Lovejoy declared, with great firmness, that liberty of speech is something not to be called in question, -that it was a right which came from his
Maker, belonging to man as man, and inalienable.
Although the " Observer " was no longer printed in St. Louis, its citizens and presses demanded that Illinois should abate what they regarded as a nuisance, under the penalty of losing the trade of slaveholding States, --the same rod, indeed, so long and successfully held in terrorem by the domineering South over the abject North. Consequently, in the month of August, Mr. Lovejoy's office and press were again destroyed, during his absence; and he was most grossly insulted on his return. Another press was purchased, and stored in the warehouse of Gerry and Miller. The mob again assembled, broke open the building, destroyed the press, and threw the fragments into the Mississippi. A few days afterward he was mobbed again at the house of his mother-in-law, in St. Charles, Missouri, on his return from church, where he had officiated; and he was compelled to leave clandestinely to save his life.
Meetings were held in Alton by the excited inhabitants to consider the question of the longer publication of the paper. At one held on the. 3d of November, at his request he was permitted to speak in' his own behalf. With manly firmness and Christian boldness he reminded his fellow-citizens that he respected their feelings, and acted in opposition to them with great regret. He valued their good opinion; but he must be, he said, “governed by higher considerations than either the favor or the fear of man. I am impelled to the course I have taken because I fear God. As I shall answer to my God, in the great day, I dare not abandon my sentiments, or cease in all proper ways to propagate them." Reminding the meeting that it he had committed any crime they could convict him, as they had the public sentiment and juries on their side, he asked: "If I have been guilty of no violation of law, why am I hunted up and down continually like a partridge upon the mountain? Why am I threatened with the tar-barrel? Why am I waylaid every, day, and from night to night? Why is my life in jeopardy every hour? " Planting himself on his unquestionable rights, he declared the question to be, " Whether my property shall be protected; whether I shall be suffered to go home to my family at night without being assailed and threatened with tar and feathers and assassination; whether my afflicted wife, whose life has been in jeopardy from continued alarm and excitement, shall night after night be driven from her sick-bed into the garret, to save her life from brickbats and the violence of the mob." This allusion to his family overcame his feelings, and he burst into tears. The sympathy of the meeting was deeply excited. Many sobbed aloud, and even some of his enemies wept. Recovering himself, he begged forgiveness for having been betrayed into weakness by the thought of his, family; and he assured the meeting that he had no personal fears. Admitting that he was powerless, he said: “I know you can tar and feather me, hang me up, or put me in the Mississippi. But what then? Where shall I go? I have been made to feel if I am not safe in Alton I shall not be safe anywhere."
There were some who, while insisting on the suppression of his press and driving him from Alton, expressed the wish that no unnecessary disgrace should be affixed to him. To such suggestions he replied: “I reject all such compassion. You cannot disgrace me. Scandal, falsehood, and calumny have done their worst. My shoulders have borne the burden till it sits easy upon them. I, and I alone, can disgrace myself; and the deepest of all disgraces would be at a time like this to deny my Master by forsaking his cause. He died for me; and I were most unworthy to bear his name should I refuse, if need be, to die for Him." Reminding the meeting that he had, on a recent visit to St. Charles, been torn from the frantic embrace of his family, he closed with this declaration: “I have concluded, after consultation with my friends, and earnestly seeking counsel of God, to remain at Alton, and here to insist on protection in the exercise of my rights. If the civil authorities refuse to protect me, I must look to God; and, if I die, I am determined to make my grave in Alton. Sir, I dare not flee away from Alton. Should I attempt it, I should feel that the angel of the Lord, with his flaming sword, was pursuing me wherever I went. It is because I fear God that I am not afraid of all who oppose me in this city."
His earnestness and manifest sincerity made a deep impression upon the audience. Dr. Edward Beecher, who was present, thus describes the scene: -- “I have been affected oftentimes with the power of intellect and eloquence; but never was I so overcome as at this hour. He made no display, there was no rhetorical decoration, no violence of action. All was native truth, and deep, pure, and tender feeling. Many a hard face did I see wet with tears as he struck the chords of feeling to which God made the soul to respond. Even his bitter enemies wept. It reminded me of Paul before Festus, and of Luther at Worms."
The crowd, however, then present, represented too faithfully the popular sentiment of that section of the country to be much controlled by the faith or eloquence of such a man. They were far better prepared to respond to the counter appeals of John Hogan, then a Methodist minister and afterward a Democratic member of Congress from St. Louis, who, launching his vile epithets and fierce invectives upon Mr. Lovejoy and the Abolitionists, inflamed the minds and stirred up to deeper frenzy that class of men of which mobs are made.
The city was in a state of intense excitement. Violence was anticipated, as it had been foreshadowed by the disgraceful and disorganizing proceedings which had broken up a convention at Upper Alton, during the previous week, and had defeated the purposes of its original promoters. The call was to “the friends of the slave and of free discussion in Illinois "; and yet, by packing the convention with men of an opposite faith, under the lead of W. F. Linder, Attorney-General of the State, a series of resolutions was adopted indorsing slavery and proclaiming that all interference with it should be "discountenanced." And by the same vote that sustained these resolutions was the convention adjourned sine die. The men, however, who called the convention, were not to be thus baffled. A subsequent meeting was called at the house of Reverend Mr. Hurlburt of the same place; and, although the formation of an antislavery society had not been one of the fixed objects of the original convention, it was now seen to be demanded, and it was accordingly effected. Officers were chosen, and a most able address and declaration of sentiments, from the pen of Dr. Beecher, were sent forth. To add to the flame already burning so fiercely, a colonization meeting was held about that time, at which fiery harangues were made, more hostile to antislavery and its friends than to slavery and its abettors. Of course, a conflict so acrimonious and determined between principles so radical and antagonistic must culminate in something more sanguinary than words. The arrival of another press was the occasion of a demonstration which ended in arson and blood.
The enemies of Mr. Lovejoy had determined to seize and destroy it on its arrival; while a few friends, equally in earnest, had determined to defend it. As the former were watching for its coming, about fifty of the latter assembled at the stone warehouse where it was to be stored on its arrival, and organized an armed force for its defence. After that organization had been effected, about thirty remained, under the command of a city constable. The looked-for press arrived at three o'clock on the morning of the 7th of November, and the intelligence of its arrival was made known by the blowing of horns. The mayor, John McKrum, went to the warehouse and aided in storing it. The utmost excitement, however, prevailed during the day, though the mayor came to the conclusion, after making inquiries, that no further violence was intended. There being no sign of an assault on the building, at nine o'clock in the evening most of its defenders retired, leaving about a dozen, willing to risk their lives, if needful, in defence of Mr. Lovejoy and his property.
An hour or two afterward there came from the grog-shops thirty or forty persons, who knocked at the door and demanded the press. Mr. Gilman, one of the owners of the warehouse, informed them that it would not be given up; that they had been authorized by the mayor to defend the property, and they should do it at the hazard of their lives. Presenting a pistol, the leader announced that they were resolved to have it at any sacrifice. Stones were thrown, windows broken, and shots were fired at the building. These shots were returned, and several of the rioters were wounded, one mortally. Ladders were obtained and preparations were made for firing the building, and the cry was raised: "Burn them out." The mayor, accompanied by a justice of the peace, was sent by the mob to propose the surrender of the press on condition that no one should be injured. To the demand of Mr. Gilman that the mayor should call upon the citizens to save his building, the latter replied that the mob was too strong, that he had failed to persuade and was powerless to command. Admitting the lawful right of persons within the building to defend the property, he retired and reported the result w the rioters, who raised the cry: " Fire the building and shoot every d-'-d Abolitionist as he leaves! " With the aid of ladders, the mob mounted the building and fired the roof. Five of the defenders sallied forth from the building, fired upon and dispersed the mob, and returned. Mr. Lovejoy and two others then stepped outside of the building, were fired upon by rioters concealed by a pile of lumber, and Mr. Lovejoy received five balls, three of them in his breast. Returning at once to the counting-room, he expired almost instantly, exclaiming, “I am shot! I am shot!" One of his friends was wounded, but not fatally.
After his death, those in the building offered to surrender; but their offer was declined. One of the number, going out for the purpose of making terms with the rioters, was severely wounded. Most of them left the building, but were fired upon in their attempts to escape. The mob then rushed into the building, seized the press, broke it, and threw the fragments into the river. The next day Mr. Lovejoy's body was borne to his home, amid the heartless rejoicings and scoffings of those who had destroyed his property and taken his life. Thus bravely fell one of the most heroic of that number of noble and earnest men who early consecrated themselves to the great and glorious purpose of maintaining, at fearful odds, that essential palladium of a republic, -freedom of thought, speech, and the press. The conduct of the mayor was glaringly vacillating, inefficient, and open to criticism and censure. He himself admitted that his directions, on an occasion when the majesty of law should have asserted its supremacy, had been the advice of a citizen, rather than the command of an officer. There were no demonstrations friendly or hostile at Mr. Lovejoy's burial, save a simple prayer at his grave. He was buried on a bluff, overlooking, in its peaceful repose, the rolling river and busy town beneath. For many years no stone marked the spot. Not long since, however, an admirer and friend of the martyr procured a simple monument, with this inscription:
Jam parce sepulto.
"Here lies Lovejoy; now spare his grave."
What a change has a third of a century wrought. Then the youthful minister of the gospel, hunted, in his own touching words, like a partridge on the mountains, and appealing in vain for protection against the infuriated mob, found the officers of government and the leaders of public opinion awed by the demon of slavery, rather than inspired by the genius of liberty. Now, that mob dispersed, many of its members and leaders known to have come to a violent and ignominious end, and that terrible system, the guilty source of all that violence, no longer existing. The victim himself is admiringly cherished in the nation's memory, and is sure of a grateful mention on the pages of its history.
The murder of Lovejoy made a deep impression upon the country. The friends of slavery and the enemies of free discussion applauded, or at best excused, the bloody deed, while the friends of liberty and of the freedom of speech and press received the news-with profound sorrow and alarm. They saw in it a new revelation of the magnitude and serious character of the contest on which they had entered. They saw, too, that the conflict was not to be the bloodless encounter of ideas alone, but one in which might be involved scenes of bloody violence and personal hazard and harm. Had they understood the full significance of that sanguinary act, and the desperate character of their foe, as revealed in the events of subsequent years, their alarm might well have been greater.
The Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society was at once convened in Boston, and a series of resolutions was adopted declaring that the guilt of that bloody tragedy was not confined to the immediate actors therein; that it was one of the natural and inevitable consequences of tolerating the system of slavery; and that in the murder of this Christian martyr the church, the press, and the people, who justified the enslavement of their countrymen, instigated riots, and connived at the prostration of lawful authority, had participated to a greater or less extent.
When the intelligence of the Alton tragedy, as it was commonly characterized, reached Boston, Dr. William Ellery Channing and a hundred of its citizens applied for the use of Faneuil Hall, to give expression to their horror at this murder of a Christian clergyman. But their application was rejected. This refusal, and especially the reasons assigned therefor, greatly increased the popular indignation and apprehension; affording, as it did, but another illustration of the national vassalage and subserviency to the Slave Power, when even the doors of the Cradle of Liberty were rudely closed against those who would mourn over the martyrdom of one of its bravest and most heroic defenders. Men of all parties and sects were greatly excited. With the fearless promptitude demanded by the crisis, Dr. Channing addressed an appeal to the citizens of Boston to reverse this arbitrary action of the city government. Avowing that the purpose of the proposed meeting was to maintain the sacredness and freedom of the press against all assaults, he declared that to intimate that such action did not express the public opinion of Boston, and that it would provoke a mob, was to" pronounce the severest libel upon that city." “Has it come to this?” he asked. “Has Boston fallen so low? May not its citizens be trusted to come together to express the great principles of liberty for which their fathers died? Are our fellow-citizens to be murdered in the act of defending their property and of assuming the right of free discussion? and is it unsafe in this metropolis to express abhorrence of the deed? If such be our degradation, we ought to know the awful truth; and those among us who retain a portion of the spirit of our ancestors should set themselves to work to recover their degenerate posterity." He asserted that Boston, by this action of her city authorities, had bade Alton go on to destroy the press and put down the liberty of speech.
