Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Mad-Mid
MADDEN, Richard Robert, Irish author, born in Dublin in 1798; died there, 5 February, 1886. He studied medicine in Paris, Naples, and Erlangen, where he took his degree, and, after practicing in various parts of Europe and the Levant, settled in London, where he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1829. He was appointed a special magistrate for Jamaica in 1833, and spent three years in that island, during which time he did much for the emancipation of the slaves, and was bitterly attacked by the upholders of the system in England. He went to Cuba in 1836 as superintendent of liberated Africans for the British government, under the treaty between Great Britain and Spain for the suppression of the slave-trade. In 1839 he was appointed judge-advocate of Jamaica, and he held the office till 1841, when he was stationed for two years on the west coast of Africa as a commissioner for investigating the slave traffic. He held various other posts under the British government, returned to Ireland in 1850, and during the remainder of his life held the office of secretary to the Loan Fund Board in Dublin Castle. Besides works on eastern countries and other subjects, he was the author of “Twelve Months' Residence in the West Indies, during the Transition from Slavery to Apprenticeship " (Philadelphia, 1835); two volumes of " Travels in the West Indies" (1838-'40); "Poems by a Slave," see Castro, Juan (1840); "The Slave-Trade and Slavery " (1843), a work that excited antagonism among English Conservatives on account of the light it threw on the connection between British maritime and manufacturing interests and slavery in the English colonies; "Connection of the Kingdom of Ireland with the Crown of England" (1845); " History of the Penal Laws enacted against Roman Catholics"(1845); "The Island of Cuba: its Resources, Progress, and Prospects" (London, 1849): " Shrines and Sepulchers of the Old and New World " (1851); " The Lives and Times of the United Irishmen," giving in detail the causes and events that led to the rebellion of 1798 (1843-'6; new ed., 1874): and "Historical Notice of the Operations and Relaxations of the Penal Laws against Roman Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 164.
MAFFITT, John Newland, naval officer, born at "sea. 22 February. 1819; died in Wilmington, North Carolina, 15 May, 1880, entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman on 25 February, 1832, became a lieutenant on 25 June, 1848, and was placed on the reserved list on 14 September, 1855. He resigned on 2 May, 1861, and entered the service of the Confederacy. In the early part of 1862 he took a cargo of cotton to England, and while there received instructions to take charge of the steamer "Oreto," which had been clandestinely constructed for the Confederate government at Liverpool. She had been seized on representations made by the American minister, but was released, and allowed to sail. On arriving at Nassau, 28 April, 1862, she was again detained, but was discharged by a court of admiralty, after which Captain Maffitt took her to the island of Green Kay, received on board the guns and armaments, and rechristened her the " Florida." The captain and crew were prostrated by yellow fever, and repaired to Havana for medical attention. He sailed from that port on 1 September, 1862, ran the blockade at Mobile, refitted his vessel and completed her armaments, and steamed out again in a dark and stormy night. The National Squadron gave chase, but Captain Maffitt stopped his engines and took in his sails, and the pursuing vessels passed the low hull unobserved. The " Florida" began her captures in the Gulf of Mexico, cruised up to New York, then southward to beyond the equator, and back again to the latitude of New York. With the "Florida" and captured ships that he fitted out as tenders, Captain Maffitt took about fifty-five prizes, including many large and richly laden vessels. The machinery of the lightly built cruiser having become deranged, Maffitt, with the permission of the French government, had his vessel repaired in the docks of the navy-yard at Brest. The effects of yellow fever and the fatigues of service had so exhausted his strength that he asked to be relieved, and the " Florida " put to sea again under the command of Capt. C. M. Morris. His last years were spent in Wilmington, North Carolina. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 172.
MAGILL, Jonathan P., New Hope, Pennsylvania, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1840-1842, 1843-1852.
MAGOFFIN, Beriah, governor of Kentucky, born in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 18 April, 1815; died there, 28 February, 1885. He was graduated at Center College, Danville, Kentucky, in 1835, and at the law department of Transylvania University in 1838, began practicing law at Jackson, Mississippi, in 1839, and was elected reading-clerk of the Mississippi Senate, but returned to Harrodsburg the same year, and practised until he was appointed police judge in 1840. In 1850 he was elected to the Kentucky Senate. He was a presidential elector in 1844, 1848, 1852, and 1856, and a delegate to the National Democratic Conventions of 1848. 1856, and 1860. He was defeated in 1855 as a candidate for lieutenant-governor, but was elected governor for the term of four years beginning 1 September, 1859. In a correspondence with commissioners from Alabama relative to co-operation with the southern states, he proposed in 1860 that the slave states should agree on amendments to the U. S. Constitution that would meet with the approbation of Democrats at the north. In his message in February, 1861, he recommended a convention of the border states. He replied on 15 April, 1861, to the president's call for 75,000 men. that Kentucky would "furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister southern states." In May he issued a proclamation forbidding either the United States or the Confederate government to undertake any movement of troops or occupy any post on Kentucky soil, and warning the citizens of the state against taking part in hostilities. In August he sent letters to President Lincoln and to Jefferson Davis declaring the neutrality of Kentucky, and requesting the former to withdraw National troops from the state. When General Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, the legislature passed a resolution directing the governor to demand by proclamation the evacuation of Kentucky soil by the Confederate forces. He vetoed this resolution, but it was passed over his veto, and he issued the proclamation. Resolutions inviting General Robert Anderson to enroll a volunteer force and expel the invaders, and requesting the governor to call out the militia and place General Thomas L. Crittenden in command, were likewise carried in spite of his veto. In 1862 he vetoed an act to disfranchise citizens that entered the Confederate service, and other measures, and in August, calling an extra session of the legislature, resigned his office. In 1867 he was elected to the State House of Representatives. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 175.
MAGRUDER, John Bankhead, soldier, born in Winchester, Virginia, 15 August, 1810; died in Houston, Texas, 19 February, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1830, assigned to the artillery, and served in the west, in Maine, and at Fort McHenry, Baltimore. In the Mexican War he commanded the light battery of General Pillow's division, and was brevetted major for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, and lieutenant-colonel for Chapultepec, where he was severely wounded. After the war he served in Maryland, California, and Newport, R. I., where he was in command of Fort Adams. While holding this last post he added greatly to the gayety of Newport by the splendid entertainments that he gave at the fort during the fashionable season. When Virginia seceded, he resigned his commission, that of captain of artillery, and entered the Confederate Army. After gaining the battle of Big Bethel, he was made brigadier-general and placed in command of the Confederate forces on the peninsula, with his headquarters at Yorktown, where for several weeks he opposed the advance of the National Army. He was then promoted major-general and took part in the seven days' fighting around Richmond, especially in the battle of Malvern Hill. On 16 October, 1862, he was placed in command of the Department of Texas, and on 1 January, 1863, he recovered Galveston from the National forces, capturing the steamer " Harriet Lane," and dispersing for a time the blockading squadron. He remained in command in Texas until the close of the war, when he entered the army of Maximilian in Mexico, with the rank of major-general, serving until the emperor's downfall and execution. He then returned to the United States and lectured, in Baltimore and other cities, on Mexico. In 1869 he settled in Houston, where he remained until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 175.
MAHAN, Asa, 1799-1889, Ohio, clergyman, abolitionist, president of Oberlin College 1835-1850. Vice President, American Anti-Slavery Society, 1834-1835. (Dumond, 1961, p. 165; Mabee, 1970, pp. 218, 403n25; Sinha, 2016, p. 466; Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 176; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 208; Abolitionist; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)
MAHAN, Asa, clergyman, born in Vernon, New York, 9 November, 1800. He was graduated at Hamilton College in 1824, and at Andover theological seminary in 1827. On 10 November, 1829, he was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church in Pittsford, New York, and in 1831 he was called to the pastorate of a Presbyterian Church in Cincinnati, Ohio. He accepted the presidency of Oberlin in 1835, with the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy, and the assistant professorship of theology, but after fifteen years was chosen president of Cleveland University, Cleveland, Ohio, and professor of mental and moral philosophy there. In 1855 he resumed pastoral work, and had charge of Congregational Parishes at Jackson in 1855-'7 and at Adrian in 1857-60. He was president of Adrian College, Michigan, in 1860-'71, and since then has resided in England. President Mahan has received the degree of D. D. from Hillsdale in 1858, and that of LL.D. from Adrian in 1877. He has been an active advocate of the religious views that are known as Perfectionist, and has published "Scripture Doctrine of Christian Perfection " (Boston, 1839). His other works include ' System of Intellectual Philosophy" (New York, 1845): "The Doctrine of the Will" (Oberlin, 1846): "The True Believer: his Character, Duties, and Privileges" (New York, 1847); "The Science of Moral Philosophy" (Oberlin, 1848); "Election and the Influence of the Holy Spirit" (New York, 1851); "New York, 1857); "Science of Natural Theology" (Boston, 1807); "Theism and Anti-Theism in their Relations to Science" (Cleveland, 1872): "The Phenomena of Spiritualism scientifically Explained and Exposed (New York, 1876); "Critical History of the late American War" (1877); "A System of Mental Philosophy" (Chicago, 1882); and ' Critical History of Philosophy" (New York, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 176.