This thrilling appeal from one occupying Dr. Channing's position made a deep impression. A public meeting was called ·at the old Supreme Court room to "take into consideration the reasons assigned by the mayor and aldermen for withholding Faneuil Hall, and to act in the premises as may be deemed expedient." The room was filled to overflowing. George Bond was made chairman, and Benjamin F. Hallett was chosen secretary. After the reading of Dr. Channing's letter, a series of pertinent resolutions, offered by Mr. Hallett, was discussed and unanimously adopted. A committee of two from each ward was appointed to renew the application, which happily was successful.
On the 8th of December the meeting was holden. The hall was filled to repletion by the citizens of Boston and vicinity. Jonathan Phillips, a much respected citizen, was called to the chair, and opened the meeting with a brief and pertinent speech. Dr. Channing then made an eloquent and impressive address. A series of resolutions, also from his pen, was read by Mr. Hallett, and seconded and eloquently supported by George S. Hillard.
Thus far everything had been decorous, dignified, and in keeping with the occasion. The addresses had been listened to with respectful attention, if not with unquestioning approbation. At this point James T. Austin, Attorney-General of the Commonwealth, a prominent lawyer, well known in Faneuil Hall, a trained party-leader and most adroit caucus-speaker, made an inflammatory and exciting speech. It was vociferously applauded by the riotous element of the meeting, which, it was estimated, constituted one third of the assembly. Standing in that hall, consecrated to liberty and redolent with the memories of its martyrs, the Attorney-General of Massachusetts unblushingly declared that Lovejoy was not only presumptuous and imprudent while he lived, but that “he died as the fool dieth." He compared, with equal violence to truth and taste, the murderers of Lovejoy with the men who destroyed the tea in Boston Harbor. He declared that wherever the abolition fever raged there were mobs and murders. Alluding to the bondmen in the most offensive terms, he said:--
'' We have a menagerie here, with lions, tigers, a hyena and elephant, a jackass or two, and monkeys in plenty. Suppose, now, some new cosmopolite, some man of philanthropic feelings, not only toward man, but animals, who believes that all are entitled to freedom as an inalienable right, should engage in the humane task of giving freedom to these wild beasts of the forest, some of whom are nobler than their keepers; or, having discovered some new mode of reaching their understanding, should try to induce them to break their cages and be free. The people of Missouri had as much reason to be afraid of their slaves as we should have to be afraid of the wild beasts of the menagerie. They had the same dread of Lovejoy that we should have of the supposed instigator, if we really believed the bars would be broken and the caravan let loose to prowl about our streets."
Having pronounced this disgraceful and seditious harangue, the Attorney-General retired. Wendell Phillips ascended the platform, and was met with the hostile demonstrations of the partisans of Austin, who had just applauded so vociferously his unfeeling and inhuman appeal to their vile passions and still viler prejudices. Mr. Phillips was then a young lawyer, unknown to most present, who had gone to the meeting with no intention of taking any part in its proceedings. Though his first words were met with boisterous outcries, he expressed the hope that he would be permitted to avow his surprise at the sentiments just uttered by such a man, and at the applause they had received in that hall. He characterized and condemned that gentleman's language in the strongest terms of reprobation, though it was done in terms and tones of thrilling eloquence. " When I heard," he said, " the gentleman lay down principles which placed the murderers of Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock, with Quincy and Adams, I thought those pictured lips," pointing to their portraits in the hall, " would have broken into voice to rebuke the recreant American, the slanderer of the dead."
These words were received with mingled demonstrations of censure and applause. “Sir," continued Mr. Phillips, "for the sentiments he has uttered, on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots, the earth should have yawned and swallowed him up." Here the uproar became great, and he could not be heard. William Sturgis, an eminent Boston merchant, ascended the platform and placed himself by the side of Mr. Phillips; but he, too, was met by the loud cries of the excited rioters. “Phillips or nobody," was their fiendish cry. “Make him take it back! He sha' n't go on until he takes it back! " Obtaining a hearing, Mr. Sturgis said: " I did not come here to take any part in this discussion, nor do I intend to; but I do e1itreat you, fellow citizens, by everything you hold sacred, I conjure you by every association connected with this hall, consecrated by our fathers to freedom of discussion, that you listen to any man who addresses you in a decorous manner."
Resuming, Mr. Phillips firmly and peremptorily declared that he could not take back his words, and reminded the excited throng that the attorney-general needed not, their hisses against one so young, whose voice had never before been heard in that hall. He closed his speech with the declaration that "when liberty was in danger Faneuil Hall had the right, and it was her duty, to strike the key-note for the Union; that the passage of the resolutions, in spite of the opposition, led by the attorney-general, will show more decidedly the deep indignation with which Boston regards this outrage."
By this brave and brilliant speech Mr. Phillips, by one single bound, placed himself among the foremost and most popular of American orators, a position he has maintained by the increasing suffrages of the nation. Then began that advocacy of human rights which for more than a generation he continued with tireless and persistent zeal. To it he consecrated culture, learning, and that marvelous eloquence on which the multitudes of a generation hung with never-waning delight. Fearless and fierce in his denunciation of the wrongs of the oppressed, he was always merciless in his castigation of the oppressor and his abettors. Confident, too, in his own plans and modes of action, he was, perhaps, too apt to be critical, censorious, and sometimes intolerant toward those who were equally honest, earnest, and unselfish in their devotion to the same cause to which his and their labors were alike consecrated. But if some others were more judicious and practical in action, none equaled him on the platform and few surpassed him with the pen.
Hundreds, however, went from that meeting unchanged in thought and purpose, even by the terrible event that occasioned it, by the imposing presence and fervid eloquence which characterized it, or by the humiliating utterances that disgraced it. The virus of slavery had so poisoned the public mind and heart that the sentiments and feelings of the large body of the citizens of Boston were more nearly expressed by the brutal harangue of Austin than by the classic words of Channing or the fervid and indignant eloquence of Phillips. They still believed, with Hubbard Winslow, a Congregational clergyman of that city, who, within a month, in his Thanksgiving discourse, asserted that “the unchristian principles and measures” of the Abolitionists tended to fill the land “with violence and blood "; and that the mournful disaster at Alton was but their legitimate result. They accepted, too, his strange and subversive doctrine that '' republican liberty is not the liberty to say and do what one pleases; but liberty to say and do what the prevailing voice and will of the brotherhood will allow and protect."
The executive committee of the American Antislavery Society set apart the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims for simultaneous meetings throughout the free States, to commemorate the tragic death of Mr. Lovejoy. To this call the Abolitionists very generally responded. Many meetings were held in various portions of the country, and the essential barbarism and cruelty of slavery were made to be more distinctly seen and apprehended in the light of that bloody deed. As a legitimate result large accessions were made to the ranks of the pronounced and avowed Abolitionists.
A special meeting of the Massachusetts Antislavery Society was held in Boston. Amos A. Phelps gave a detailed statement of the tragic affair at Alton. William Lloyd Garrison spoke briefly, but with his usual strong and severe denunciation, not only of the mob, but of the cause which inspired it. Orestes A. Brownson defended, with great vigor and force, freedom of thought, of speech, and of the press. Of the martyred dead Mr. Phillips spoke eloquently. He referred mournfully to the alleged fact that the rioters at Alton were heard encouraging each other with references to “old Boston." He characterized, with becoming indignation, her humiliation when her name was made “the motto and war-cry of the mob."
Edmund Quincy, like Mr. Phillips, was then a young Boston lawyer. He had become somewhat interested in the discussions upon slavery, but as yet had not fully committed himself to the antislavery cause. But this event solved all doubts, removed all hesitations, and fixed his determination. He came to that meeting to lay, as an offering, his talents and social position upon the altar of an unpopular cause, dripping with the first fresh blood of martyrdom. In this his first antislavery speech he eloquently enunciated and vindicated the fundamental principles of the conflict, and referred, with much beauty and pathos, to " the sublime idea that throughout the vast extent of the free portions of this continent the sons and daughters of New England are gathered together, on this the birthday of their common mother, to pay due honor to the memory of a brother who has willingly laid down his life in defence of those principles of liberty to which she owed her birth." His labors, then commenced, continued with unabated activity until, by the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment, slavery disappeared; when, with Mr. Garrison, he retired from an organization which that great consummation seemed to them to render no longer necessary. Mr. Quincy had not the mellifluous, brilliant, and impressive eloquence of Mr. Phillips; but he brought to the conflict unrivalled wit, a polished and trenchant pen that had few equals. By voice and pen he rendered effective service to the antislavery cause, though often more caustic than charitable toward an opponent, and sometimes apparently more anxious to make a point than to do strict justice, even to a co-laborer. He presented, too, with great clearness, the views of that class of reformers with whom he acted, and was among the ablest exponents of that type of abolitionism of which Mr. Garrison was the recognized leader. His reports, while secretary of the Antislavery Society, were models of patient and exhaustive research, of keen and brilliant rhetoric. Nor can they now be read without vivid impressions of the desperate nature of the disease which was then afflicting, disgracing, and endangering the nation, and clear conceptions of the remedies he and those he represented were endeavoring to apply to its cure.
While the great body of the Abolitionists and friends of free discussion thus honored the self-sacrificing and martyr spirit of Mr. Lovejoy, and justified his heroic defence of sacred rights assailed by armed ruffianism, there were a few among them who did not applaud, but rather condemned, his course. Especially was this true of a section of that small, active, but rather pugnacious portion of the New England Abolitionists who had adopted the extreme doctrine of non-resistance. They, deeming Mr. Lovejoy's position inconsistent with their own, not only questioned its wisdom, but even characterized it as indefensible. Such manifestations, however, clearly revealed the impracticable tendencies of their views, and foreshadowed not only the manifest harm and hindrance they unquestionably occasioned to the antislavery labors of the most of those who entertained them, but also the heavy burden they laid upon the cause itself.
Source: Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 374-389.
LOVEJOY, Joseph C., Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Corresponding Secretary, 1846, Executive Committee, 1846,1850 (Sinha, 2016, p. 465; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)
LOVEJOY, Joseph C., Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Corresponding Secretary, 1846, Executive Committee, 1846,1850 (Sinha, 2016, p. 465; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)
LOVEJOY, Owen, 1811-1864, clergyman, abolitionist leader, lawyer, U.S. Congressman. Illinois Anti-Slavery Society. Member and Manager of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Active in Underground Railroad. Member, Illinois State Legislature. Brother of anti-slavery newspaper publisher, Elijah Parrish Lovejoy. Like his brother, Owen Lovejoy was a strong supporter of William Lloyd Garrison. He was elected to Congress in 1856 and actively supported the abolition of slavery in Congress until his death in 1864. (Blue, 2005, pp. 6, 11, 13, 90-116, 265-270; Dumond, 1961, p. 186; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 4, 48, 91, 131, 188; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 141, 196; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 34-35; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 435; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 6).
LOVEJOY, Owen, abolitionist, born in Albion, Me., 6 Jan., 1811; died in Brooklyn, New York, 25 March, 1864, worked on his father's farm till he was eighteen years old, and then entered Bowdoin, but left before graduation, emigrated to Alton, Illinois, and studied theology. He was present when his brother was murdered, and was moved by that event to devote himself to the overthrow of slavery. He became pastor of a Congregational Church at Princeton, Illinois, in 1838. Although anti-slavery meetings were forbidden by the laws of Illinois, he openly held them in all parts of the state, announcing at each one the time and place for the next meeting. This course subjected him to frequent fines and to violence and intimidation; but by his eloquence and persistency he won many adherents, and eventually the repressive laws were repealed. He resigned his pastoral charge in 1854 on being elected a member of the legislature. In 1856 he was sent to Congress, and was continued there by re-election until his death. At the beginning of the Civil War he delivered in the House of Representatives a remarkable speech against slavery, in which he recounted the circumstances of his brother's death. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 34-35.
LOVELL, Charles Swain, soldier, born in Hull, Massachusetts, 13 February. 1811; died in Louisville, Kentucky, 3 January, 1871. He enlisted as a private in the 2d U. S. Artillery in January, 1831, and served in various garrisons, rising to quartermaster-sergeant, sergeant-major, and, in October, 1837, to 2d lieutenant. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in July, 1838, captain, 18 June, 1846, and took part in the battles of Churubusco. Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the city of Mexico. He then served in the territories till the Civil War, and after promotion to major, on 14 May, 1861, commanded a brigade at Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, the second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. From 1863 till 1865 he was on provost-marshal duty in Wisconsin, and he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 21 January, 1863, and colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry, 16 February, 1865. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Gaines's Mills, colonel for Malvern Hill, and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for Antietam. After the war he commanded his regiment at Fort Yuma, California, and on 15 December, 1870, was retired from active service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 35.