MAHAN, Dennis Hurt, engineer, born in New York City, 2 April, 1802; died near Stony Point, New York, 16 September, 1871. He spent his boyhood in Norfolk, Virginia, and was appointed from that state to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1824, at the head of his class. During his third year he was appointed acting assistant professor of mathematics at the academy, and he continued as such after his promotion as 2d lieutenant into the Corps of Engineers until 1825, when he became principal assistant professor of engineering. In 1826 he was sent abroad, by order of the War Department, to study public engineering works and military institutions, and he spent some time, by special favor of the French government, at the Military School of Application for Engineers and Artillerists in Metz. While in Paris he was frequently the guest of Lafayette. He returned to West Point in 1830, and resumed his duties as acting professor of engineering, which chair he accepted permanently in 1832, vacating his commission in the Corps of Engineers. This office he continued to hold, with that of dean, after 1838, until his death, which was by suicide during a fit of insanity that resulted from his distress on learning that the Board of visitors had recommended that he be put on the retired list, although assured by the president that he should be retained. Professor Mahan was appointed in 1850 by the governor of Virginia a member of the board of engineers to decide the controversy between the city of Wheeling and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company as to the proper route of the railroad to Wheeling. He received the degree of LL. D. from William and Mary in 1852, from Brown in 1852, and from Dartmouth in 1867, and, besides being a member of many scientific societies in the United States, was one of the corporate members, of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863. As an engineer he acquired a world-wide reputation by his text-hooks, which were used in the military academy and in many universities. They include "Treatise on Field Fortifications" (New York. 1836); “Elementary Course of Civil Engineering" (1837; rewritten in 1868); "Elementary Treatise on Advanced Guard, Outposts, and Detachment Service of Troops" (1847; improved ed., 1862); "Elementary Treatise on Industrial Drawing" (1853); "Descriptive Geometry, as applied to the Drawing of Fortifications and Stereometry" (1864); and "Military Engineering," including "Field Fortifications, Military Mining, and Siege Operations" (1865); and "Permanent Fortifications" (1867). He also edited, with additions, an American reprint of Mosely's "Mechanical Principles of Engineering and Architecture " (1856). See the sketch by General Henry L. Abbot in vol. ii. of the "Biographical Memoirs" of National Academy of Sciences (Washington, 1886). His portrait, painted by Robert W. Weir, is included in the collection of professors to be seen in the library of the U. S. Military Academy.—His son, Frederick Augustus, engineer, born in West Point, New York, 28 March, 1847, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1867, and promoted into the Corps of Engineers as 2d lieutenant, becoming 1st lieutenant in 1869 and captain in 1881. He has served principally on engineering work and on duty as instructor at the military academy. Captain Mahan was associated in the editorship of the latest edition of his father's "Civil Engineering" (1880), and has translated from the French Krantz's "Study on Reservoir-Walls" (New York, 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 176.
MAHAN, John B., Brown County, Ohio, Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1835-39
MAHONE, William, senator, born in Southampton County, Virginia, 1 December, 1820. He was graduated at Virginia Military Institute in 1847, and until the beginning of the Civil War engaged in engineering, and was the constructor of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. He joined the Confederate Army in 1861, took part in the capture of Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard in April of that year, raised and commanded the 6th Virginia Regiment, was engaged in most of the battles of the Peninsular Campaign, those on the Rappahannock, and those around Petersburg, where he won the sobriquet of the "hero of the Crater." and was throughout his career noted as a fighting commander. He was commissioned brigadier-general in March, 1864, and major-general in August of the same year. He subsequently led a division in Ambrose P. Hill's corps, and at Lee's surrender was at Bermuda Hundred. At the close of the war he returned to engineering, and became president of the Norfolk and Tennessee Railroad. He also engaged in politics, was the leader of the movement that elected Gilbert C. Walker governor of Virginia, and, after failing to secure the nomination for that office in 1878, organized and became the leader of the Readjuster Party, which advocated conditional repudiation of the state debt. He was elected U. S. Senator in 1880, served till March, 1887, and was defeated at the next election. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 177.
MALLERY, Garrick, jurist, born in Middlebury, Connecticut, 17 April, 1784; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,'6 July, 1866. He was graduated at Yale in 1808, and studied law at the Litchfield Law-School and at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, where he was admitted to the bar in 1811. He was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1827, and three times re-elected, and was largely instrumental in developing the internal improvements and establishing the penitentiary system of the state. He was president judge of the 3d District in 1831-'6, and subsequently practised law in Philadelphia till his death.—His son, Garrick, ethnologist, born in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, 23 April, 1831, was graduated at Yale in 1850, in 1853 received the degree of LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania, and the same year was admitted to the bar of Philadelphia, where he practised law and engaged in editorial work until he entered the volunteer service as 1st lieutenant of Pennsylvania troops, 15 April, 1861. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel, and at the reorganization of the regular army in 1870 was commissioned as a captain in the 1st U. S. Infantry, with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was twice severely wounded, was kept for some time in Libby Prison, and received four promotions by brevet for gallantry in action. During the reconstruction period, while on military duty in Virginia in 1869-70 as judge-advocate on the staff of the successive generals commanding, he was appointed to the offices of Secretary of State and adjutant-general of Virginia, with the rank of brigadier-general. In August, 1870. he was the first officer that was detailed for meteorological service with the chief signal-officer of the army. He was long in charge of the Signal-Service Bureau, and was its executive officer until August, 1876, when he was ordered to the command of Fort Rice, Dakota territory. There he made investigations into the pictographs and mythologies of the Dakota Indians, which led to his being ordered, 13 June, 1877, to report to Major John W. Powell, then in charge of the geological and geographical survey of the Rocky mountain region, for duty in connection with the ethnology of the North American Indians, being, in July, 1870, retired from active military service on account of wounds received in action. He received the appointment of ethnologist of the Bureau of Ethnology on its organization at Washington in that year, which office he still (1888) holds, General Mallery was a founder and president of the Anthropological Society and of the Cosmos Club of Washington, and was chairman of the anthropological section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in 1881. He has contributed largely to periodical literature, but his most important works, some of which have been translated, are " A Calendar of the Dakota Nation" (Washington, 1877); "The Former and Present Number of our Indians" Salem, 1878); "Introduction to the Study of Sign Language among the North American Indians as illustrating the Gesture Speech of Mankind" (Washington, 1880); "Gesture Signs and Signals of the North American Indians, with some Comparisons" (1880); "Sign Language among the North American Indians compared with that among -other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes" (1881); and "Pictographs of the North American Indians" (1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 183.
MALLET, John William, chemist, born in Dublin, Ireland, 10 October, 1832. He was graduated at Trinity College, and studied chemistry at the University of Gottingen, Germany, where he received the degree of Ph. D. for his researches on the tellurium ethers in 1852. Soon afterward he came to the United States, and was called to Amherst, where, during 1854-'6, he was assistant professor of analytical and applied chemistry. He was then given the chair of chemistry in the University of Alabama, where he remained until the beginning of the Civil War, and was also associated in the chemical work of the geological survey of Alabama. Professor Mallet took an active part in the war and attained the rank of colonel in the Confederate Army. He became professor of chemistry in the medical department of the University of Louisiana in 1865, and later engaged in the iron business near Vicksburg, Mississippi. He accepted in 1867 the professorship of analytical, industrial, and agricultural chemistry in the University of Virginia, which chair in 1872 became that of general and industrial chemistry and pharmacy. Professor Mallet continued this relation until 1883, when he became professor of chemistry and physics in the recently organized University of Texas, and the equipment of these departments was selected by him, but he resigned a year later to accept a similar chair in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. In 1885 he returned to the University of Virginia as professor of general and industrial chemistry and pharmacy, which post he still (1888) holds. Professor Mallet's researches in pure chemistry include valuable investigations on the atomic weights of aluminum and lithium, and improved methods of analysis. In the direction of mineral chemistry he has accomplished much, not only by making analyses of new minerals, but also in the " Laboratory Communications" from his students that have been published by him. separations of rare earths have been indicated. His specialty is industrial chemistry or chemistry applied to the arts and manufactures, and in this branch he has probably no superior in the United States. His extended knowledge of this subject led to his being called to lecture on the "Utilization of Waste Products" in 187980 at Johns Hopkins university, and at that time he published in the "American Chemical Journal" a review of the "Progress of Industrial Chemistry " for the decade of 1870-'80. At the request of the National board of health he undertook an elaborate investigation as to the chemical methods in use for the determination of organic matter in potable water, with a comparative study of the water-supply of different localities in the United States. This work has taken high rank in the literature of water analysis, and was published by the board in its annual report for 1882. In 1880 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and in 1882 he was president of the American chemical Society. The honorary degrees of M. D. and LL. D. have been conferred on him. His publications have been entirely in the line of his profession, and have been confined to scientific journals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 183.
MALLORY, Stephen Russell, statesman, born in Trinidad. W. I., in 1813; died in Pensacola, Florida, 9 November, 1873. He was the second son of Charles Mallory, a civil engineer of Reading, Connecticut. When he was about a year old his parents moved to Havana, and in 1820 they settled at Key West, Florida. He was educated at Mobile und at Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and at the age of nineteen was appointed by President Jackson inspector of the customs at Key West. While filling this post he studied law with Judge William Marvin, of the U. S. District Court at Key West, and was admitted to the bar about 1839. He soon attained a high reputation and enjoyed a large practice. He became judge for Monroe County, and judge of probate, and in 1845 was appointed collector of customs at Key West. During the Indian War in Florida he volunteered and served for several years in active operations against the Seminoles. In 1850 he was elected a delegate to the Nashville Commercial Convention, but declined. In 1851 he was elected to the U. S. Senate for six years. His opponent, David L. Yulee, contested his seat, but it was unanimously awarded to Mr. Mallory. He was re-elected in 1857, and continued to represent his state until the secession of Florida in 1861, when he resigned and at once took an active part with the southern states. He had moved from Key West to Pensacola in 1858. During the greater part of his service in the U. S. Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, and a member of the Committee on Claims. In 1858, President Buchanan tendered him the appointment of minister to Spain, which he declined. On the secession of Florida he was appointed chief justice of the admiralty court of the state, which office he also declined. Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president of the Confederate States on 18 February, 1861, and on the 21st he appointed Mr. Mallory Secretary of the Navy, which post he held during the war. He found himself at the head of a Naval Department on the eve of a great war, without a snip or any of the essentials of a navy. He had not only to organize and administer, but to build the ships and boats, provide as best he could their ordnance and machinery, and create a naval force in a country whose ports were rapidly blockaded and which possessed resources only in a crude state. The timber for his ships stood in the forest; the iron was in the mines, and there were neither furnaces nor workshops; the hemp for the ropes had to be sown, grown, and reaped, and then there were no rope-walks; he had no rolling-mill capable of turning out a 21-inch iron plate, nor a workshop able to complete a marine engine. Mr. Mallory left Richmond in company with Jefferson Davis on the abandonment of that city by the Confederate government in April.1865. At Washington, Georgia, they separated, Mr. Mallory going to La Grange, Georgia, where his family were then living. On 20 May, 1865, he was arrested and was taken to Fort Lafayette, New York Harbor, where he was confined ten months, and released on parole in March, 1866. He returned to Pensacola in July, 1866, still under parole, and resumed the practice of law, which he continued until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 183-184.