LOVELL, Frederick Solon, lawyer, born in Charlestown, New Hampshire, 1 November, 1814; died in Kenosha, Wisconsin, 14 May, 1878. He was graduated at Geneva (now Hobart) College, New York, in 1835, studied law, and after admission to the bar in New York settled, in 1837, in Southport (now Kenosha), Wisconsin He served for three sessions in the territorial council, and took part in the constitutional conventions of 1846 and 1847. In 1857 he sat in the legislature, and was a commissioner to revise the state statutes, and in 1858 he was speaker of the assembly. He entered the National Army in August, 1862, as lieutenant-colonel of the 33d Wisconsin Infantry, and served later as colonel of the 43d Regiment in the southwest. In January, 1865, he was commissioned colonel of the 46th Regiment, and on 27 September of that year was mustered out, and resumed the practice of law at Kenosha. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 35.
LOVELL, Mansfield, soldier, born in Washington. D. C., 20 October, 1822; died in New York City, 1 June, 1884, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, appointed a lieutenant of artillery, and served in the occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and in the war with Mexico was aide to General John A. Quitman and assistant adjutant-general of his division, being promoted 1st lieutenant on 16 February, 1847. He was wounded at Monterey, brevetted captain for bravery at Chapultepec, and severely wounded at the Belen Gate. After the war he served on the Kansas frontier for two years. On 18 December, 1854, he and his classmate, Gustavus A. Smith, resigned in order to take high commands in General Quitman's projected Cuban Expedition. After the failure of the project they found employment in connection with Cooper and Hewitt's iron-works at Trenton, New Jersey. In April, 1858, Lovell was appointed superintendent of street improvements in New York City, and in November of that year deputy street-commissioner under his friend Smith. At the beginning of the Civil War he went to the south with General Smith, was commissioned as a brigadier-general in the Confederate service, and on 9 October, 1861, was made a major-general and placed in command at New Orleans, relieving General David E. Twiggs. When the forts were captured by the National forces he withdrew his troops, and, on the complaint of the mayor that he had left the citizens without military protection, explained that it was for the purpose of saving the town from a bombardment, offering to return if the citizens desired to continue the defence. After the surrender of New Orleans to Farragut, 26 April, 1862, he joined General Beauregard in northern Mississippi, and commanded one of the divisions that were routed by General William S. Rosecrans at Corinth, 4 October. 1862. At the battle of Hatchie his division constituted the rear-guard of the retreating army. He commanded the Confederate forces at the battle of Coffeeville. When General Leonidas Polk was killed, 14 June, 1864, Lovell succeeded to the command of the corps, and on 27 June repelled General Sherman's attack on his intrenchments at Kenesaw. When the war was ended he retired to a rice-plantation near Savannah, Georgia, but not long afterward went to New York City, and was engaged as an assistant engineer under General John Newton in removing the East River obstructions at Hellgate. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 36.
LOW, Abiel Abbot, merchant, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 7 February, 1811. He was educated in the public schools, early became a clerk in a mercantile house, and subsequently for several years was with his father, who was an importer of drugs and India goods in New York City, and had resided in Brooklyn. New York, since 1829. In 1833 he sailed for Canton. China, where he became a partner in an American mercantile house in 1837. Three years later he returned home and engaged in the China tea and silk trade. As his business increased he built many of his own ships. He was made a member of the New York chamber of commerce in 1846, and in 1863 was elected its president, holding the office until the close of I860, when he resigned. He was frequently called upon to address the chamber and other bodies, or to consult with the government at Washington in relation to commercial or financial interests, and his voice and influence were always decided and powerful in support of the plighted faith of the nation. During the war he was treasurer of the Union Defence Committee of New York, a member of the War Fund Committee of Brooklyn, and president of the General Committee of Citizens in Brooklyn that was appointed in aid of the sanitary service. Mr. Low has been for many years president of the board of trustees of the Packer Institute. He has contributed gifts to the Brooklyn Library, the City Hospital, and many other educational, benevolent, and religious enterprises. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 37.
LOW, Frederick Ferdinand, governor of California, born in Frankfort, Maine, 30 June. 1828. He was trained for mercantile life in Boston, Massachusetts, went to California in 1849, and, after spending some time in the mines, established himself in business in San Francisco, and in 1854 moved to Marysville, where he became a banker. He was elected as a Republican to Congress in 1860, and, after the expiration of his term in 1863, was appointed collector of the Port of San Francisco. He was elected governor the same year. and served for the four-years' term beginning 1 January, 1864. From 1869 till 1874 he was U. S. minister to China. In February, 1871, he was empowered to negotiate with Corea for the protection of shipwrecked seamen and for a treaty of commerce and navigation. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 37.
LOWE, David Pearly, jurist, born in Oneida County, New York, 22 August, 1823. He was graduated at the law department of Cincinnati College in 1851, practised in that city for ten years, and then moved to Kansas, and took up his residence at Mound City. He declined the nomination of the Union Party in 1862 for attorney-general of the state, but was elected a member of the state senate, and served two years. During the raid of General Sterling Price into Kansas he performed military service as a lieutenant-colonel on Governor Thomas Carney's staff. He was defeated as a candidate for chief justice in 1866, was a District judge in 1867-'71, and was twice elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 4 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1875. He was appointed a commissioner of pensions, and declined, but accepted the chief justiceship of Utah Territory, and subsequently resumed practice in Fort Scott, Kansas. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 39.
LOWE, John Williamson, soldier, born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, 9 November, 1809; died in Nicholas County, Virginia, 10 September, 1861. He learned the printer's trade in New York City, settled in Batavia, Clermont County, Ohio, in 1833, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised in Dayton, and subsequently in Xenia. Ohio. He was a captain in the 2d Ohio Volunteers during the Mexican War, and in the beginning of the Civil War joined the National Army as captain of the first company that was raised in Greene County, and was elected colonel of the 12th Ohio Infantry, which formed part of General Jacob D. Cox's brigade that operated in western Virginia, and cleared the Kanawha Valley of the enemy. Colonel Lowe on 17 July, 1861. attacked the enemy's position on Scary creek, but retired when his ammunition was nearly exhausted. He took part in the occupation of Charleston, Virginia, and at Carnifex Ferry fell while leading his regiment in a charge against a strongly posted battery. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 38.
LOWE, Susan, married to prominent abolitionist Augustus Wattles, helped him found an African American trade school in Indiana (Dumond, 1961, pp. 280-281)
LOWE, Thaddeus South Carolina, aëronaut, born in Jefferson, New Hampshire, 20 August, 1832. He made his earliest voyages about 1858, and during one of them rose to a height of 23,000 feet. On 20 April, 1861, he rose from Cincinnati, Ohio, at 4 A. M., in a balloon, and drifted first westward, but afterward to the southeast, attaining an altitude of 18,000 feet. He descended in Union County, South Carolina, after being in the air eight hours and traversing 350 miles in a straight line. He next announced his intention of crossing the Atlantic ocean by means of a balloon, and for this purpose constructed one of oiled cotton with a capacity of 725,000 cubic feet; but after several unsuccessful attempts to inflate it, he abandoned the attempt. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he visited Washington for the purpose of recommending to the government the desirability of using balloons for observing the movements of the enemy. He made several captive ascensions (those in which the balloon is held to the earth, and finally drawn down, by a long rope) from the grounds of the Smithsonian institution, and was then made chief aëronautic engineer of the army. Several balloons, in the hands of his assistant, made ascensions; but as they were independent of any branch of the service, their efficiency was greatly impaired. Mr. Lowe was the first to make experiments in sending messages by the electric telegraph from a balloon to the ground; but, although he was successful, his device does not appear to have been put to any satisfactory employment. He invented and put into practical use a portable apparatus for generating hydrogen gas for war balloons. These he had constructed from the closest woven and strongest pongee silk, varying in capacity from 15,000 to 20,000 cubic feet. During Mr. Lowe's connection with the Army of the Potomac, General Fitz-John Porter, General George Stoneman, and others made ascensions; but Mr. Lowe's relations with the military authorities became strained, on account of his independent appointments, and many of his bills remained unaudited, owing to the feeling between him and the engineer officers, so that he severed his connection with the army long before the close of the war. Subsequently he made captive ascensions from Philadelphia and New York; but these proving financially unsuccessful, he retired from aëronautic pursuits after disposing of his apparatus to the Brazilian government. Mr. Lowe then turned his attention to inventing, and obtained patents on various mechanical devices, one of the first of which was an ice-making machine. Later he invented a machine for making water-gas by the addition of crude petroleum, which has resulted in the production of an illuminant equal to that obtained from coal, and at a much less cost. One of his more recent inventions is light produced by means of a coil of wire heated to incandescence by a jet of non-luminous water-gas under heavy pressure. Mr. Lowe is now (1888) engaged in perfecting a system for the use of water-gas as a fuel for cities, and in the production of appliances for cooking and heating, adapted to the use of water-gas. [Appleton’s 1900]
LOWE, William Warren, soldier, born in Indiana, 12 October, 1831. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1853, commissioned as a lieutenant of dragoons on 22 October, 1854, and was engaged in scouting and on frontier duty till the beginning of the Civil War. He was made a captain of cavalry on 9 May, 1861, served through the Manassas Campaign, and during the following winter organized the 5th Regiment of Iowa volunteer cavalry, of which he was made colonel on 1 January. 1862. In February he participated in the Tennessee Campaign, and was engaged in the capture of Fort Donelson, of which he was commandant till March, 1863, repelling various attacks. He subsequently commanded a brigade or a division in cavalry operations in middle Tennessee, northern Alabama, and Georgia, receiving the brevet of major for gallantry in an engagement near Chickamauga, Georgia, and that of lieutenant-colonel for a cavalry action near Huntsville, Alabama In the advance from Chattanooga he commanded the 3d Cavalry division until relieved by General Judson Kilpatrick, and again after that officer was wounded. From July, 1864, till January, 1865, he was employed in remounting cavalry at Nashville, being mustered out of the volunteer service on 24 January, 1865. He subsequently served as chief mustering and disbursing officer for Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, and Colorado. He was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for services in the war, and promoted major on 31 July, 1866. He left the army on 23 June, 1869, organized smelting and refining works in Omaha, Nebraska, engaged in mining in Utah, constructed a railroad, built on the Salmon River the first smelting-works in Idaho, and more recently prospected for petroleum in Wyoming territory, and discovered a well of lubricating-oil on the Little Popoagie River. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 39.
LOWELL, James Russell, 1819-1891, poet, essayist, journalist, anti-slavery activist, temperance and labor reform advocate. Wrote antislavery poetry. Married to abolitionist Maria White Lowell. Became a contributing editor to the abolitionist newspaper, Pennsylvania Freeman. Counsellor, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1847-1852. (Filler, 1960, pp. 29, 141, 185; Mabee, 1970, pp. 66, 208, 257, 342; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 155, 267n; Pease, 1965, pp. 310-315; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 468; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 39-42; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 458; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 40)
LOWELL, James Russell, poet and essayist, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 22 February, 1819; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 12 August, 1891. Lowell in genius and character is the hereditary representative of the heart and brains that founded New England. He was the youngest of five children. From both parents were transmitted high intelligence, sound principles, and right ideals, but the poetic and imaginative faculty came from the mother. His birthplace was the old Tory mansion now called “Elmwood,” a large, three-story, square, wooden house in the early colonial style, situated in spacious grounds, surrounded by magnificent elms and pines planted by his father, with an outlook on Charles River. (See view on page 40.) Lowell was fitted for college by William Wells (who was the senior of the firm to whom we owe the series of Wells and Lilly classics), entered Harvard in his sixteenth year, and was graduated in 1838. His first-published literary production, unless possibly some poems for “Harvardiana,” which he edited in 1837-'8, was his notable class poem, composed under peculiar circumstances. At the time of writing it the collegiate senior was undergoing a brief period of rustication at Concord, in consequence of inattention to his text-books. His forced sojourn in this Arcadia of scholarship and reform brought him into relationship with the transcendentalists, who at that day were in the habit of gathering at the home of Emerson, with whom then began that friendship which, despite the playful sallies of the younger poet in his earlier writings, only terminated with the death of the elder. The young satirist saw the humorous side of the social movements of the day, and the class-poem, scintillating with wit, attacked the abolitionists, Carlyle, Emerson, and the transcendentalists. In the law-school of Harvard, Lowell received the degree of LL. BORN, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. The only record of the practice of his profession is found in a story entitled “My First Client,” published in the “Boston Miscellany.” Henceforth he gave himself entirely to literature. In 1841 a volume of poems, written under the influence of affection for a woman of genius who became his wife, was published under the title of “A Year's Life.” The key-note of the poems, buoyant with youth and love, is in the closing lines:
“The poet now his guide hath found,
And follows in the steps of Love.”