MALONEY, Maurice, soldier, born in Ireland about 1812; died in Green Bay, Wisconsin, 8 January. 1872. He emigrated to the United States early in life, enlisted in the 4th U. S. Infantry about 1835, and was a non-commissioned officer from 1836 till 1840, serving through the Seminole War in Florida and in the Cherokee Nation, and afterward at. Fort Scott. In November, 1840, he was commissioned lieutenant. He was engaged at all the principal battles of the Mexican War, was brevetted for gallantry at Molino del Rey, where he was one of the storming party, and again for his conduct at Chapultepec, and was wounded at the taking of the city of Mexico, and promoted 1st lieutenant on 6 May, 1848. He received a captain's commission on 22 November, 1854, and served on the western frontier and in the war of secession till September, 1862, when he was promoted major in the 1st U. S. Infantry, and served as colonel of the 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and afterward with his regiment in the field. He received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for services at the siege of Vicksburg, and that of colonel for his record during the war. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 10 June, 1867, commanded for some time the barracks at Atlanta, Georgia, and was retired on 15 December, 1870. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 184.
MALTBY, Jasper Adalmorn, soldier, born in Kingsville, Ashtabula County, Ohio, 3 November, 1820; died in Vicksburg. Mississippi, 12 December, 1867. He served during the Mexican War as a private, and was severely wounded at Chapultepec. After his discharge he established himself in mercantile business at Galena, Illinois In 1861 he entered the volunteer service as lieutenant-colonel of the 45th Illinois Infantry, was wounded at Fort Donelson, and, after being promoted colonel on 29 November, 1862, received a severe wound at Vicksburg. He was commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers on 4 August, 1863, served through the subsequent campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, and was mustered out on 15 January, 1866. He was appointed by the military commander of the district mayor of Vicksburg on 3 September, 1867, and died while in the discharge of the duties of that office. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 184-185.
MALVIN, John, 1793-1880, African American, abolitionist, community and civil rights activist. Active participant in the Underground Railroad in Ohio. Member of the Cleveland Anti-Slavery Society and Vice President of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society. Active in the Negro Convention Movement. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 7, p. 473)
MANDERSON, Charles Frederick, senator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 9 February, 1837. He was educated in the schools of his native city, moved to Canton, Ohio, in 1856, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859, and in 1860 elected city solicitor. He raised a company of three months' volunteers in April, 1861, was commissioned as captain in the 19th Ohio Infantry, served in western Virginia in the summer of 1861, and when mustered out re-enlisted for the war, and was afterward attached to the Army of the Cumberland, and rose through the various grades to be colonel of his regiment, of which he took command during the battle of Shiloh. At the battle of Lovejoy Station he was so severely wounded that in April, 1865, after receiving the brevet of brigadier-general, he resigned his commission. Resuming the practice of law at Canton, Ohio, he was twice elected district attorney. He moved to Omaha, Nebraska, in November, 1869, was city attorney for six years, and in 1871 and 1874 received the votes of both parties as a member of the Constitutional Conventions of those years. He was elected as a Republican to the U. S. Senate for the term of six years beginning on 4 March, 1883. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 186-187.
MANGUM, Willie Person, senator, born in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1792; died in Red Mountain, North Carolina, 14 September. 1861. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1815, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1817, elected to the North Carolina House of Commons in 1818, and in 1819 chosen a judge of the superior court. In 1823 he was elected to Congress as a Whig, and in 1825 was re-elected, serving from 1 December, 1823, till 18 March, 1826, when he resigned, and was again elected a judge of the superior court. He was elected to the U. S. Senate, and served from 5 December, 1831, till 1836, when, under instructions from the legislature, he resigned. He declined a nomination for Congress in 1837, and in the same year received the electoral vote of South Carolina for the presidency. When the Whigs again came into power in his state he was sent to the Senate a second time, on the resignation of Bedford Brown, and he was re-elected at the expiration of the term, serving from 9 December 1840, till 3 March, 1853. During the greater part of his congressional career he was one of the leaders on the Whig side. He was chosen President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 31 May, 1842, on the resignation from that body of Samuel L. Southard, of New Jersey, and served during that and the succeeding congress. At the close of his last term in the senate he retired from public life. His death was hastened by nervous depression, which had been caused by the death of his only son at the first battle of Bull Run, 21 July, 1861. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 187.
MANIGAULT, Arthur Middleton, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1824; died 16 August, 1886, was prepared for college, but entered business in Charleston. In 1846 he was elected 1st lieutenant of the Charleston Company in the Palmetto Regiment. He served through the Mexican War under General Scott, and was present in all the battles in which his regiment participated. Returning, he resumed his occupation, which he continued until he inherited a rice-plantation on Santee River, South Carolina. At the beginning of the Civil War he served as inspector-general on Beauregard's staff, and, having been elected colonel of the 10th Regiment of South Carolina Infantry, he commanded the 1st Military District. Early in 1862 he was ordered to Mississippi, and served continuously in the western army under Bragg, Johnson, and Hood, and was made brigadier-general in 1863. His brigade was frequently engaged, and did severe fighting in the retreat before Sherman. He was wounded twice, the second time severely in the head, at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. At the close of the war he attempted rice-planting again, but without success, and in 1880 he was elected adjutant-general of the state, serving in that post six years, and being the candidate of the Democratic Party for re-election at the time of his death, which was hastened by the consequences of the wound that he received at Franklin. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 188.
MANLEY, Henry De Haven, naval officer, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, 20 December. 1839. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860, promoted master, 19 September, 1861, and was on board the frigate "Congress" when she was destroyed by the "Merrimac" at Newport News. He was favorably mentioned in the reports of that action, and promoted lieutenant on 16 July, 1862. In the first attack on Morris Island he commanded the boats of the "Canandaigua," aiding in the capture of the lower end of the island. He participated in all the subsequent attacks on Fort Sumter and other works in Charleston Harbor, and commanded the "Canandaigua" and four other vessels in the blockade of Charleston, South Carolina. He was promoted lieutenant-commander on 25 July, 1866, served on the flag-ships of the European and Brazilian Stations, was commissioned as commander on 5 April, 1874, circumnavigated the globe in command of the "Ranger" and the "Alert" in 1878-'9, and was retired from active service on 31 January, 1883, on account of loss of hearing and failure of health caused by hard service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 188.
MANN, Ambrose Dudley, diplomatist, born in Hanover Court-House, Virginia, 26 April, 1801. He was educated at the U. S. Military Academy, but resigned before he was graduated, was consul to Bremen in 1842, and was appointed to negotiate commercial treaties with Hanover, Oldenburg, and Mecklenburg in 1845, accredited to all the German states, except Prussia, for the same object in 1847, and became commissioner to Hungary in 1849. He was U. S. minister to Switzerland in 1850, and negotiated a reciprocity treaty. On returning home he became assistant Secretary of State, serving till 1856. Having devoted himself especially to the development of the material interests of the southern states, he was sent to Europe by the Confederate government on a special mission, in which he was subsequently joined by John Slidell and James M. Mason. Since the Civil War he has resided in France, where he has been engaged in the preparation of his "Memoirs," which are now ready for publication (1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 190.
MANN, Daniel, Princeton, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Treasurer, 1844-45, Executive Committee, 1846
MANN, Horace, 1796-1859, Boston, Massachusetts, educator, political leader, social reformer. U.S. Congressman, Whig Party, from Massachusetts. Co-founder of the Young Men’s Colonization Society in Boston. Co-founded monthly paper, The Colonizationist and Journal of Freedom. He defended the American Colonization Society and its policies against criticism by William Lloyd Garrison. Opposed extension of slavery in territories annexed in the Mexican War of 1846. Said, “I consider no evil as great as slavery...” Argued against the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Reelected to Congress and served from April 1848 until March 1853. (Mabee, 1970, pp. 64, 157, 160, 168, 170, 171, 261, 294, 409n9; Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 190-191; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 240; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 424; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 204)
MANN, Horace, educator, born in Franklin, Massachusetts, 4 May, 1796; died in Yellow Springs, Ohio, 2 August, 1859. His father was a farmer in limited circumstances, and the son was forced to procure by his own exertions the means of obtaining an education. He earned his school-books when a child by braiding straw, and his severe and frugal life taught him habits of self-reliance and independence. From ten years of age to twenty he had never more than six weeks' schooling during any year, and he describes his instructors as "very good people, but very poor teachers." He was graduated at Brown in 1819, and the theme of his oration, " The Progressive Character of the Human Race," foreshadowed his subsequent career. After his graduation he was tutor in Latin and Greek in Blown, entered the Litchfield, Connecticut, law-school in 1821, and in 1823 was admitted to the bar, opening an office in Dedham, Massachusetts He was elected to the legislature in 1827, and in that body was active in the interests of education, public charities, and laws for the suppression of intemperance and lotteries. He established through his personal exertions the State lunatic asylum at Worcester, and in 1833 was chairman of its board of trustees. He continued to be returned to the legislature as representative from Dedham till his removal to Boston in 1833, when he entered into partnership with Edward G. Loring. In the practice of his profession he adopted the principle never to take the unjust side of any cause, and he is said to have gained four fifths of the cases in which he was engaged, the influence that he exerted over the juries being due in a great measure to the confidence that all felt in his honesty of purpose. He was elected to the state senate from Boston in 1833, was its president in 1836-'7, and from the latter year till 1848 was secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. While in the legislature he was a member and part of the time chairman of the committee for the revision of the state statutes, and a large number of salutary provisions were incorporated into the code at his suggestion. After their enactment he was appointed one of the editors of the work, and prepared its marginal notes and its references to judicial decisions. On entering on his duties as secretary to the Massachusetts board of education he withdrew from all other professional or business engagements and from politics. He introduced a thorough reform into the school system of the state, procuring the adoption of extensive changes in the school law, establishing normal schools, and instituting county educational conventions. He ascertained the actual condition of each school by "school registers," and from the detailed reports of the school committees made valuable abstracts that he embodied in his annual reports. Under the auspices of the board, but at his own expense, he went to Europe in 1843 to visit schools, especially in Germany, and his seventh annual report, published after his return, embodied the results of his tour. Many editions of this report were printed, not only in Massachusetts, but in other states, in some cases by private individuals and in others by legislatures, and several editions were issued in England. By his advocacy of the disuse of corporal punishment in school discipline he was involved in a controversy with some of the Boston teachers that resulted in the adoption of his views. By his lectures and writings he awakened an interest in the cause of education that had never before been felt. He gave his legal opinions gratuitously, superintended the erection of a few buildings, and drew plans for many others. In his "Supplementary Report" (1848) he said: "From the time I accepted the secretaryship in June, 1837, until March, 1848, when I tendered my resignation of it, I labored in this cause an average of not less than fifteen hours a day; from the beginning to the end of this period I never took a single day for relaxation, and months and months together passed without my withdrawing a single evening to call upon a friend." In the spring of 1848 he was elected to Congress as a Whig, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Quincy Adams. His first speech in that body was in advocacy of its right and duty to exclude slavery from the territories, and in a letter in December of that year he said: "I think the country is to experience serious times. Interference with slavery will excite civil commotion in the south. But it is best to interfere. Now is the time to see whether the Union is a rope of sand or a band of steel." Again he said: "I consider no evil as great as slavery, and I would pass the Wilmot proviso whether the south rebel or not." During the first session he volunteered as counsel for Drayton and Sayres, who were indicted for stealing seventy-six slaves in the District of Columbia, and at the trial was engaged for twenty-one successive days in their defence. In 1850 he was engaged in a controversy with Daniel Webster in regard to the extension of slavery and the fugitive-slave law. Mann was defeated by a single vote at the ensuing nominating convention by Mr. Webster's supporters; but, on appealing to the people as an independent anti-slavery candidate, he was re-elected, serving from April, 1848, till March, 1853. In September, 1852, he was nominated for governor of Massachusetts by the Free-Soil Party, and the same day was chosen president of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Failing in the election for governor, he accepted the presidency of the college, in which he continued until his death. He carried that institution through pecuniary and other difficulties, and satisfied himself of the practicality of co-education. His death was hastened by his untiring labors in his office. He published, besides his annual reports, his lectures on education, and his voluminous controversial writings, " A Few Thoughts for a Young Man" (Boston, 1850); "Slavery: Letters and Speeches" (1851); "Powers and Duties of Woman'' (1853); and "Sermons" (1861). See "Life of Horace Mann," by his wife (1865); "Life and Complete Works of Horace Mann " (2 vols., Cambridge, 1869); and "Thoughts selected from the Writings of Horace Mann " (1869). His lectures on education were translated into French by Eugene de Guer, under the title of "De l'importance de l'education dans une republique," with a preface and biographical sketch by Edouard R. L. Laboulaye (Paris, 1873).—His second wife, Mary Tyler (Peabody), author, born in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, 16 November, 1806; died in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. 11 February, 1887, was a daughter of Dr. Nathaniel Peabody. She resided in Salem during her youth, and afterward lived for the most part in or near Boston. During her husband's life she shared in all his benevolent and educational work, and her familiarity with modern languages enabled her to assist him greatly in his studies of foreign reforms. Her writings, especially those on the kindergarten system, with her sister, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, are distinguished for vigor of thought and felicity of expression. She published " Flower People " (1838); "Christianity in the Kitchen, a Physiological Cook Book " (Boston, 1857); "Culture in Infancy," with Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1863); " Life of Horace Mann " (1865); and " Juanita, a Romance of Real Life in Cuba." published after her death (1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 190-191.
MANNING, Richard Irvine, governor of South Carolina, born in Clarendon County, South Carolina, 1 May, 1789; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1 May, 1836. He was a son of Lieutenant Lawrence Manning, who served in the Revolutionary Army, at first in the Regiment that was known as "Congress's own." and afterward in the corps of "Light-horse Harry" Lee. Interesting mention is made of him in Lee's "Memoirs "and in Johnson's "Traditions and Reminiscences of the American Revolution." The son was graduated in 1811 at South Carolina College, served in the war of 1812 as captain of a volunteer company for the defence of Charleston, was a member of the legislature, and in 1824-'6 governor of the state, and while holding the hitter office he entertained at his house General Lafayette on the occasion of his second visit to this country. He was subsequently defeated as a Union candidate for Congress, but in 1834 was elected as a Union Democrat and served till his death. His wife bore the unusual distinction of being the wife of a governor, the sister of a governor, the niece of a governor, the mother of a governor, and the aunt and foster-mother of a governor.—Their eldest son, John Lawrence, governor of South Carolina, born in "Hickory Hill," Clarendon County, South Carolina, 29 January, 1816, entered Princeton, but was recalled before graduation by the death of his father. He was afterward graduated at South Carolina College, and while a student there married Susan Frances, daughter of General Wade Hampton. He was engaged for many years in sugar-planting in Louisiana, and his works were among the first on the Mississippi River. He entered public life at an early age, served several years in the assembly and senate of South Carolina, when only thirty years old was defeated in a close contest for governor, and in 1852 was elected governor by an overwhelming majority. During his term he especially devoted himself to the advancement of education. He established scholarships in South Carolina College, and from his own ample private means aided the progress of many impecunious young men. He was a delegate to the Convention that nominated Buchanan for the presidency, and was one of the committee that was sent to wait on him at "Wheatlands" to inform him of his nomination. Mr. Buchanan tendered him the mission to St. Petersburg, which for private reasons he declined, suggesting for the place Governor Francis Pickens, who was afterward appointed. In the Civil War he served on the staff of General Beauregard, and in 1865 was chosen U. S. Senator, but with the other southern senators of that year was not allowed to take his seat. He is at present (1888) the only surviving ante-bellum governor of the state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 193.
MANNING, Thomas Courtland, jurist, born in Edenton, North Carolina, in 1831; died in New York City, 11 October, 1887. His ancestor came from England to Virginia in the 17th century. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina, admitted to the bar, and practised for a time in his native town. Removing in 1855 to Alexandria, Louisiana, he took up his permanent residence there and built up a large practice. He was sent to the Secession Convention of 1861 as a state-rights Democrat, and when the convention adjourned was elected a lieutenant in a Louisiana Confederate Regiment. He served with the rank of lieutenant-colonel on the staff of Governor Moore, and in 1863 was appointed adjutant-general of the state, with the rank of brigadier-general. In 1864 he was appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, and served until the close of the Civil War. In 1872 he declined the nomination for governor and was a presidential elector, and in 1876 he was vice-president of the National Convention that nominated Samuel J. Tilden. In January, 1877, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, serving until 1880, when the adoption of a new constitution displaced the whole state government. While chief justice he was elected one of the trustees of the Peabody Educational Fund. In 1880 he was again presidential elector, and in the autumn of that year was appointed U. S. Senator, but was not admitted. In 1882 he was placed for the third time on the supreme bench, and served until the expiration of his term in 1886. He was then appointed by President Cleveland U.S. minister to Mexico, which office he filled until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 193-194.
MANSFIELD, Edward Deering, author, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 17 August, 1801; died in Morrow, Ohio, 27 October, 1880, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1818, but, instead of entering the army, pursued a classical course at Princeton, where he was graduated in 1822. He was admitted to the bar in Connecticut in 1825, and, removing to Ohio, practised in Cincinnati until 1835. when he accepted the professorship of constitutional law and history in Cincinnati College. Retiring from the practice of the law, he was editor of the "Cincinnati Chronicle" from 1836 till 1849, of the " Atlas" from 1849 till 1852, and of the " Railroad Record " from 1854 till 1872. While editing the "Chronicle" and "Atlas" he introduced to the public many young writers, among whom was Harriet Becher Stowe. During the last twenty-five years of his life he was a regular contributor to the Cincinnati "Gazette." He was long the correspondent of a New York journal, under the pen-name of ' A Veteran Observer." He served as commissioner of statistics for Ohio from 1859 till 1868, and was an associate of the French “Society de statistique universelle." He wrote many treatises on mathematics, politics, education, and the early history of Ohio. His most interesting production is a volume of "Personal Memories," extending to the year 1841 (1870). He received the degree of LL. D. from Marietta College. Ohio, in 1854. He was also the author of " A Discourse on the Utility of Mathematics"; "A Treatise on Constitutional Law " and "A Political Grammar of the United States " (Cincinnati, 1835); "The Legal Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Married Women" (Salem, 1845); "The Life of General Winfield Scott" (New York, 1848); "The History of the Mexican War" (1849); "American Education" (1851); "The Memoirs of Daniel Drake " (Cincinnati. 1855); and "A Popular Life of General Ulysses S. Grant" (1868). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 195.
MANSFIELD, John Brainard, author, born in Andover, Windsor County, Vermont, 6 March, 1826; died in Effingham, Atchison County, Kansas, 29 October, 1886. He received an academic education, and was for several years engaged in canvassing for books and maps. He published, with Austin J. Cooledge, the first volume of a "History of the New England States," embracing Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont (Boston, 1860), but the Civil War prevented the appearance of the second and remaining volume, which had been prepared for the press. After establishing a weekly paper called the "New England Meridian," in each number of which the muster-roll of one of the New England regiments was published, he acted as war correspondent for that journal, and subsequently served twenty months as hospital steward, until December, 1864, when he was mustered out of the service for disability. In 1866 he published in Washington, D. C., "The American Loyalist." in which were printed biographies and speeches of members of the 39th Congress. After publishing a campaign paper in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1867, he returned to Washington and was employed in the government printing office for several years. In 1882 he moved to Kansas on account of impaired health. While in Washington he began the preparation of "A Sketch of the Political History of the United States of America " from the settlement of Jamestown to the present time, which he completed, but it still remains in manuscript. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 195.
MANSFIELD, Joseph King Fenno, soldier, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 22 December, 1803; died near Sharpsburg. Maryland, 18 September, 1862. He was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy, where during part of the fourth year he acted as assistant professor of natural philosophy, and was graduated in 1822, standing second in a class of forty. He was assigned to the Engineer Corps, and for the next three years was an assistant to the Board of Engineers, then assembled in New York and engaged in planning fortifications for the defence of the harbors and cities on the coast. In 1832 he was promoted 1st lieutenant, and on 7 July, 1838, he was appointed captain. He served in the Mexican War as chief engineer under General Taylor, was brevetted major for gallant and distinguished services in the defence of Fort Brown, Texas, which he built, in 1840, and the following September was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct in the engagements at Monterey, where he received seven severe wounds. In 1847 he was brevetted colonel for meritorious services at Buena Vista. On 28 May, 1853, he was appointed inspector-general of the U. S. Army, with the rank of colonel, and in May, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and placed in command of the Department of Washington with earthworks. On the return of General Wool to Fortress Monroe he was sent to Hatteras, and afterward to Camp Hamilton and Newport News. On 10 May he marched with a division to the attack on Norfolk, and, after the capture of that place, was assigned to the command of Suffolk, Virginia, where he acted as military governor. After the second battle of Bull Run he was summoned to the court of inquiry at Washington, and during the delay, becoming impatient for active duty, he was assigned to the command of the corps formerly under General Nathaniel P. Banks. At the battle of Antietam he fell mortally wounded early in the day while cheering on his troops in a charge. On the 18th of the previous July he had been promoted major-general of volunteers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 195-196.