The volume was never re-published, and of the seventy poems only a small part have been deemed worthy of re-printing by the author. His marriage to the woman who inspired these poems took place in 1844. Maria White was an ardent abolitionist, and no doubt her influence assisted in turning his thoughts to the serious side of that cause to which he rendered immortal service. To understand Lowell's career, it is necessary to remember that he was not only a poet, a scholar, and a humorist, but always a conservative and a critic. No man was more thoroughly imbued than he with the fundamental principles of American democracy — a democracy without demagogism — no man more jealous than he of the untarnished reputation of America in politics and literature, no man more quick to see any departure from the high ideal of the republic, and his flaming pen was turned to attack whatever assailed this ideal &mdash at one time slavery, at another time vicious political methods threatening the purity of democratic society. His radicalism was always conservative, his criticism always constructive. Lowell and his wife were regular contributors to the “Liberty Bell,” and his name appears in 1848 in “The Anti-Slavery Standard” as corresponding editor. In this paper, from 1843 to 1846, his poems during that period mostly appeared. Later the “Boston Courier” was the vehicle of his productions, and in its columns the first series of the “Biglow Papers” was given to the public, beginning in the issue for June, 1846, and ending in 1848. This satire was an event of the first importance in the history of the world's literature. In wit, scholarship, and penetrating knowledge of human nature, it took the place, which it has ever since maintained, of a masterpiece. Age has only increased its reputation, and it is a recognized classic both in England and America. The test of its power and universality is the constant quotation from it on both sides of the Atlantic. Locally its effect was amazing. It consisted of a series of poems in the Yankee dialect, ostensibly by Mr. Hosea Biglow, and edited, with an introduction, notes, glossary, index, and “notices of an independent press,” by “Homer Wilbur, A. M., pastor of the first Church in Jaalam, and prospective member of many literary, learned, and scientific societies.” In the main it was a satire on slavery and the Mexican War, but there was scarcely any cant, hypocrisy, or meanness in politics, the pulpit, and the press that was not hit by it. The hitherto despised abolitionists, the subject of gibes and satire, found a champion who turned the batteries of the scholar, in unequalled wit, merriment, and ridicule, upon their enemies and the enemies of the free republic, exposing to the laughter of the world the sneaking attitude of compromising politicians and of those who wore the livery of heaven in the cause of human slavery. Thereafter the fight took on a very different character; it was respectable to be on the side of freedom. The “Biglow Papers” will no doubt preserve the Yankee dialect, and cause it to be studied ages hence in order to the comprehension of the effect upon our national life of one of the most opportune allies that freedom ever had.
His interest in the anti-slavery contest did not prevent Lowell from purely literary labors. In 1843 he undertook the editing of “The Pioneer, a Literary and Critical Magazine,” in joint editorship with Robert Carter (q. v.); and Poe, Hawthorne, Neal, Dwight, Jones Very, Parsons, Elizabeth Barrett (Mrs. Browning), Whittier, and William W. Story were contributors. Only three numbers were published, the venture failing through financial disaster to the publishers. In this magazine was begun a series of essays on the poets and dramatists, which afterward formed the material for “Conversations with Some of the Old Poets” (Cambridge, 1845). In 1844 came a volume of verse, containing “A Legend of Brittany,” with thirty-three miscellaneous poems and thirty-seven sonnets (among them sonnets to Wendell Phillips and Joshua R. Giddings), written in a vein that foreshadowed and even announced the poet's position in the great anti-slavery revolution. These were followed in 1845 by “The Vision of Sir Launfal,” one of the most exquisite productions of his genius, a poem founded on the legend of the Holy Grail, which is said to have been composed in a sort of frenzy in about forty-eight hours, during which the poet scarcely ate or slept. The “Conversations on the Poets” was Lowell's first work in literary criticism, and was the basis of his lectures before the Lowell Institute, 1854-'5, and of his lectures in Harvard University during his professorship of modern languages and belles-lettres. A third volume of poems, containing many new anti-slavery pieces was published in 1848, and the same year was brought out anonymously the “Fable for Critics,” a youthfully daring but amusing and racy skit at the American poets, in which the laughing author did not spare himself. In 1849 a collected edition of his poems in two volumes was published, the “Biglow Papers” and “A Year's Life” being omitted. In the mean time Lowell had been a contributor to the “Dial,” the “Democratic Review,” the “Massachusetts Quarterly Review,” in which he reviewed Thoreau's first volume in 1849, and to “Putnam's Monthly” in 1853 and several years later. In 1851 the poet and his wife travelled in Europe, visiting England, France, and Switzerland, and residing for some time in Italy. The chief fruits of this journey were the essays on Italian art and literature and his eminence as a student and interpreter of Dante. In the autumn of 1852 he was again in America, and in October, 1853, he sustained the greatest sorrow of his life in the death of his wife, who had long been an invalid. In January, 1855, on Mr. Longfellow's resignation, Lowell was appointed his successor as professor of modern languages and belles-lettres in Harvard University, and after two years' study abroad, during which time he greatly extended his knowledge of Italian, French, and Spanish, and became one of the first authorities in old French and Provencal poetry, he assumed the duties of his professorship. From 1857 till 1862 he wrote many essays, not since re-published, for the “Atlantic Monthly,” and in 1863 he became, with Professor Charles Eliot Norton, joint editor of the “North American Review,” a connection which he maintained till 1872. The “Atlantic Monthly,” founded in 1857, of which Lowell was the first editor, was set on foot by Holmes, Longfellow, Emerson, and Lowell, and Emerson's study was the scene of the gathering of the great literary lights of Boston, when the enterprise was discussed and the character of the magazine settled upon.
The Kansas struggle, 1856-'8, enlisted Lowell's sympathies; he was in accord with the leading anti-slavery men, and at one time, says Frank B. Sanborn, contemplated transferring his Hosea Biglow to Kansas to report in the vernacular the doings there, but “the flighty purpose never was o'ertook.” The outbreak of the Civil War caused a revival of the dramatis personæ of the “Biglow Papers,” in which the disunionists at home and their sympathizers in England were equally brought under the lash of his stinging satire. It went straight to the American heart. This second series of “Biglow Papers” first appeared in the “Atlantic,” and was published in a volume in 1867. The “Fireside Travels,” containing the pleasant gossip about “Cambridge Thirty Years Ago,” the delightful “Moosehead Journal,” and notes of travel on the Mediterranean and in Italy, had appeared in the meantime. The “Atlantic” for January, 1867, contained “Fitz Adam's Story,” a poem intended to form part of a longer one, “The Nooning,” which has been announced as about to be published as far back as 1851, but has never been completed. It was omitted from “Under the Willows, and other Poems” (Boston, 1869), with the following explanation: “ ‘Fitz Adam's Story,’ which some good friends will miss, is also left to stand over, because it belongs to a connected series, which it is hoped may be completed if the days should be propitious.” The volumes of prose, “Among my Books” and “My Study Windows,” issued in 1870, comprising the choicest of Lowell's literary essays, seemed to mark the close of his greatest literary activity; but the appearance recently of such a paper as that on the poet Grey shows that only opportunity is needed for the gathering of the maturest fruits of his critical genius. In 1872 he made another visit to Europe, and on his return the “Centennial” period called out his efforts in the production of three patriotic odes, the first at Concord, 19 April, 1875, the second under the Washington elm, 3 July of the same year, and the third for 4 July, 1876. He was a presidential elector in 1876.
In 1877 Mr. Lowell was appointed by President Hayes to the Spanish mission, from which he was transferred in 1880 to the court of St. James. His diplomatic career closed with his recall by President Cleveland in 1885. In Madrid, in an atmosphere congenial to him as a student, he sustained the honor of the American name, and received the confidence and admiration that had been formerly extended to Washington Irving. His residence in London, although clouded and saddened by the long illness and by the death in February, 1885, of his second wife, Miss Frances Dunlap, of Portland, Maine, whom he had married in September, 1857, was as honorable to him as to the country he represented, an unbroken series of successes in the world of society and the world of letters. Called upon to settle no serious international differences, he bore himself with the tact and dignity that was to be desired in our representative to a great and friendly power, mindful always that his mission was to maintain cordial amity instead of seeking causes of alienation. And no man in our generation has done more than Lowell to raise American institutions and American character in the estimation of our English kin. His graceful and natural oratory was in demand on scores of public occasions. The most noteworthy of his public addresses was that on Coleridge, delivered at the unveiling of the bust of the poet in Westminster Abbey in May, 1885. The volume entitled “Democracy and other Addresses” (Boston, 1887) includes the foreign speeches, and those spoken at the dedication of the public library of Chelsea and at the Harvard anniversary. Mr. Lowell's political life is confined within the eight years of his terms of office at Madrid and London. His recall brought out expressions of deep regret in the English press, and he returned to the United States to receive the plaudits of his countrymen. Temporary political criticisms there were, but they were such as a man can afford to leave to the judgment of time, which will not fail to compare his own ideal of what the republic should be with the notions of his critics. Since his return to private life Mr. Lowell's home has been with his only child, the wife of Edward Burnett, at Southboro, Massachusetts He resumed his lectures at Cambridge, and in the winter of 1887 gave a course on the English dramatists before the Lowell Institute. The same winter he read a paper before the Union league club of Chicago on the authorship of Richard III. In the summer of 1887 he again visited England, receiving everywhere the highest honors that could be paid to a private citizen. The degree of D. C. L. was conferred upon him by the University of Oxford in 1873, and that of LL. D. by the University of Cambridge, England, in 1874. During his residence in England as minister he was elected rector of the University of St. Andrews.The following is a list of his works and their various editions: “Class Poem” (Boston, 1838); “A Year's Life” (1841); “Poems” (Cambridge, 1844); “The Vision of Sir Launfal” (Boston, 1845; 2d ed., 1848, and included in “Vest-Pocket Series”); “Conversations on Some of the Old Poets” (1845); “Poems” (1848); “The Biglow Papers” (1848); “A Fable for Critics” (1848); “Poems” (2 vols., 1849); “Life of Keats,” prefacing an edition of his works (1854); “Poems” (2 vols., 1854); “Poetical Works” (2 vols., 1858); “Mason and Slidell, a Yankee Idyl” (1862); “Fireside Travels” (1864); “The President's Policy” (1864); “Ode recited at the Commemoration of the Living and Dead Soldiers of Harvard University,” 21 July, 1865; “The Biglow Papers,” 2d series (1867); “Under the Willows, and other Poems” (1869); “Among my Books” (1870); “The Courtin’ ” (1874); “Three Memorial Poems” (1876); “Among my Books,” 2d series (1876); and “Democracy, and other Addresses” (1887). “The Literary World” (Boston) of 27 June, 1885, is a Lowell number, containing estimates of Mr. Lowell's literary and personal qualities, with testimonies from prominent writers, and a bibliography. Francis H. Underwood published in 1882 a biographical sketch; and Stedman's “American Poets,” a volume called “Homes and Haunts of our Elder Poets,” and Haweis's “American Humorists,” contain essays upon Mr. Lowell. — James Russell's wife, below.
LOWELL, Maria White, 1821-1853, Watertown, Massachusetts, poet, abolitionist, temperance advocate, women’s rights activist, wife of poet and anti-slavery activist James Russell Lowell. Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS). (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 42)
LOWELL, Maria White, poet, born in Watertown, Massachusetts, 8 July, 1821; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 27 October, 1853, married Mr. Lowell in 1844. She possessed great beauty of person and character, and was an accomplished linguist. Her death, which took place the same night that one of Mr. Longfellow's children was born, called forth from Longfellow his poem beginning,
“Two angels, one of life and one of death,
Passed o'er our village, as the morning broke.”
A volume of her poems, which are characterized by tenderness and delicacy of feeling, was printed privately after her death (Cambridge, 1855). The best known of them are “The Alpine Shepherd” and “The Morning-Glory.” [Appleton’s 1900]
LOWELL, Charles, 1782-1861, Boston, Massachusetts, clergyman, opponent of slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 42-43)
LOWELL, Charles Russell, soldier, born in Boston, 2 January, 1835; died near Middletown, Virginia, 20 October, 1864, was graduated at Harvard in 1854, with the first honors, and after several years of European travel was employed for some time in steel and iron works, and on the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad. In the spring of 1861, while superintending iron-works in Cumberland valley, Ma., he offered his services to the government, and on 14 May he was commissioned captain in the 6th Cavalry. He served on General McClellan's staff till November, 1862, when he organized the 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, and on 15 April, 1863, was made its colonel. He commanded a brigade of Cavalry in Virginia, was actively engaged in the pursuit of Mosby's guerillas, and afterward under Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 19 October, 1864, on recommendation of General Sheridan, for his services in the latter campaign. In his three years of service twelve horses had been shot under him, vet he escaped without injury till the battle of Cedar Creek, where he was wounded while in the advance of General Getty's division, but refused to leave his command. In the moment of victory he received additional wounds, which caused his death on the following day. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp.
LOWNDES, Charles, naval officer, born in Maryland in 1798; died in Easton, Maryland, 14 December, 1885. He entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman in March, 1815, was promoted lieutenant, 13 January, 1825, commander, 8 September, 1841, captain, 14 September, 1855, and was placed on the retired list, 21 December, 1861, being commissioned commodore, 16 July. 1862. In 1860-'l he was in command of the steam sloop " Hartford," and he served as a prize commissioner in 1864-'5. He was a brother-in-law of Franklin Buchanan, and was suspected of sympathizing with the Confederates, which may explain his being placed on the retired list at the comparatively early age of sixty-three. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 44.
LOZIER, Clemence Sophia Harned, 1813-1888, Plainfield, New Jersey, physician, abolitionist, feminist activist. President of New York Suffrage League. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 48; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 480)
LOZIER, Clemence Sophia, physician, born in Plainfield, New Jersey. 11 December, 1812. She was the youngest daughter of David Harned, and was educated at Plainfield Academy. In 1829 she married Abraham W. Lozier, of New York, but soon afterward, her husband's health failing, she opened a select school and taught for eleven years. During this time she was associated with Mrs. Margaret Pryor in visiting the poor and abandoned, under the auspices of the Moral reform Society. After her husband's death she determined to study medicine, attended her first lectures at Rochester eclectic Medical College in 1849, and was graduated at the Syracuse Medical College in 1853. Dr. Lozier at once began practice as a homoeopathist in New York, where she has since continued, and in the surgery required by the diseases of her own sex has shown peculiar skill, having performed many capital operations in the removal of tumors. In 1860 she began a course of lectures on medical subjects in her own parlors, which in 1863 resulted in the founding of the New York H College and Hospital for women, where she was clinical professor of diseases of women and children, and also dean of the faculty, for more than twenty years. This institution was the first distinctively woman's medical college to be established in New York state. Dr. Lozier has taken an active interest in all that pertains to the elevation of her sex, for thirteen years was president of the New York City woman suffrage Society, and for four years of the National woman suffrage Society. She has also held office in other philanthropic and reform associations, and has been an occasional contributor to medical journals.—Her daughter-in-law. Charlotte Irene, physician, born in Milburn, New Jersey, 15 March, 1844; died in New York City, 3 January, 1870, was the daughter of Jacob S. Denman, and was graduated in 1867 at the New York Medical College and Hospital for women. In 1868 she was called to fill the chair of physiology and hygiene in that institution, which relation she held until her death. Dr. Lozier took an active part in the struggle to secure for female students the privilege of attending the clinics of Bellevue Hospital, leading them herself to the wards and operating-rooms. She was an able lecturer, an original investigator in anatomy and physiology, a skilful practitioner, and an energetic worker in all movements for the elevation of her sex. In 1866 she married Dr. Abraham W. Lozier, son of Dr. Clemence S. Lozier. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 48.
LUBBOCK, Francis Richard, governor of Texas, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, 16 October. 1815. He was educated chiefly in Beaufort and Charleston, South Carolina, engaged in mercantile pursuits, in 1834 moved to New Orleans, and in 1836 to Texas. He settled in 1837 in Houston, Texas, building the third house in that place, was clerk of the Texas House of Representatives in 1838, then appointed comptroller by President Houston, and while serving in this office was made adjutant of the force for the protection of the frontier. He returned to Houston in 1839, was comptroller again in 1841, and clerk of Harris County in 1843-'56. He was chosen lieutenant-governor in 1857, and governor in 1861, but declined a renomination in 1863, and at the expiration of his term entered the Confederate Army as lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed on the staff of Jefferson Davis in 1864, with the rank of colonel, was with Mr. Davis when he was captured, and was confined in Port Delaware till December, 1865. He resumed business in Houston in 1866, and moved in 1867 to Galveston, where he served three terms as city treasurer. Mr. Lubbock was chosen state treasurer of Texas in 1878, and was re-elected in 1882,1884, and 1886. In this office he has broken up the custom of speculating with comptroller's warrants, and has thus improved the financial standing of the state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 49.
LUCAS, Daniel Bedinger, lawyer, born in Charlestown, Virginia (now West Virginia), 16 March, 1836. His father, William, was a member of Congress from Virginia in 1839-'41 and 1843-'5, and his uncle, Edward, in 1833-'7. When the son was an infant his Negro nurse let him fall from her arms, causing a permanent spinal injury. He was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1855, and in law at Washington College, Virginia, in 1858, and began to practice in Charlestown, Virginia, but in 1860 moved to Richmond. He served on the staff of General Henry A. Wise in the Kanawha Valley in the Civil War, and in 1867 resumed the practice of his profession in Charlestown, West Virginia, where he has since resided. He was a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1872, 1876, and 1884, chosen to the legislature in 1884-'6, and in 1887 was appointed to the U. S. Senate by the governor. The legislature subsequently elected Charles J. Faulkner, and the Senate gave the seat to the latter. Mr. Lucas received the degree of LL. D. from the University of West Virginia in 1833. He has obtained a reputation as a public speaker. He has published "Memoir of John Yates Bell" (Montreal, 1865); "The Wreath of Eglantine and Other Poems," including several by his sister (Baltimore, 1869); "The Maid of Northumberland " (New York, 1879); and "Ballads and Madrigals" (1884). His poem "The Land where we were Dreaming," written in 1865, attracted much attention at the south. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 48-49.
LUCAS, Thomas John, soldier, born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana. 9 September, 1826. His father, Frederick, a native of Rennes, France, and a soldier of Napoleon's later campaigns, came to this country after the battle of Waterloo and settled in Baltimore, Maryland, where he learned the trade of a watchmaker. He afterward moved successively to Marietta and Cincinnati, Ohio, and Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where he married and passed the rest of his life. The son learned his father's trade, but enlisted for the Mexican War as a drummer-boy in the 4th Indiana Volunteers, and rose to be lieutenant and adjutant. At the close of the war he resumed his former occupation, which he continued till 1861. He then raised a company, was chosen its captain, and joined the 16th Indiana Regiment, of which he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. After the battle of Ball's Bluff he covered the retreat of the National forces, crossing the Potomac in the last boat, and was promoted colonel. He opposed Kirby Smith's advance at Richmond, Kentucky, and then took part in all the operations around Vicksburg, where he was wounded three times. Afterward he was ordered to New Orleans and placed at the head of a cavalry brigade, with which he did good service in the Red River Expedition, first in the advance, next in covering the retreat of Banks's army to Alexandria, and then in the advance again to the Mississippi. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 10 November, 1864, and commanded a division of cavalry in the operations around Mobile, investing Fort Blakely, defeating the Confederates at Claiborne, and leading raids into western Florida, southern Georgia, and Alabama. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 26 March, 1865, and after his command was mustered out he was ordered to New Orleans, by request of General Sheridan, to await the issue of the threatened complications with the French in Mexico. He left the service on 15 January, 1866, and returned to his home. He was employed in the U. S. revenue service in 1875-'81, and from the latter year till 31 December, 1885, was postmaster of his native town. In 1886 he was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for Congress. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 49.
LUCE, Stephen Bleecker, naval officer, born in Albany, New York, 25 March, 1827. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1847, and was commissioned lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1866, captain in 1872, commodore in 1881, and rear-admiral in 1885. In 1862 he served on the frigate "Wabash," which was attached to the blockading squadron on the coast of South Carolina, participating in the battles of Hatteras Inlet and Port Royal; and he commanded a howitzer launch during a reconnaissance in force and engagement with the Confederates at Port Royal ferry, South Carolina. He commanded the monitor "Nantucket," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in October, 1863, engaged Fort Moultrie and Fort Sumter several times, and from 1 September, 1864, till 9 June, 1865, commanded the "Pontine," of the North Atlantic Squadron. In January, 1865, he reported to General William T. Sherman at Savannah, Georgia, for duty in connection with the army. With difficulty he got the "Pontiac" up Savannah River as far as Sisters' ferry, almost forty miles from the city, and protected the pontoon bridge from the Confederate gun-boats while General Henry W. Slocum's command passed into South Carolina. He was on the steam-sloop " Juniata," of the European Squadron, in l869-'70, was president of the U. S. naval war College in 1884-'6, and since June, 1886, has been in command of the North Atlantic Station. In July, 1887, he issued a circular to American fishermen in regard to the restrictions that were imposed upon foreign fishing vessels by Canadian laws. Admiral Luce was a founder of the U. S. Naval War College, and was instrumental in the establishment of the U. S. naval training system. He is now (1887) at the head of the list of rear-admirals on the active list. He has published "Seamanship" (New York, 1863), and edited "Naval Songs" (18813). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 49-50.
LUDLOW, Henry G., 1797-1867, New York, New York, abolitionist, clergyman. American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1834-1837. Worked with the New York Amistad Committee.
LUDLOW, James D., Cincinnati, Ohio, Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1835-36
LULL, Edward Phelps, naval officer, born in Windsor, Vermont, 20 February, 1836; died in Pensacola, Florida, 5 March, 1887. His mother was left a widow in straitened circumstances with a large family of children, and moved to Wisconsin, from which state her son was appointed acting midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 7 October, 1851. He was promoted midshipman in 1855, passed midshipman and master in 1858, and lieutenant in 1860. On his return from his second cruise in the latter year he became assistant professor of ethics at the Naval Academy, and teacher of fencing. In May, 1861, he was ordered to the " Roanoke," and thus took part in the engagement between that frigate and the Confederate forts at Hatteras inlet in the following July. In September he was sent back to the academy, where he remained until, in 1863, he be| came commandant of midshipmen and executive officer of that institution. In July, 1862, he had been promoted lieutenant-commander, and in December, 1863, he was ordered to active service, participating in the battle of Mobile Bay and subsequent engagements. He was successively in command of the captured Confederate "Tennessee," at the bombardment of Fort Morgan in August, 1864, the 3d Division of the Mississippi Squadron, the "Seminole" in the blockade of Galveston, and the iron-clad " Lafayette." After the war he was again at the Naval Academy in 1867-'9, had command of the Nicaragua Survey Expedition in 1872-'3, was a member of the inter-ocean ship canal commission in 1873-'4, and the following year had charge of a special survey of the Panama Canal route. From 1875 till 1880 he was hydrographic inspector of Coast Survey, and in 1881 he was made captain, having reached the grade of commander in 1870. Captain Lull was a member of several learned societies. He received the degree of A. M. from Princeton in 1868. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 53.
LUNDY, Benjamin, 1789-1839, Pennsylvania, philanthropist, Society of Friends, Quaker, radical abolitionist leader, anti-slavery author and editor. American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), Manager, 1833-1834, 1837-1838, 1838-1840, Vice President, 1834-1835. Organized the Anti-Slavery Union Humane Society, St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1816. In 1821, he founded and published the newspaper, Genius of Universal Emancipation, in Greenville, Tennessee. It was circulated in more than 21 states and territories, including slave states. He was a member of the Tennessee Manumission Society. In August 1825, he founded the Maryland Anti-Slavery Society, which advocated for direct political action to end slavery. He lectu4red extensively and helped organize numerous anti-slavery groups in the Northeast. Supported establishing colonies of freed slaves in Mexico. In 1836, published The National Enquirer and Constitutional Advocate of Universal Liberty, a weekly paper. In 1837, co-founded the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society.