MANSON, Mahlon D., soldier, born in Piqua, Miami County, Ohio, 20 February, 1820. He received a common-school education, studied pharmacy, and settled in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He served during the Mexican War as captain of the 5th Indiana Volunteers, sat in the legislature in 1851-'2, and, enlisting as a private at the beginning of the Civil War, was at once made colonel of the 10th Indiana Regiment, which he commanded at the battle of Rich Mountain, West Virginia, in July, 1861. He led the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, of the Army of the Ohio into action at Mill Springs, Kentucky, in January, 1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers in the following March. In August of the same year he commanded the National forces at Richmond, Kentucky, where he was wounded and taken prisoner, but was exchanged in December. He was again in command during the Morgan raid in Indiana and Ohio in July, 1863, and in September was placed at the head of the 23d Army Corps. He took part in the siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, and in various engagements in that state. He was severely wounded at the battle of Resaca and compelled to resign. On his return home, after being nominated as lieutenant-governor and Secretary of State, he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 4 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1873. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 197
MARBLE, Manton, journalist, born in Worcester. Massachusetts, 16 November, 1835. He was graduated at the University of Rochester in 1855, soon afterward became connected with the Boston "Journal," and subsequently edited the " Traveller." He moved to New York City in 1858, joined the staff of the "Evening Post," and in 1859 went to the Red River country as its correspondent, contributing also three papers, descriptive of his journey, to " Harper's Magazine." He was connected with the " New York World " on its establishment in 1860, and in 1862 became its proprietor and editor, making it a free-trade Democratic journal. He retired from the editorial management of the paper in 1876. In 1885 he was sent to Europe as a delegate to the Bi-metallic Congress. He has published “A Secret Chapter of Political History; the Electoral Commission; the Truth concerning Samuel J. Tilden, President de jure, disclosed and stated against some False Representations of his Action, Advice, and Conduct, during the Winter of 1876-'7 " (New York, 1878). Mr. Marble is now (1888) president of the Manhattan Club. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 199.
MARCHAND, John Bonnett, naval officer, born in Greensborough. Pennsylvania, 27 August, 1808; died in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1875. He entered the U. S. navy in 1828 as midshipman, and was promoted lieutenant in 1840, commander in 1855, captain in 1862, and commodore in 1866. He commanded the steamer " Van Buren " in the operations against the Seminole Indians in 1841-'2, participated in the bombardment of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuspan in 1847, and had charge of the steamer "Memphis" in the Paraguay Expedition of 1859-'60. During the Civil War he commanded the steamer "James Adger" in the South Atlantic blockading squadron in 1862, participated in the capture of Fernandini, and was slightly wounded while reconnoitering in Stone River in March of that year. He had charge of the sloop "Lackawanna," of the Eastern Gulf Squadron, in 1863-'4, and participated in the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, during which he twice rammed the iron-clad "Tennessee." In August, 1870, he was retired from active service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 201.
MARCY, Randolph Barnes, soldier, born in Greenwich. Massachusetts, 9 April, 1812; died in Orange, New Jersey, 22 November, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1832, and served in the Black Hawk Expedition of that year, also on frontier duty with the 5th U.S. Infantry. During the war with Mexico he participated in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and was made captain in May. 1846, after which he served on recruiting service. Subsequently he was engaged in the exploration of the Red River country in 1852-'4, in the Florida hostilities against the Seminole Indians in 1857, and in the Utah Expedition of 1857-'8, having command of a detachment that was sent to New Mexico in November, 1857, and returning in March, 1858, after great suffering. In 1859 he was promoted major on the staff and served as paymaster of the northwestern posts in 1859-61, becoming inspector-general with the rank of colonel on 9 August, 1861. During the Civil War he served as chief of staff to his son-in-law, General George B. McClellan, and acted in that capacity in McClellan's campaigns of western Virginia, in the Peninsular Campaign, and in the Maryland Campaign until November, 1862. He had been made brigadier-general of volunteers on 23 September, 1861. He was then assigned to inspection duties in the departments of the Northwest, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, and the Gulf until 1865, when he became inspector-general of the Military Division of the Missouri. In 1869 he was transferred to Washington, and became inspector-general of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier-general, to date from 12 December, 1878, continuing in that office till his retirement on 2 January, 1881. He received the brevets of brigadier-general and of major-general on 13 March. 1865, for services during the Civil War. He had the reputation of being a famous sportsman, spending much time in hunting in the Rocky mountains. General Marcy has contributed to magazines, and published "Exploration of the Red River in 1852" (Washington, 1853): "The Prairie Traveller, a Handbook for Overland Emigrants" (New York, 1859); "Thirty Years of Army Life on the Border" (1866); and " Border Reminiscences " (1871). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 202-203.
MARCY, William Learned, 1786-1857, New York, statesman. American Colonization Society, Vice-President, 1837-1840. U.S. Senator and Governor of New York. (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 203; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 274)
MARCY, William Learned, statesman, born in Southbridge, Massachusetts, 12 December, 1786; died in Ballston, Spa, New York, 4 July, 1857. He was graduated at Brown in 1808, and then studied law in Troy, New York, where, after being admitted to the bar, he opened an office. The war with Great Britain soon began, and young Marcy, holding a lieutenancy in a light-infantry company, tendered the services of his command to the governor of New York. This offer was accepted, and the company was sent to French Mills, on the northern frontier. On the night of 23 October, 1812, he surprised and captured the Canadian forces that were stationed at St. Regis. These were the first prisoners taken on land, and their flag was the first captured during the war. This exploit gained for him recognition from General Henry Dearborn, and his command was attached to the main army, but. after serving the time for which he had enlisted, he returned to his practice, having attained the rank of captain. In 1816 he was appointed recorder of Troy, but his opposition to De Witt Clinton led to his removal from office, and remains as one of the earliest cases of political proscription in the history of New York. He then became editor of the " Troy Budget," a daily newspaper, which he soon made a well-known organ of the Democratic Party. The earnest support that he gave to Martin Van Buren resulted in his affiliation with the division of the Democratic Party of which Van Buren was leader, and in 1821 he was made adjutant-general of the state militia. He was a member of the " Albany Regency." (See Cadger, Peter.) His political capabilities showed themselves to advantage in the passage of the act that authorized a convention to revise the constitution. He became in 1823 comptroller of the state, an important office at that time, owing to the large expenditures on the Erie and Champlain Canals, and the increase of the stale debt. In 1829 he was appointed one of the associate justices of the supreme court of New York, and in that capacity presided over numerous important trials, among which was that of the alleged murderers of William Morgan (q. v.). He continued on the bench until 1881, when he was elected as a Democrat to the U. S. Senate, serving from 5 December 1881, and becoming chairman of the judiciary committee. His maiden speech was in answer to Henry Clay's aspersions on Martin Van Buren, and was followed soon afterward by his answer to Daniel Webster's speech on the apportionment. His career as a senator gained for him a strong hold on the confidence of the people of his state and elsewhere. He resigned in 1833 to fill the governorship of New York, to which he had been elected, and held that office through three terms, until 1839. For a fourth time he was nominated, but he was defeated by William H. Seward. In 1839 he was appointed by Martin Van Buren one of the commissioners to decide upon the claims against the government of Mexico, under the convention of that year, and was so occupied until 1842. He presided over the Democratic state convention at Syracuse in September, 1843. and during the subsequent canvass he used his influence in causing the state of New York to cast its votes for James K. Polk, by whom, after his election, he was invited to become Secretary of War. The duties of that office were performed by him with signal ability, especially during the Mexican War. The difficulties of his task were somewhat increased by the fact that the two victorious generals, Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor, were of the opposing political party, and charged Mr. Marcy with using his official power to embarrass and retard their military operations. These accusations were made so persistently and openly that it became necessary for him to defend himself against such attacks, which he did with so much force that he completely silenced all censure. During his term of office he exerted his diplomatic powers to advantage in the settlement of the Oregon boundary question, also advocating the tariff of 1846, and opposing all interference on the slavery question. At the close of his term of office he retired to private life, but in 1853 he returned to Washington as Secretary of State under Franklin Pierce. While in this office he carried on a correspondence with the Austrian authorities in reference to the release of Martin Koszta by Captain Duncan N. Ingraham (q. v.). The questions that were involved were in a measure new, and affected all governments that recognized the laws of nations. His state papers on Central American affairs, on the enlistment question, on the Danish sound dues, and on many other topics of national interest, still further exhibited his ability as a writer, statesman, and diplomatist. On the close of Pierce's administration, he again retired to private life, and four months afterward he was found dead one evening in his library with an open volume before him. Mr. Marcy had the reputation of being a shrewd political tactician, and probably has never been surpassed in this respect by any one in New York except Martin Van Buren. He was regarded among his countrymen of all parties as a statesman of the highest order of administrative and diplomatic ability. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 203
MARMADUKE, John Sapington, soldier, born near Arrow Rock, Missouri, 14 March, 1833; died in Jefferson City, Missouri, 28 December, 1887, was brought up on his father's farm till the age of seventeen, when he entered Yale College. After studying two years there and one year at Harvard, he was appointed a cadet in the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1857. In the spring of 1858 he joined the expedition that was sent under General Albert Sidney Johnston to quell the Mormon revolt. He served for two years in Utah, and was then stationed in New Mexico, where he was serving when the secession troubles began. Obtaining leave of absence, he returned home, resigned his commission on 17 April. 1861, raised a company of state guards, and was soon afterward elected colonel of a regiment. Disapproving both the military and the political course of Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, he resigned his commission, and went to Richmond to tender his services to the Confederate government. Jefferson Davis gave him a commission as 1st lieutenant, and he joined the command of General William J. Hardee in southeastern Arkansas, was promoted lieutenant-colonel a few weeks later, and in the autumn was made colonel of the 3d Confederate Infantry. His regiment at Shiloh bore the guiding colors of the battle-line, and captured the first prisoners of the day. He fought with conspicuous gallantry in the front until he was wounded in the second day's fight. While in hospital he was promoted brigadier-general. In August, 1862, he was transferred to the trans-Mississippi department, commanded in northwestern Arkansas and Missouri for six months, and made frequent raids, engaging the National forces with varying fortune until finally he compelled General Blunt's withdrawal to Springfield, Missouri. In 1863 he entered Missouri with 4,000 men and extricated General Carter near Cape Girardeau, but was pursued and brought his force away with difficulty. He took part in the unavailing attack on Helena in July, 1863, and subsequently, with his cavalry division, contested in daily combats the advance of General Frederick Steele on Little Rock, and after its fall covered General Sterling Price's retreat. In an attack on Pine Bluff he captured the National camp and stores. When General Steele was marching in the spring of 1864 to co-operate with General Banks against Kirby Smith, Marmaduke harassed and delayed him by repeated attacks, and enabled General Smith to overtake and defeat Steele's command at Jenkin's Ferry. For these services Marmaduke was made a major-general. In the following summer he had an indecisive encounter with General Andrew J. Smith at Lake Village, Arkansas, and in the autumn took part in Price's invasion of Missouri, but after several battles and skirmishes was surrounded and compelled to surrender near Fort Scott, 24 October. He was confined as a prisoner of war at Fort Warren till August, 1865. After a journey in Europe for the restoration of his health, he returned to Missouri in May, 1866, and engaged in the commission business, and in 1809-'71 in that of life insurance. He then became part proprietor of the " Journal of Commerce,' established in St. Louis the " Evening Journal." and also carried on the ' Illustrated Journal of Agriculture." In June, 1873, he retired from journalism, and became secretary of the state board of agriculture. In 1875 he was appointed railroad commissioner, and in 1876 was elected to that office for four years. In 1884 he was elected governor of Missouri. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 211-212.