(Adams, 1908; Dillon, 1966; Drake, 1950, pp. 118, 128, 130-131, 136, 156; Dumond, 1961, pp. 95, 136-137, 166; Earle, 1847; Filler, 1960, pp. 5, 26, 55, 57, 60, 99, 101, 105, 128, 130; Mabee, 1970, pp. 11-13, 18, 42, 186, 190, 192, 193, 199, 276, 376, 387n11, 390n21; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 33, 36, 39, 45, 105, 110, 310-311; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 54; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 506; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 546-548; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 137; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 308)
Biography from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography:
LUNDY, Benjamin, philanthropist, born in Hardwick, Warren County, New Jersey, 4 January, 1789: died in Lowell, La Salle County, Illinois, 22 August. 1839. His parents were members of the Society of Friends. When he was about nineteen years of age he moved to Wheeling, Virginia, where he remained for four years, working the first eighteen months as an apprentice to a saddler. While there his attention was first directed to the evils of slavery, and determined his future course as an Abolitionist. On leaving Wheeling he went to Mt. Pleasant. Ohio, and then to St. Clairsville in that state, where, in 1815, he originated an anti-slavery Association, called the "Union humane Society," and wrote an appeal on the subject of slavery. Soon afterward he became a contributor of anti-slavery articles to the " Philanthropist" newspaper, published at Mt. Pleasant. In the autumn of 1819 he moved to St. Louis, Missouri, at the time that the Missouri question was attracting universal attention, and devoted himself to an exposition of the evils of slavery in the newspapers of that state and Illinois. Returning to Mt, Pleasant, he began in January, 1812, the publication of the "Genius of Universal Emancipation," a monthly, the office of which was soon moved to Jonesborough, Tennessee. and thence to Baltimore in 1824, when it became a weekly. In the latter part of 1825 Mr. Lundy visited Hayti to make arrangements with the government of that island for the settlement, of such freed slaves as might be sent thither. In 1828 he visited the eastern states, where he lectured and formed the acquaintance of William Lloyd Garrison, with whom he afterward became associated in editing his journal. In the winter of 1828-'9 he was assaulted for an alleged libel and nearly killed in Baltimore by a slave-dealer named Austin Woolfolk. Lundy was indirectly censured by the court and compelled to remove his paper to Washington, and finally to Philadelphia, where he gave it the name of' “The National Inquirer," and finally it. merged into "The Pennsylvania Freeman." In' 1829 he went a second time to Hayti, and took with him several slaves that had been emancipated for that purpose. In the winter of 1830 he visited the Wilberforce colony of fugitive slaves in Canada, and then went to Texas to provide a similar asylum under the Mexican flag, renewing his visit in 1833, but was baffled by the events that led to the annexation of Texas. In 1838 his property was burned by the pro-slavery mob that fired Pennsylvania Hall, Philadelphia. In the winter of 1838^-'9 he moved to Lowell, La Salle County, Illinois, with the intention of publishing the "Genius" there, but his design was frustrated by his death. He was the first to establish anti-slavery periodicals and to deliver anti-slavery lectures, and probably the first to induce the formation of societies for the encouragement of the produce of free labor. See "The Life, Travels, and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy." by Thomas Earl (Philadelphia, 1847). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 54.
Chapter, “Early Antislavery Movements: Benjamin Lundy - William Lloyd Garrison,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872:
But far the most devoted, effective, and prominent antislavery worker of those days was Benjamin Lundy. From 1815 to 1830 his labors were immense, involving great personal hardship and sacrifice, and placing him far in advance of all contemporaneous or earlier Abolitionists. He was a native of New Jersey, and of Quaker origin. At the age of nineteen he went to. Wheeling, in Western Virginia, where he served an apprenticeship and worked at the trade of saddler. He was evidently from the outset an earnest and thoughtful man. While his companions were prone to dissipation, he devoted his leisure hours to reading; and he was also a regular attendant on the meetings of his denomination. Wheeling being a great thoroughfare for the slave-trade, through which often passed the coffles of that nefarious traffic, his sympathies were largely enlisted in behalf of its helpless and hopeless victims. “My heart," he said,” was deeply grieved at the gross abomination. I heard the wail of the captive, I felt his pang of distress, and the iron entered my soul." Though he did not then and there enter upon what soon became his life work, yet he unquestionably received his baptism into the spirit of the great reform of which he was an honored pioneer, while largely instrumental in persuading others to enter upon it.
Even Mr. Garrison thus gratefully and gracefully refers to his obligations to Mr. Lundy: " Now, if I have in any way, however humble, done anything toward calling attention to slavery, or bringing about the glorious prospect of a complete jubilee in our country at no distant day, I feel that I owe everything in this matter, instrumentally and under God, to Benjamin Lundy . . . .. I feel it due to the memory of one who devoted so many years of his life so faithfully to the cause of the oppressed that I should state this reminiscence."
Having married, he settled in Ohio, a few miles west of Wheeling. He was prosperous in business, and happy in his domestic relations; "having," he said," a loving wife and two beautiful little daughters, that it was a real happiness to possess and cherish." But, notwithstanding his success in business and the, attractions of his home, he felt and yielded to the higher claims of humanity. His heart was troubled at the sad condition of the slaves, whose wrongs and sufferings he well knew. He enjoyed, he said, no peace of mind, and came to the conclusion that, he must not only feel, but act for the suffering bondmen. Calling a few friends together at his house, he unbosomed his feelings. An antislavery organization, called “The Union Humane Society,'' was formed; which within a few months contained nearly five hundred members, residing in several counties in that section of the state. This society was formed in 1815.Hle soon issued an appeal to the philanthropists of the United States, in which he proposed that societies should be formed wherever a sufficient number of persons would be found to join them, with a uniform title and constitution. It was also suggested that these societies should correspond with each other, and co-operate in the general measures of their organization.
Not long afterward Mr. Charles Osborn commenced the publication of a journal at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, called “The Philanthropist." For it Mr. Lundy furnished articles, and he was soon invited to take an interest in the paper and superintend the office. That he might be able to accept the invitation, he must disencumber himself of his business, which he unsuccessfully attempted to do by taking his stock in trade to St. Louis. Reaching that city in the midst of the Missouri struggle, and comprehendi1Jg at a glance the nature of the question at issue, he entered into the conflict with great earnestness and vigor. Through the newspapers of Missouri and Illinois he portrayed the evils of slavery and the wickedness of its needless expansion.
Returning to Ohio, he commenced the publication of a paper whose spirit and purpose were well expressed by its name, the “Genius of Universal Emancipation,"--a journal that was destined from the start to a marked and stormy career. After several months it was removed to Tennessee, where it obtained quite a wide circulation, and was at that time the only distinctive antislavery paper in the country. During his residence there he visited Philadelphia for the purpose of attending the American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery," travelling," he says, " six hundred miles on horseback in midwinter, and at his own expense," -- a cost of time, labor, and money not often, if ever, equaled by the most devoted antislavery men of later years. During this time he made the acquaintance of other Abolitionists; and, though without much encouragement, concluded to remove' his paper to Baltimore. “Having arranged," he said,” my business in Tennessee, I shouldered my knapsack, and set out for Baltimore on foot in the summer of 1824." At Deep Creek, North Carolina, he gave his first public lecture on slavery. He delivered fifteen or twenty antislavery addresses in different parts of the State, and assisted in the organization of a dozen antislavery societies, which largely and rapidly increased, until in three years they embraced some three thousand members, comprising many persons of position and eminence.
Pursuing his journey through the middle of Virginia, he held meetings, and effected the organization of several antislavery societies in that State. Arriving at Baltimore, where he proposed to establish his paper, he was received, he tells us, even by the antislavery men, "civilly, but coolly enough." They expressed strong doubts of his success, and gave him very little encouragement. Still he determined to persevere, and in 1824 commenced its publication. The next year he visited Hayti; but found, on his return, that his wife had died during his absence, that his home was broken up, and his children scattered. Collecting them, and placing them with friends in whom he confided, he says: “I renewed my vows to devote my energies to the cause of the slave, until the nation shall be effectually roused in his behalf." With the aid of a few warm friends, whose sympathy and counsel were freely given, he not only continued the publication of his paper, but was successful in 1'he organization of several societies.
Believing the question of emancipation to be a political one, he took a deep interest in the presidential election of 1824, and rendered effective service to the victorious party. He also avowed his readiness to support the Colonization Society," if' it united with its policy that great work of justice and righteousness, the total extirpation of slavery from the soil of America." Avowing emancipation to· be the primary object with him, he could not for a moment think of joining in any colonization scheme which had not that object in view. In the summer of 1825 he commenced a series of articles on the domestic slave-trade, which greatly excited the slave-dealers of Baltimore, and unquestionably was the provoking cause of the brutal assault made upon him, in the streets of that city, occasioning; in the end, his removal.
In the year 1826 the American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery was holden in Baltimore, through his influence; in which were represented, directly and indirectly, eighty-one societies, seventy-three being located in slaveholding States. There were at that time about one hundred and forty antislavery societies in the country, of which one hundred and six were in the Southern States. About the same time Mr. Lundy issued, an address to the Abolitionists, maintaining that the most expedient course to be pursued was to " go straight forward with firmness and resolution in the road we have already begun to travel, neither turning to the right hand nor to the left, until we reach the glorious mansion where justice sits crowned with mercy, and where men esteem their fellow-men as brethren. For my own part," he said,” I never calculate how soon the cause of rational liberty will triumph over that of cruelty and despotism in the country." Though these were his sentiments of uncalculating devotion, and he was regardless of personal consequences and secondary considerations, it is evident, from some recorded remarks of his, a few months later, on the rapid growth of antis-slavery sentiment and societies during the twenty preceding years, that, like most of the early Abolitionists, he calculated on a far easier and earlier triumph than the nation was destined to witness. They saw and felt the wickedness of slavery; but they did not, as they could not, comprehend how firmly it was embedded in the very foundation of the civil, industrial, social, and ecclesiastical institutions of the country, or estimate aright the tenacity of its hold on life.
Mr. Lundy, however, clearly comprehended and fully acknowledged the necessity and the duty of political action. In commenting, in the summer of 1827, on the resolution of a county antislavery society in Ohio, that its members would support no persons for office who were not opposed to slavery, and who would not use all lawful means to remedy the evil by the most speedy and efficient measures, he declared that if the friends of genuine republicanism would act upon that principle, a change for the better would soon be witnessed. He held it to be a grand mistake that the people of the free States had nothing to do with slaves. “They guarantee," he said,” the oppression of the colored man in this country. Let them wash their hands of the crime; there is blood on every finger." Later he said: “I now fearlessly and boldly assert that the subject of slavery is no State-rights matter, but that all the citizens in this republic are interested in its extinction, and, if ever we abolish it, the influence and government of the United States must effect it." Still later, in 1837, he said: ''The question of abolishing slavery, when it shall be acted on, must be settled at the ballot." Thus clearly defined and lucidly expressed were his views of the evil and its remedy. The discussions of thirty years did not materially enlarge or improve the argument.
In May; 1828, Mr. Lundy made a journey to the Eastern States. At New York he formed the acquaintance of Arthur Tappan. At Providence he met William Goodell, of whom, considering the latter's subsequent career, he has left the singular record: “I endeavored to arouse him, but he was at that time slow of speech on that subject." At Boston he said he could hear of no Abolitionists resident in the place. In the house where he boarded he met Mr. Garrison, whom he wished to find, but who had not then turned his attention particularly to the subject, though he had noticed favorably his paper in " The National Philanthropist," a temperance journal he was then editing. He found in him a congenial spirit, most welcome in the surrounding apathy. Honestly inquiring and receptive, he not only responded favorably to his appeals, but rendered present aid in procuring subscribers and getting up meetings. Mr. Lundy also visited the clergy and called a meeting, at which eight were present, to whom he unfolded his plans. Most assented, -- at least, did not oppose, -- excepting one, whom he challenged to public debate. His challenge, however, was not accepted. He also visited New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, and New York. During this tour of five months he travelled hundreds of miles, often on foot, and delivered forty-three public addresses; " scattering," he said, " the seed of antislavery in strong and luxuriant soil," although it " was then the very winter of philanthropy."