MARRIOT, Charles, Athens, New York, Society of Friends, Quaker, radical abolitionist. Member of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), member of the Executive Committee, 1840-1842, Manager, 1834-1838. (Drake, 1950, pp. 160, 162; Mabee, 1970, pp. 186, 387n11; Abolitionist)
MARSH, Charles, 1765-1849, Vermont, attorney, U.S. Congressman. Life member, original charter member, and supporter of the American Colonization Society (ACS). Officer, Vermont auxiliary of the ACS. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 216; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 70, 76)
MARSH, Charles, lawyer, born in Lebanon, Conn., 10 July, 1765; died in Woodstock, Vermont, 11 January, 1849. He settled with his parents in Vermont before the Revolutionary war, and was graduated at Dartmouth in 1786. After studying law he was admitted to the bar and practised at Woodstock, Vt., for about fifty years, becoming the senior member of the profession in Vermont. In 1797 he was appointed by President Washington to the office of district attorney of his state, and later was elected as a Federalist to Congress, serving from 4 December, 1815, to 3 March, 1817. While in Washington he was a founder of the American Colonization Society, and he was a liberal benefactor of various missionary and Bible societies. He was prominent in the Dartmouth College controversy, a trustee in 1809-'49, and received the degree of LL. D. from that college in 1828. Mr. Marsh was president of the Vermont Bible Society and vice-president of the American Bible Society and of the American Education Society. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 216.
MARSHALL, Edward Channcey, author, born in Little Falls, Herkimer County, New York, 8 July, 1824. His ancestor, Thomas, from whom Marshall street in Boston was named, settled in that city in 1834. Edward was graduated at Geneva (now Hobart) College in 1843 and while a student there invented the arctic rubber overshoe. He also invented the register of fares with a dial-plate which is now in use on several street-car lines. From 1845 till 1847 he was tutor of mathematics in Geneva and of mathematics under Professor Charles Davies at West Point. From 1848 till 1852 he was a tutor in the New York Free Academy, and in 1852-'5 a professor in the Episcopal High-School, Alexandria, Virginia. In 1871 he held an office in the New York Customhouse. From 1875 till 1885 he was connected with the New York ' Star" and the "Evening Telegram," and he is now (1888) the financial agent of the American Protective Tariff league. He is the author of "Book of Oratory" (New York, 1852); "History of the U. S. Naval Academy" (1862); "Ancestry of General Grant" (1869); and a pamphlet, "Are the West Point Graduates Loyal?” the statistics of which were quoted in Congress and aided in preventing the military academy from being closed at this time by its enemies (New York, 1862).—His brother, Elisha Gaylord, soldier, born in Seneca Falls, New York, 26 January, 1829; died in Canandaigua, New York, 3 August, 1883, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1850, assigned to the 6th U.S. Infantry, and served on frontier duty and in the Utah Expedition of 1858. He was promoted captain on 14 May. 1861, and on 20 April, 1862, became colonel of the 13th New York Regiment. He was engaged in the various campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, being severely wounded at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and receiving the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, 13 December, 1862. He was on sick leave of absence from that date until 23 May, 1863, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service and appointed mustering and disbursing officer at Rochester, New York. In May, 1864, he engaged in the Richmond Campaign, commanding a brigade in the Army of the Potomac, and was wounded at Petersburg, 17 June, 1864. He was one of the leaders in the assault after the mine explosion, and was captured after holding the crater during most of the day. He was a prisoner in Columbus, Georgia, from 30 July, 1864, till April, 1865, and from May till July of that year commanded a brigade. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for gallant and meritorious services, 13 March, 1865. He mustered out of the volunteer service on 16 August, and on 12 June became major of the 5th U.S. Infantry. He was retired as colonel on 11 September, 1867. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 220.
MARSHAL, Charles Alexander, soldier, born in Mason County, Kentucky, 2 May, 1809, was educated in Woodford by his uncle, Dr. Louis Marshall, and served in the legislature in 1840, 1855, and 1857. He was a determined friend of the Union, recruited the 16th Kentucky Infantry in 1861, at the head of that regiment led the advance of General William Nelson in his campaign in eastern Kentucky in the autumn of 1861, and bore the brunt of the fight at the battle of Ivy Creek. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 225.
MARSHAL, Charles, lawyer, born in Warrenton, Virginia, 3 October, 1830, is the son of Alexander John, a lawyer of Virginia. He was graduated in 1849 at the University of Virginia, was professor of mathematics from 1849 till 1852 in the University of Indiana. Afterward he practised law in Baltimore, and upon the secession of Virginia entered the Confederate Army and served on the staff of his kinsman, General Robert E. Lee, as assistant adjutant and inspector-general, until the close of the Civil War, and was charged with the duty of preparing the official reports of the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 till 1865, and was directed by General Lee to prepare a general order, embodying his farewell address to his army, dated 10 April, 1865. He now (1888) practices law in Baltimore. He was requested by General Lee's family to prepare a biography of him, which work is practically ready for publication. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 225-226.
MARSHAL, Humphrey, soldier, born in Frankfort, Kentucky, 18 January, 1812; died in Louisville, Kentucky, 28 March, 1872. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1832, assigned to the mounted rangers, and served on the Black Hawk Expedition. He resigned on 30 April, 1833, studied law, and practised in Frankfort and Louisville. He became captain in the Kentucky militia in 1830, major in 1838, and lieutenant-colonel in 1841. In 1830 he raised a company of volunteers and marched to defend the Texas frontier against the Indians, but his force disbanded on hearing of General Houston's victory at San Jacinto. He became colonel of the 1st Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, 9 June, 1846, served in the war with Mexico, won great distinction at the Battle of Buena Vista, and afterward retired to his farm in Henry County, Kentucky. He was subsequently elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 3 December, 1849, till 4 August, 1852, and supported Clay's compromise measures. From 1852 till 1854 he was U. S. minister to China, and on his return he was elected to Congress from Kentucky as an American, serving from 3 December, 1855, till 3 March, 1859. In 1856 he was a member of the National American Council in New York City, where he was instrumental in abolishing all secrecy in the political organization of his party. In 1860 he canvassed Kentucky for John C. Breckinridge, and he afterward recruited in that state a large body of men for the Confederate Army, in which he accepted a commission as brigadier-general. He was placed in command of the Army of Eastern Kentucky, with which it was designed to invade the state through the mountain-passes. In January, 1862, he fought the battle of Middle Creek, in Floyd County, with General James A. Garfield (q. v.). In May, 1862, General Marshall surprised General Jacob D. Cox at Princeton, Virginia, the result of the action being the relief of the Lynchburg and Knoxville Railroad, for which service he received the thanks of General Lee. He resigned his commission soon afterward, practised law in Richmond, and was elected to the Confederate Congress, serving on the Committee on Military Affairs. Subsequently he moved to Louisville, Kentucky, and acquired a large law-practice. He was one of the first Confederates whose disabilities were removed by Congress. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 226-227.
MARSHALL, William, surgeon, born in Milton, Delaware, 23 May, 1827. After attending Milton Academy he was graduated at Jefferson Medical College in 1847, and practised in Milton, Philadelphia, Placerville, California, and Georgetown, Delaware, until the opening of the Civil War. He served in the National Army as surgeon of the 3d Delaware Regiment, and after the battle of Antietam was discharged for disability, but he subsequently led a company in the 6th Delaware Regiment, and also acted as surgeon until the close of the war. Since that time he has practised in Milford. He has been president of the Delaware Medical Society, and was secretary of the State Board of Health from 1879 till 1887. He performed the first successful resection of the humerus in the Civil War, at Winchester in 1862, and discovered the pathognomonic sign of malarial poisoning. His specialties are surgery and obstetrics, and he has contributed numerous articles to medical publications. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 227.
MARSHALL, William Edgar, artist, born in New York City, 30 June, 1837. At the age of twenty-one he began bank-note engraving, at which he worked for several years, and then turned his attention to the engraving of larger plates in line. A few years later he went to Boston and painted many portraits, including that of Oliver Wendell Holmes. He went abroad in 1864, and remained in Europe about two years, living mostly in Paris, where he painted portraits and exhibited in the salons of 1865-'6. On his return he began to engrave again, chiefly portraits. Having executed a head of Christ, after Da Vinci, for Henry Ward Beecher's " Life of Jesus" (1871), he conceived the plan of painting an ideal head of Christ that would please him better than those hitherto produced. He first modelled the head in clay, and made also a cartoon sketch that met with much praise, and in 1880 he produced his " Head of Christ," of colossal proportions. Of this he also executed a very large line engraving. Mr. Marshall is best known by his portrait engravings, of which the admirable heads of Washington (1862), Lincoln (1866), and Grant (1868) were especially successful. He made six portraits of General Grant, the last one (considered by the artist the best) just before the general's death. Among others whose portraits he engraved were Henry W. Longfellow, James G. Blaine. Winfield S. Hancock, James A. Garfield, Henry Ward Beecher, and James Fenimore Cooper. Most of the engravings were after paintings by himself. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 227.
MARSHALL, William Rainey, governor of Minnesota, born in Boone County, Missouri, 17 October, 1825. His father, Joseph M. Marshall, moved to Missouri, and thence to Quincy, Illinois, where William received a common-school education. At the age of sixteen he worked in the lead-mines of Galena, Illinois, and in 1847 he went to Minnesota (then part of Wisconsin Territory) and engaged in the survey of public lands. In 1849 he established with his brother the first store of general merchandise in the Falls of St. Anthony (now Minneapolis). In 1848 he served in the legislature of Wisconsin, and in 1849 was elected a member of the first territorial legislature of Minnesota. He established the first iron store in Minnesota at St. Paul in 1852, and in 1855-'7 engaged in banking in that place. He presided at the meeting that organized the Republican Party in Minnesota, and in 1855 was a Republican candidate for Congress, but was defeated. He engaged in dairy-farming in 1857, and imported fine stock into the state. In 1861 he founded "The Daily Press" (now the "Pioneer Press"), and in the following year enlisted in the 7th Minnesota Regiment, of which he became colonel, taking active part in two campaigns against the Indians. In 1868 he was assigned to the 10th Army Corps, and participated in several battles, he commanded a brigade at the battle of Nashville, 15 and l6 December, 1864. On 13 March,1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious conduct. He was wounded at the siege of Mobile. From 1865 till 1869 he was governor of Minnesota, and he subsequently served as a railroad commissioner. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 227-228
MARSTON, Gilman, legislator, born in Orford. Grafton County, New Hampshire, 20 August, 1811. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1837, and at Harvard Law-School in 1840. The year following he was admitted to the bar and began practice at Exeter, where he has since resided. He was a member of the state house of representatives in 1845-'6-'7 and 1848, subsequently in 1872-'3-'6 and 1877. and during the biennial terms of 1879-80, '81-82, '83-'84. '85-'86, and '87-88. In 1850 and 1870 he was a delegate to the state constitutional Convention, he was elected as a Republican to Congress, and re-elected, serving from 5 December 1859. till 3 March, 1863. He also took part in the Civil War as colonel of the 2d New Hampshire Regiment, being promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, and receiving severe wounds. On his return home at the end of the war he was again elected to Congress, serving from 4 December, 1865, till 3 March. 1867. He was also the Republican candidate for election to the 45th Congress, but was defeated by 43 votes. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 228.
MARSTON, John, naval officer, "born in Boston, 12 June, 1795; died in Philadelphia. 7 April, 1885. He carried the first news of Commodore Isaac Hull's capture of the "Guerriere" to John Adams at Quincy, and through the ex-president's influence was appointed a midshipman, his commission being dated 15 April, 1813. He saw some service during the war of 1812-'15, and later was on board the "Constitution" when Lord Byron visited the famous frigate. In 1825 he was promoted to the grade of lieutenant, and was on board the "Brandywine" when she conveyed Lafayette to France. In 1827-'9 he served in the Pacific Squadron, and again in 1833 and 1834. In 1840 he was assigned to the frigate " United States," and in the following year was commissioned commander. In 1850 he was assigned to the command of the " Yorktown," on the coast of Africa, and he was in charge of the Philadelphia U.S. Navy-yard from 1853 till 1855, being in the latter year made captain. Although placed on the retired list in December, 1801, he was assigned to the "Cumberland," of the Brazil Squadron, in which service he continued for a year, when he was commissioned commodore, 10 July, 1802, and was in command of the frigate " Roanoke" at Hampton Roads when the "Merrimac" destroyed the " Congress " and " Cumberland." He was afterward made rear-admiral, and for several years after the war was in charge of the U.S. Navy-yards at Portsmouth and Philadelphia, and of the naval station at Key West. He also acted as a lighthouse-inspector. In his many voyages he had served under Commodores Rodgers, Hull, Pony, and Chauncey, of the old navy, and had seen altogether, before his retirement, half a century of active service. His tastes were scholarly, and he was a fine specimen of a gentleman of the old school. He was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. His eldest son, Matthew R., entered the regular army, and was brevetted major for gallant conduct during the siege of Vicksburg. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 228.
MARTIN, Carless Cyril, civil engineer, born in Springfield, Pennsylvania. 30 August, 1831. He was graduated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1856, and then for a year was assistant in geodesy. His first professional appointment was as rodman on the Brooklyn Water-Works, from which place he advanced steadily until within two years he became assistant engineer. On the completion of this work, Mr. Martin entered the employ of the Trenton Locomotive Machine Manufacturing Company, in order to become familiar with iron-work and particularly with the construction of bridges. At the beginning of the Civil War he was engaged in building an iron bridge across Savannah River on the Savannah and Charleston Railroad. Subsequently he became superintendent of a factory of arms, and then was engaged as an expert in conducting a series of experiments for the purpose of determining the respective merits of horizontal and vertical tubular boilers in the U.S. Navy. Mr. Martin superintended the laying of the forty-eight inch water-main along Atlantic Avenue to the Ridgewood Reservoir, through which the water supply of Brooklyn has since been obtained. He then became chief engineer of Prospect Park, and there introduced a system of road-building and sub-drainage sewers that has proved eminently successful, also bringing to a completion the great park well, then the largest in the world. On the accomplishment of this work he became first assistant engineer of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, and after the structure was thrown open to the public, in May, 1883, was made chief engineer and superintendent, which office he still (1888) holds. Mr. Martin is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and has published reports in connection with his work. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 229.
MARTIN, Henry Austin, physician, born in London. England, 23 July, 1824; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 December, 1884. He came to this country at an early age, was graduated at Harvard Medical School in 1845, and practised in Boston. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed staff surgeon, and rose to be surgeon-in-chief of the 2d Corps, Army of the Potomac, which post he held till near the close of the war. On his resignation he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and meritorious services." Afterward he paid particular attention to surgery, and gained I great repute in the treatment of diseases of the rectum. He early made a thorough study of small pox and vaccination, and in 1870 first introduced into this country the practice of true animal vaccination, and it was largely owing to his writings and labors that the method was so soon and so universally adopted. He was an authority on the subject in this country. In 1877, as chairman of the committee on animal vaccination of the American Medical Association, he made a full report on that subject, which appeared in the published volumes of the "Transactions," and was widely quoted from and reviewed here and abroad. In 1877 he introduced to the profession the treatment of ulcers of the leg, and many other kindred troubles, by the use of the pure rubber bandage that he had invented. The Martin bandage has been generally adopted, and has given its inventor a wide reputation in this country and abroad. In 1878 Dr. Martin announced to the profession his operation of tracheotomy without tubes, which he many times successfully performed. In 1881 he attended the International Medical Congress at London, and delivered a paper on treatment of synovitis of the knee-joint by aspiration and subsequent use of the Martin bandage, a method original with himself. Dr. Martin has contributed largely to medical journals, notably to the London "Lancet," the " British Medical Journal." and other magazines in England, as well as to the ' North American Review " and many other journals in this country. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 230.
MARTIN, James Green, soldier, born in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 14 February, 1819; died in Asheville, North Carolina, 4 October, 1878. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and assigned to the artillery. As 1st lieutenant of a light battery he fought in the Mexican War, and lost his right arm at Churubusco. He had meanwhile been commissioned as captain of staff, and was now brevetted major. When the Civil War began he was quartermaster at Fort Riley. Resigning his commission on 14 June, 1861, he offered his services to his state, was appointed adjutant-general of North Carolina, and applied himself to the task of organizing, equipping, and clothing the troops. At his suggestion blockade-running ships were first employed to bring supplies from Europe. On 28 September, 1861, he was appointed general-in-chief of the state forces, with the rank of major-general. Anticipating the need of more troops, he raised 12,000 men beyond North Carolina's quota, which were hastily called into the field when General McClellan advanced on Richmond, and performed effective service in the defence of the Confederate capital. When he had accomplished the duty of fitting the North Carolina troops for the field, he was commissioned as brigadier-general in the Confederate Army in 1862, and on reaching the field in 1863 was assigned to the command of a brigade and ordered to Petersburg. Not long after his arrival at the scene of operations General Lee requested him to go back and resume the duties of adjutant-general of North Carolina, where the conscription law had provoked a dangerous state of disaffection. After spending nine months at Raleigh in the discharge of this trust, he again-asked for service in the field, was assigned to the command of a brigade, and was made commander of the District of North Carolina. His brigade was often spoken of as the best-disciplined in Lee's army, and he won additional praise by his ability in handling his command in action. He surprised the National camp at Newport, was ordered to Petersburg in May, 1864, and at Bermuda Hundred carried by assault the earthworks on the extreme left of the National line. He afterward was engaged in severe fighting at Cold Harbor and in the battles before Petersburg. At the close of the war he was stationed at Asheville in command of the District of western North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. The considerable property that he once possessed had been swept away, and, though his health was impaired by hard service, he studied law, was speedily called to the bar, and practised in Asheville during the remainder of his life. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 231.
MARTIN, James Stewart, soldier, born in Scott County, Virginia, 19 August, 1826. He received a public-school education, moved to Salem, Illinois, in 1846, and during the Mexican War served as a non-commissioned officer. He was clerk of the Marion County Court from 1849 till 1861, in the mean time studying law and being admitted to the bar. For several years he was a member of the Republican State Committee. He entered the National Army as colonel of an Illinois regiment in 1862, and served till the end of the war, taking part in all the important battles of the Atlanta Campaign and in the march to the sea, and receiving the brevet of brigadier-general on 28 February, 1865. After his return to Illinois he was elected judge of the Marion County Court, and in 1868 was appointed a pension-agent, resigning the judgeship. He resigned that office on being elected as a Republican to Congress in 1872. After his service in Congress he was for some years commissioner of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary, and subsequently a banker in Salem and president of a coal-mining company. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 231.
MARTIN, John Alexander, governor of Kansas, born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania. 10 March, 1839. He learned the printer's trade in the office of the Brownsville "Clipper." and became foreman of the composing-room, and subsequently local editor. Removing in 1857 to Atchison, Kansas, he purchased the "Squatter Sovereign" in February a powerful influence on the political development of the state. In July, 1859, he was secretary of the Wyandotte Convention, at which the state constitution was framed, in October of that year was a delegate to the Republican Convention, and in December was elected a state senator. He was a member of the National Republican Convention in 1860, and after the admission of Kansas to the Union in 1861 was postmaster at Atchison. He served during one session in the state senate, on 27 October joined the National Army as lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Kansas Infantry, and was for some time provost-marshal of Leavenworth. On 1 November, 1862, he was promoted colonel of the regiment, and a month later appointed provost-marshal at Nashville, Tennessee, in which capacity he served six mouths. He took part in the principal engagements of the Army of the Cumberland, commanding a brigade at Chickamauga, and also for several months before he was mustered out, 17 November, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the war. Returning to Atchison, he resumed the management of his newspaper, which he converted into a daily, and in 1865 was elected mayor. He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1868, 1872, and 1880, a member of the National Committee of the party from 1868 till 1884, also of the U. S. Centennial Commission in 1870, and since 1878 has been a manager of the National Soldiers Home. He was elected governor of Kansas in 1884, and in 1886 was re-elected. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 231-232.