Returning to Baltimore, he attended, as delegate from Maryland, the American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery. At this meeting it was resolved that the Convention should thereafter be permanently held in the city of Washington. One was held in the winter of 1829. But that was the last, notwithstanding this resolution, of a series of conventions inaugurated in 1794; so little did the antislavery men of those days understand the strength of the foe or their own weakness. But while others faltered, Mr. Lundy did not, though he felt the need of help. He remembered his visit to Boston, and his interview with Mr. Garrison; and he longed to have him for a coadjutor in this unequal strife. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1828, he visited New England, to persuade him, if possible, to join him in the editorial management of the “Genius." Mr. Garrison was then editing a paper in Vermont, and he thus describes Mr. Lundy's visit: “He had taken his staff in hand and travelled all the way to the Green Mountains. He came to lay it on my conscience and my soul that I should join him in this work of seeking the abolition of slavery. And he so presented the case, with the growing disposition I had to take up the cause, that I said to him: ' I will join you as soon as my engagement ends here; and then we will see what can be done.' "
In the summer of the following year Mr. Garrison, on Mr. Lundy's return from Hayti, fulfilled his promise, and became one of the editors of the paper, though the two were not in full accord in all their sentiments. But they were both honest and earnest, and their aims were one. Elizabeth Margaret Chandler was also engaged as an assistant, and the paper was changed from a monthly to a weekly journal, and was vigorously conducted in the interests of temperance, emancipation, and peace. Miss Chandler soon issued an appeal to the ladies of the United States, urging them to enlist in the cause of emancipation, and to form female antislavery societies, like those in Great Britain.
At about the same time Mr. Lundy announced through his columns, that the American government was attempting a negotiation with Mexico for the purchase of Texas. With his usual practical sagacity, assuming that all such attempted negotiations were made for the support of slavery, he sounded the alarm and began an opposition which he never remitted. Nor was he content with this general protest; he soon proceeded, at the cost of much persop.al sacrifice, exposure, and danger, to visit and travel once and again over large portions of that country and of Mexico, often in disguise. By this personal inspection, made in the general behalf of the slave and escaped fugitives, he became familiar with the whole Texan plot, so that the information gained was of great service to John Quincy Adams and others during the annexation struggle, even then casting its baleful shadows before.
The connection between Mr. Lundy and Mr. Garrison was not, however, productive of all the good the former had fondly anticipated. The growing exasperation of the slaveholding portion of the city at any interference with the system was greatly intensified and brought to a crisis by the severe attacks of Mr. Garrison upon the domestic slave-traffic in general, and. upon the conduct of a New England master of a vessel, in particular, in taking a cargo of slaves to the New Orleans market. A prosecution, trial, conviction, and imprisonment were the result, rendering a dissolution of their partnership inevitable. Another circumstance had unquestionably added fuel to the flame already burning fiercely. A colored man, in Boston, by the name of Walker, had published a pamphlet, which was freely condemned by Mr. Lundy, in which, arraigning with terrible and merciless severity the slave-masters for their wrongs inflicted on the poor bondmen, and breathing a most vindictive spirit, he counselled the colored race to take vengeance into their own hands.
Consequently, when Mr. Garrison had been driven from the city, the same spirit of persecution followed Mr. Lundy. The governor required him to give bail, libel suits and threatened imprisonment lowered, and personal outrage and violence in the streets rendered longer residence unsafe. He was finally compelled to succumb and remove his paper to Washington. Through his influence, while in that city, an antislavery society was formed; and a memorial, signed by more than a thousand citizens of the District of Columbia, was presented to Congress for the abolition of slavery and the slave-trade.
His paper failing for want of patronage, he started another in 1836, in Philadelphia, called the “National Inquirer." Retiring from this in 1838, and being succeeded by John G. Whittier, who changed the name to "The Pennsylvania Freeman,'' he proposed to go West, and resume the publication of the "Genius" in some town in the great valley, Having gathered up his little store of earthly possessions, he deposited them in the new Pennsylvania Hall, which, with his deposit, was burned by the mob in the spring of 1838.. Nothing daunted or disheartened by what he termed this total sacrifice on the altar of universal emancipation," saying, '' they have not yet got my conscience, they have not taken my heart.," he still persisted in his purpose of going West. After many disappointments, he succeeded in getting out a few numbers; but, for lack of funds and help, it could not be said to have been established. But the good man's work was finished. He was attacked with the fever of the country, and., after a brief illness, died on the 23d of August, 1839, in the fifty-first year of his age.
Thus passed away in the prime of his manhood and in the full maturity of his powers one of the most humane, unselfish, laborious, and persistent of men. There have been abler men, men rendering greater service; but few have possessed more largeness of heart, more uncalculating self-abnegation, or have filled up the measure of their lives with more self-sacrificing labors for the good of others. From the year 1820 to 1830 he states that he travelled twenty-five thousand miles, five ,thousand on foot; that he visited nineteen States, made two voyages to Hayti, and delivered more than two hundred public addresses. Nor were the last nine years of his life less replete with like achievements. During those years, in addition to his other abundant labors, he made several tours to Canada, Texas, and Mexico, in the earnest, but vain search after shelter and relief for the lowly ones who could not find protection in their native land. Indeed, as richly did he merit, as he on whom it was bestowed, -- as his service was more laborious, more protracted, and more widely extended, -- the splendid eulogium of Burke on the philanthropist Howard: “His was a voyage of discovery, a circumnavigation of charity?"
And this service was rendered under circumstances well calculated to try his temper and test his strength of principle; for not only did he perform those journeyings often on foot and always without the modern appliances of travel, but most of his multitudinous labors were performed without the stimulus of success or the cheering words of sympathy and encouragement. His pilgrimage from Maryland to Vermont, "staff in hand," for the simple chance of enlisting a co-laborer was sadly significant. He was called to lead the “forlorn hope “of a desperate cause against opposing foes increasing in numbers and flushed with recent victories. And not only that, but he was compelled to witness the manifest decadence of the spirit of liberty in the government, and of resistance to the demands of slavery among the masses of his countrymen.
Twenty-three years of such labor, under such circumstances, are not often paralleled even in the annals of Christian missions and reforms. Well does his biographer, Mr. Thomas Earle, say of him: “Having resolved, twenty-three years before his decease, to devote his energies to the relief of the suffering slave and the oppressed man of color, he persevered to the end, undeterred by difficulties and undismayed by dangers, undiscouraged by disappointments and unsubdued by sacrifices. Alone, often on foot, he encountered fatigue, hunger, and exposure, the frosts and snows of winter, the rains and scorching sun of summer, the contagion of pestilence and the miasmatic effluvia of insalubrious regions, ever pressing onward toward the attainment of the great object to which he had dedicated his existence."
Source: Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 167-176.
LYALL, James, inventor, born in Perthshire, Scotland, 13 September, 1836. He came to the United States when he was three years old, and, after a school education, worked in his father's shop, making and mounting Jacquard machines for weaving. At the beginning of the Civil War he served with the 12th New York Infantry in the defences of Washington. In 1863 he invented a simple mixture for enameling cloth, which was approved by the U. S. government, and led to his receiving large contracts for the manufacture of knapsacks and I haversacks. He and his brother William employed upward of 4,000 men in filling the orders that they received. In 1868 he invented the Lyall positive-motion loom, which has since been adopted by the largest mills in the United States, and also in Europe, China, and Japan. Its advantages are the abolition of the picking sticks; a positive motion to the shuttle from any point in its course; the great width of the fabric that may be woven; the variety of fabrics that may be produced, from the finest silk to the heaviest carpet; the almost total absence of wear, and the very small amount of power required to operate the looms. There has been no corresponding advance in weaving since the application of power to the loom, and it is claimed that no invention in any field has exceeded this in importance and value to humanity. Mr. Lyall received the gold medal of honor in 1869 from the American Institute of New York, which was the first award of this prize. He founded with his brother William in 1861 the firm of J. and W. Lyall, which still carries on the manufacture of looms and machines. Later he established the Brighton Mills to weave figured cotton goods, and the Chelsea Mills for jute goods. These enterprises are in New York City, and are now (1887) under his direct management. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 57.
LYMAN, Henry Munson, physician, born in Hilo, Hawaiian Islands, 20 November, 1835, was graduated at Williams in 1858, and at the New York College of physicians and surgeons in 1881. He was house-surgeon in Bellevue Hospital, New York City, in 1881-'2. During the latter year he volunteered in the National Army as acting assistant surgeon, serving as such in the military hospitals at Nashville, Tennessee, and in 1883 resigned and began practice in Chicago, where he has since resided, paying especial attention to diseases of the nervous system. From 1870 till 1875 he was professor of chemistry in Rush Medical College, Chicago, and since 1875 has been professor of physiology and of nervous diseases in the same institution. During the latter period he has also occupied the chair of the theory and practice of medicine in the Chicago Women's Medical College. Dr. Lyman is a member of various professional associations, and has published "Anesthesia and Anesthetics" (New York, 1881) and "Insomnia and Other Disorders of Sleep" (Chicago, 1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 60.
LYMAN, Huntington, New Orleans, Louisiana, abolitionist agent. Manager, 1834-1835, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), Ohio area. (Abolitionist; Dumond, 1961, pp. 163, 184-185)
LYMAN, Theodore, third of the name, naturalist, born in Waltham, Massachusetts. 23 August, 1833, was graduated at Harvard in 1855, and at the Lawrence scientific school of that university in 1858. after which he continued his scientific studies in Europe until 1863. Soon after his return he entered the military service, and was made aide-de-camp on General George G. Meade's staff, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, on 2 September, 1863, in which capacity he served until 20 April, 1865, being present at the movements on Centerville and Mine Run, the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court-House, and Cold Harbor, the investment of Petersburg, the pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia, and its capture at Appomattox Court-House, From 1865 until 1882 he was fish commissioner of Massachusetts, making the first scientific experiments that were undertaken for the cultivation and preservation of food fishes by any state in the Union. The annual " Reports of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries of Massachusetts" during his administration were wholly or in part written by him. In 1883 he was elected to Congress as an Independent on the issue of reform in the civil service, and served until 3 March, 1885. He has been active in the interests of Harvard, being an overseer of that university from 1868 till 1880. and from 1881 till 1887, and he has also been interested in the administration of charities, is president of the Boston farm-school, and a trustee of the National Peabody education fund and of the Peabody museum of archaeology. Mr. Lyman is a member of scientific societies both at home and abroad, and in 1872 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He has worked chiefly on radiated animals at the Museum of comparative zoology in Cambridge, where since 18(10 he has been assistant in zoology. In that connection he has published "Illustrated Catalogue of the Ophiuriaa and Astrophytidae in the Museum of Comparative Zoology-' (Cambridge, 1865); "Supplement" (1871); " Report on Ophiuridaa and Astrophytidie dredged by Louis P. de Pourtales" (1869); "Old and New Ophiuridaa and Astrophytidie (1874); "Ophiuridaj and Astrophytidie of the Hassler Expedition " (1875); "Dredging Operations of the U. S. Steamer 'Blake '; Ophiurans" (1875); "Prodrome of the Ophiuridaj and Astrophytidae of the ' Challenger' Expedition” (part 1., 1878; part ii., 1879); and " Report on the Ophiuridai dredged by H. M. S. ' Challenger' during the Years 1878-'6 " (London, 1882): also various minor articles contributed to scientific journals, and "Papers relating to the Garrison Mob" (1870). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 61-62.
LYNCH, John Roy, member of Congress, born in Concordia Parish, Louisiana, 10 September, 1847. He is a mulatto, and was not born a slave, but after his father's death the administrator of the estate held his mother in bondage. When a child he was carried with his mother to Natchez, Mississippi, where he continued to reside after he obtained his freedom on the occupation of the city by the National troops. He had received no previous training, but, by attending a night-school for a few months, and afterward studying privately, he obtained a good English education, ne engaged in the business of photography until 1869, when he was appointed a justice of the peace. He was elected to the legislature in the same year, and re-elected and chosen speaker in 1871. In 1872 he was sent to Congress, and re-elected for the following term. In 1870 he was again a candidate, and his friends claimed that he was elected, but James R. Chalmers obtained the seat. In 1878 he defeated General Chalmers, and in 1880 was defeated by the Democratic candidate. He was temporary chairman of the Republican National Convention of 1884. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 63.
LYNCH, William Francis, naval officer, born in Norfolk, Virginia, in April, 1801; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 17 October, 1865. He entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman in 1819, and was promoted lieutenant in 1828. The expedition to explore the course of the Jordan and the Dead sea was planned by him in 1847, and, after receiving the sanction of the government, was carried out by him with success. He sailed for Smyrna in the store-ship "Supply," and thence made an overland journey on camels to Constantinople, where he obtained the requisite authority and protection from the Turkish government to pass through Palestine. In March, 1848, he landed in the Bay of Acre, and in April began the work of navigating the Jordan from Lake Tiberias to the Dead sea, performing the journey in two metallic life-boats. By the establishment of a series of levels, the Dead sea was shown to be 1,312 feet below the Mediterranean, corroborating an earlier survey made under the direction of the British Navy. Subsequently he planned an exploration of western Africa, but it failed of approval. He was advanced to the rank of commander in 1849, and in 1856 was made captain, which rank he held until 1861, when he resigned to join the Confederate Navy. In June, 1861, he received the commission of flag-officer, and was assigned to the command of the defences of North Carolina. He had charge of the naval force that unsuccessfully resisted Flag-Officer Louis M. Goldsborough's attack on Roanoke Island in February, 1862, and he subsequently commanded the remainder of the fleet which was surprised by part of Commodore Stephen C. Rowan's forces and driven up Albemarle sound to Elizabeth City. Later he commanded Smithville during Admiral David D. Porter's attack on Fort Fisher, and after its surrender he dismantled the Smithville defences and retired with his marines to Wilmington. He published "Narrative of the United States Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea” (Philadelphia, 1849), and " Naval Life, or Observations Afloat and on Shore " (New York. 1851). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 65.
LYON, Caleb, Congressman, born in Lyonsdale, New York, 7 December, 1822; died near Rossville, Staten Island. New York, 8 September, 1875. He was graduated at Norwich University, Vermont. in 1841, travelled in Europe for several years, and in 1847 was appointed consul to Shanghai, China. On his return he travelled through Central and South America, arrived in California in 1849, and was secretary of the convention that was called to frame a state constitution. While there he designed the state coat of arms. After another journey in Europe and the East he returned to his native state, and was elected to the assembly in 1850, but resigned on the question of enlarging the Erie Canal, of which he was an advocate, and was in the same year elected to the state senate. At the close of his term he again went abroad, and as a friend of Captain Duncan N. Ingraham (q. v.) was concerned in the rescue of Martin Koszta from an Austrian brig in the port of Smyrna. When he returned he was elected as an Independent to Congress, and served from 5 December 1853, till 3 March, 1855. After the burning of the family mansion at Lyonsdale he moved to Staten Island, and occupied and restored the country-seat known as-Ross castle. In 1864 he was appointed by President Lincoln governor of Idaho, which post he held till December, 1866. He was a ready orator, whose memory and knowledge of statistics rendered him formidable in debate. As a connoisseur of the fine arts his opinion was esteemed. He published poems, which have never been collected, and lectured on his travels. Norwich University gave him the degree of LL.D., in 1851. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 66.
LYON, Nathaniel, soldier, born in Ashford, Connecticut, 14 July, 1818; died near Wilson's Creek, Missouri, 10 August, 1861. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry, and served in Florida during the latter part of the Seminole war. He was engaged at the siege of Vera Cruz, promoted 1st lieutenant while on the march to the city of Mexico, and commanded his company throughout the subsequent campaign, receiving the brevet of captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco. In the assault on the city of Mexico he was wounded at the Belen Gate. At the close of the war he was ordered to California, and in 1850 he conducted a successful expedition against the Indians of Clear lake and Russian River in northern California, receiving the praise of General Persifer F. Smith for the rapidity and secrecy of his marches, and his skilful dispositions on the ground. He was promoted captain on 11 June, 1851, and in 1853 returned with his regiment to the east. While listening to the debates in Congress over the Kansas-Nebraska bill, his sympathies were engaged in behalf of the Negro, although he had been hitherto an earnest Democrat. In 1854 he was sent to Fort Riley, and during the height of the contest for the possession of Kansas manifested, his sympathy with the Free state Party, and gave it his aid and support. In 1856, when the troops were ordered to enforce the laws against the Abolitionists, Lyon seriously contemplated resigning his commission, that he might not be employed "as a tool in the hands of evil rulers for the accomplishment of evil ends"; but he was saved from the necessity of doing so by being ordered to the Dakota frontier. He was on duty again in Kansas in 1859, and was with General William S. Harney in December, 1860, when the governor of Missouri sent a brigade of militia to co-operate with the National troops in arresting James Montgomery. He was left by Harney at Fort Scott, but wished to be nearer the scene of the impending conflict, in which, he wrote on 27 January, 1861, "I certainly expect to expose, and very likely shall lose, my life." In the beginning of February he was ordered to St. Louis. There he contested with Major Peter V. Hagner, whom he suspected of southern sympathies, the command of the arsenal; but his appeal to General Harney, and then to President Buchanan, was unavailing. He was soon in close accord with Francis P. Blair, Jr., and the other Unionist leaders, and at once began to drill and organize the Home-guards. A few days before President Lincoln's inauguration Blair went to Washington to persuade General Scott and the president of the necessity of giving the command of the arsenal to Lyon, but without success. An attempt of the secessionist minute-men to provoke a conflict on inauguration-day decided the new administration to place Lyon in command of the troops on 13 March, 1861, yet the order was qualified by instructions from General Harney still leaving in charge of Major Hagner the arms and materials of war which Lyon intended in the event of a collision to distribute among the Home-guards. While Governor Claiborne F. Jackson was promoting the organization of secessionist militia, and after he had placed the police of St. Louis under the control of Basil W Duke, the leader of the minute-men, and after the municipal election of 1 April, 1861, had transferred the city government into the hands of secessionists, General Harney revoked his recent order and gave Lyon entire charge of the arsenal, arms, and stores. Before the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Lyon had strengthened the fortifications and mounted heavy siege-guns and mortars that commanded the city, and its river approaches. On the president's call for troops Governor Jackson prepared to plant batteries on the hills overlooking the arsenal. Lyon at once communicated with Governor Richard Yates, who, by the president's orders, sent three regiments of the Illinois quota to support the garrison in St. Louis. Lyon was at the same time commanded, according to his own suggestion, to turn over 10,000 stand of arms to the Illinois state authorities. Blair had procured in Washington another order authorizing Captain Lyon to issue 5,000 stand of arms for arming loyal citizens. Harney interfered to prevent the arming of volunteers, and ordered Lyon, who had placed guards in the streets in violation of the city ordinances, to withdraw his men within the arsenal, but for this was removed from the command of the department on 21 April. On the same day Captain Lyon was ordered to muster into the service the four regiments, constituting Missouri's quota, which the governor had refused to furnish. Without regard to seniority he assumed command on the departure of Harney, and from that time was recognized by the government as commanding the department. On the night of 26 April he secretly sent away to Illinois all the munitions of war that were not needed for the four regiments, which were speedily organized and equipped. Although the removal of the arms from the arsenal frustrated the governor's object in ordering the militia into camp at St. Louis, it was decided to hold the encampment nevertheless. Daniel M. Frost's brigade, numbering now, after all the Union men had withdrawn, almost 700 men. went into camp on 6 May in a grove in the western part of the city, which they called Camp Jackson. Having been authorized by a despatch from the secretary of war, Lyon in May mustered in five regiments, called the Home-guards or U. S. Reserve Corps, in addition to five regiments of Missouri volunteers that had been organized in April. The volunteers were recruited almost entirely from the German population, as the native-born and the Irish were secessionists. On 10 May he surrounded Camp Jackson, and made prisoners of war of the entire corps of militia. In the camp were siege-guns that Jefferson Davis had sent from New Orleans at the request of Governor Jackson. When General Harney resumed command he approved the capture of Camp Jackson, but refused to carry out Lyon's plan for immediate operations against the hostile forces that the governor was organizing in pursuance of an act of the legislature. On 31 May, in accordance with an order that Blair had obtained from the president. Lyon, who had been commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 May, and appointed to the command of the brigade of German recruits, relieved General Harney of the command of the Department of the West. The governor and General Sterling Price, in an interview with General Lyon, sought to obtain from him a renewal of the agreement General Harney had made to respect the neutrality of the state; but Lyon insisted on the right of the U. S. government to enlist men in Missouri, and to move its troops within or across the state. Open hostilities followed. Lyon sent troops to the southwestern part of the state in order to meet an apprehended advance of Confederate troops from Arkansas, and cut off the retreat of the governor and the state troops, while with another force he advanced on Jefferson City, of which he took possession on 15 June, the state forces having evacuated it two days before, and then on the enemy's new headquarters at Booneville, where he routed Colonel John S. Marmaduke's force on 17 June. His sudden movement placed him in command of the entire state except the southwestern corner. On 3 July he left Booneville to continue the pursuit of Price, but when he learned that the Missourians had defeated Sigel at Carthage, and effected a junction with the Confederate troops under General Ben McCulloch, he halted at Springfield to await re-enforcements. On learning that the Confederates were marching on his position, he advanced to meet them, although he supposed that they outnumbered his force four to one, but. after a skirmish at Dug Spring, retreated to Springfield again when he found that their three columns had joined. On 9 August, considering a retreat more hazardous than a battle, he decided to surprise the Confederates in their camp on Wilson's Creek at daybreak the next morning. He turned their position and attacked their rear, while General Franz Sigel, at the head of another column, assailed their right flank. Sigel. after driving back the enemy, was defeated through mistaking one of their regiments for Iowa troops. Lyon, perceiving new troops coming to the support of Price, brought all his men to the front for a final effort. His horse was killed, and he was wounded in the head and leg, but, mounting another horse, he dashed to the front to rally his wavering line, and was shot through the breast, expiring almost instantly. Major Samuel D. Sturgis, who was left in command, soon afterward ordered a retreat. Of the 5,000 National troops 1,317 were killed, wounded, or taken prisoners, while of the Confederates, who were 10,000 strong, 1,230 were killed or wounded. The National forces fell back on Springfield in good order, and retreated thence to Rolla, while General McCulloch, the Confederate commander, refused to pursue. Lyon's movement, though resulting in defeat, had enabled the Union men in Missouri to organize a government and array the power of the state on the National side. General Lyon bequeathed $30,000, constituting nearly his entire property, to the government, to aid in the preservation of the Union. A series of articles, written while he was on duty in Kansas in advocacy of the election of Abraham Lincoln, and printed in a local newspaper, were collected into a volume with a memoir, and published under the title of "The Last Political Writings of General Nathaniel Lyon" (New York, 1862). See also a memoir by Dr. Ashbel Woodward (Hartford, 1862); James Peckham's " Life of Lyon" (New York, 1866); R. L Holcombe's "Account of the Battle of Wilson's Creek"; and "The Fight for Missouri," by Thomas L. Snead (New York, 1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 68-69.
LYTLE, William Haines, soldier, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 2 November, 1826; killed in the battle of Chickamauga, 20 September, 1863. His great-grandfather, William, fought in the old French war, and his grandfather, of the same name, was an early pioneer in Ohio, and active in border warfare. His father, Robert T. Lytle, was a member of Congress in 1833-'5. and surveyor of public lands in Ohio in 1835-'8. William Haines was graduated at Cincinnati College, studied law, and began practice, but at the beginning of the Mexican War volunteered, and was chosen captain of a company in the 2d Ohio Regiment. He served through the war, resumed practice at its close, was elected to the Ohio legislature, and in 1857 was the unsuccessful candidate of the Democratic Party for lieutenant-governor. Soon afterward he became major-general of Ohio militia, and at the beginning of the Civil War he was commissioned colonel of the 10th Ohio Regiment, which he led in West Virginia in 1861. At Carnife Ferry, 10 September, 1861, he commanded a brigade and was severely wounded. When he had recovered he had charge of the Bardstown camp of instruction, and then of a brigade in General Ormsby M. Mitchell's operations along the Memphis and Chattanooga Railroad. He was again wounded and taken prisoner at Perryville, Kentucky, 8 October. 1862, but was soon exchanged, and on 29 November promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers. Thereafter he served actively in the west under Rosecrans till he was killed while leading a charge of his brigade at the battle of Chickamauga. Georgia General Lytle was a poet of much merit, but no collection of his verses has appeared in book-form. His best-known poem is that written in 1857, beginning "I am dying, Egypt, dying; Ebbs the crimson life-tide fast." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 69.