MARTIN, John Mason, member of Congress, born in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama. 20 January. 1837, was graduated at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, in 1856, studied law. was admitted to the bar in 1858, and established himself in practice at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He served four years in the Confederate Army, was elected a state senator in 1871 to fill a vacancy, reelected for a full term the following year, and chosen president pro tempore. In 1875 he became professor of equity jurisprudence in the University of Alabama. He was elected to the National House of Representatives as a Democrat, and served from 7 December, 1885. till 3 March. 1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 232.
MARTIN, John Sella, 1832-1876, African American, former slave, clergyman, abolitionist, orator and lecturer against slavery. Agent for newspaper, Provincial Freeman. Wrote articles in the Liberator. Endorsed African Civilization Society colonization plans. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 7, p. 530)
MARTINDALE, Henry Clinton, member of Congress, born in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 6 May, 1780; died in Sandy Hill, Washington, New York, 22 April, 1860. He was graduated at Williams in 1800, studied law, and established himself in practice at Sandy Hill. After filling various local offices, he was elected to Congress as a Whig, and reelected for the throe succeeding terms, serving from 1 December 1823, till 3 March, 1831. After an interval of one term he was returned for the fifth time, and served from 2 December, 1833, till 3 March, 1835.—His son, John Henry, soldier, born at Sandy Hill, New York, 20 March. 1815; died in Nice. France, 13 December, 1881, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and attached to the 1st Dragoons, but resigned on 10 March. 1836, and, after a brief employment as engineer in the construction of a railroad, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1838, and began practice in Batavia, New York. He held the office of district attorney of Genesee County by appointment of the court in 1842-'5. and in 1847-'51 by election under the new constitution of 1846. In the spring of 1851 he moved to Rochester, New York, and there followed his profession until the Civil War. On 9 August, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He won credit by the skilful handling of his brigade during the Peninsular Campaign. At Hanover Court-House, with about 1,000 men, he bore the attack of 4,000 until General Fitz-John Porter came up, and thus enabled the National forces to achieve a complete victory. His brigade was prominently engaged at Gaines's Mills and at Malvern Hill. In the retreat he exclaimed that he would rather stay and surrender than desert the wounded. For this expression General Porter brought charges against him, and after recovering from a severe illness he demanded a court of inquiry, which fully exonerated him. He was appointed military governor of Washington in November, 1862, where he remained until he was relieved at his own request in May, 1864, joined General Benjamin F. Butler's army, and in the operations south of Richmond and the siege of Petersburg led a division. He subsequently commanded the 18th Corps, and held the advanced line on the Appomattox until he was compelled by sickness to leave the field. He resigned his commission on account of disability on 13 September, 1864. For gallant conduct at Malvern Hill he was given the brevet of major-general of volunteers. He resumed the practice of law in Rochester, and in 1866-'8 was Attorney-General of New York State. He was for many years vice-president of the board of managers for soldier's homes. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 234-235.
MARTINEAU, Harriet, 1802-1876, Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS), delegate of the (Garrisonian) Anti-Slavery Society, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society (Dumond, 1961, p. 286; Mabee, 1970, p. 53; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 14, p. 613 Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 235.
MARTINEAU, Harriet, English author, born in Norwich, England, 12 June. 1802; died in Ambleside, 27 June, 1876. She was descended from a family of French Huguenots that settled in Norwich on the revocation of the edict of Nantes. Her father was a manufacturer and died early, leaving eight children unprovided for. Harriet received a good education under the supervision of her uncle, an eminent surgeon, but was compelled to earn her own livelihood. Being afflicted, when still young, with a constantly increasing deafness and a total lack of the sense of smell, she found her chief amusement in literary composition, and ultimately decided to depend upon her pen for support. In 1834-'6 she travelled extensively in the United States, and on her return recorded her impressions of American life and institutions in a work entitled "Society in America" (3 vols., London, 1837). She also published "Retrospect of Western Travel" (3 vols., 1838), which gave more of her personal experiences. Her health became so seriously affected in 1839 that she was long obliged to desist from all literary occupation. On recovering, through the agency, as she believed, of animal magnetism, she published in 1844 an account of the treatment in a letter which excited much attention. In 1852 Miss Martineau formed a connection with the London " Daily News," to which she contributed leading articles and biographical and other papers. At her death she left in the office of the above-mentioned journal an "Autobiography." written in 1855. which was published posthumously (London, 1876; Boston, 1877). Miss Martineau's writings are very numerous and include travels, works on history, political economy, and philosophy, and stories for children. Besides those already mentioned, she published two books referring to the United States, "The Martyr Age" (London, 1838) and "History of the American Compromises " (1856). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 235.
MARTYN, Grace, abolitionist, first director of the Ladies New York City Anti-Slavery Society (LNYCASS), founded New York City, 1835 (Yellin, 1994, p. 34)
MARTYN, Reverend J. H. (Yellin, 1994)
MARTYN, Sarah Towne Smith, 1805-1879, author, reformer, temperance activist, abolitionist Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 238. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 352; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 579-580)
MARTYN, Sarah Towne, author, born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 15 August, 1805; died in New York City, 22 November, 1879. She was the daughter of Reverend Ethan Smith, by whom her education was directed. She married in 1841 Reverend Job H. Martyn, a clergyman of New York City, where she resided for twenty-five years. She established the "Ladies' Wreath," which she edited from 1840 till 1851, but which she resigned on the removal of her husband to Waukesha, Wisconsin. On her return to New York she began writing for the American Tract Society, which within a few years published more than twenty of her books. She wrote fictions of a semi-historical character, illustrating important personages and events in church history, notably those connected with the Reformation, of which period she had made a special study. She also contributed many essays and short stories to Periodicals. Mrs. Martyn was an active advocate of the anti-slavery and temperance reforms, and her residence in New York City was a centre for those that labored in their behalf. Among her books are "Evelyn Percival," "Allen Cameron," "Happy Fireside," "Huguenots of France," and "Jesus in Bethany" (New York, 1805); "Effie Morrison " and "Sybil Grey" (1800); "Hopes of Hope Castle," "Lady Alice Lisle," " Margaret of Navarre," and " William Tyndale" (1807); "Daughters of the Cross," "Nettie and her Sister," "Wilford Parsonage," and "Women of the Bible " (1808); "The Crescent and the Cross" (1869); "Dora's Mistake" (1870); and "Hillside Cottage" (Boston, 1872). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 238.
MARVIN, James M., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
MARVIN, Joseph Dana, naval officer, born in Bazetta, Ohio, 2 October, 1839; died in Yokohama, Japan, 10 April, 1877. He entered the U.S. Navy as acting midshipman, 25 September, 1850, and became midshipman. 15 June, 1860, and was promoted master, September, 1861, lieutenant, 16 July, 1862, lieutenant-commander, 12 April, 1866, and commander, 12 December, 1873. He served as executive officer of the "Mohican" at both attacks on Fort Fisher, and superintended the fire of that vessel with much coolness and skill. He was associated with Commodore Simpson in 1870 in his mission to Europe “to inspect its principal foundries, ordnance establishments, dock-yards, and powder-magazines." In 1871 he was placed in command of a battery at Annapolis, Maryland, and subsequently ordered to special ordnance duty as assistant to the chief of bureau. In September, 1875, he took command of the "Alert," on board of which, in May, 1876, he sailed for China, by way of the Suez Canal. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 238-239.
MASH, Joseph, Sandwich, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1839-1840
MASON, Emily Virginia, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 15 October. 1815, was educated at Troy Female Seminary, New York. For several years before the Civil War she resided in Fairfax County, Virginia, and when hostilities began she left her home near Alexandria and offered her services in the Confederate hospitals. She served as matron at Greenbrier, White Sulphur Springs, Charlottesville, Lynchburg, and Richmond, Virginia, successively. In order to obtain money to educate the orphan daughters of Confederate soldiers, Miss Mason collected and arranged "Southern Poems of the War" (Baltimore, 1867), which met with a very large sale. After the war she spent fifteen years in Paris, France, most of the time acting as assistant principal of an American school for young ladies. Miss Mason has written a " Life of General Robert E. Lee" (Baltimore, 1871), and has also edited the "Journal of a Young Lady of Virginia in 1782 " (1871). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 243.
MASON, James Louis, soldier, born in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1817; died in San Francisco, California, 5 September, 1853. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836, standing second in his class, and was made 2d lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. During 1836-'46 he served as assistant in building Fort Adams, Newport, R. I., as superintendent engineer of the construction of the pier, dike, and light-house on Goat Island in Newport Harbor, and of the building of Fort Montgomery, New York. He participated in the war with Mexico, and was engaged at the siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro Gordo, becoming captain of engineers on 24 April. 1847. Subsequently he was present at the capture of San Antonio and the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey, receiving wounds that prevented his return to active service until 1850. Thereafter he served as superintending engineer of Fort Marion and Fort Clinch. Florida, and in the construction of the defences at Fort Point, San Francisco, California For his services in Mexico he received the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. Besides various military and scientific memoirs and reports, he published "An Analytical Investigation of the Resistance of Piles to Superincumbent Pressure " (1850). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 243-244.
MASON, John S., soldier, born in Steubenville, Ohio, 21 August, 1824. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and assigned to the artillery, served in the war with Mexico, and acted as regimental quartermaster from 1854 till 1858. He was commissioned captain, 14 May, 1861, and was made colonel of the 4th Ohio Regiment on 3 October of the same year. He was made brevet lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at the battle of Fredericksburg, and became brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862. He was promoted major, 14 October, 1864, and brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, in the regular army, 13 March, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, since which time he has been chiefly engaged in frontier duty with different regiments. He was made lieutenant-colonel, 11 December, 1873, and colonel, 9th U.S. Infantry, 2 April, 1883, a commission he still (1888) holds. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 245.
MASON, Melancthon Wells, inventor, born in Cheshire, Berkshire County,, Massachusetts. in 1805; died in Rochester, New York, 20 June, 1875. He possessed much mechanical ability, and early turned his attention to devising various novelties in machinery. He also devoted years of close study to the management of railways, and filled many important offices on several roads. While he was master mechanic of the Syracuse and Auburn Railway he invented many important improvements in locomotives that have since come into general use. He designed the lap-and-lead valve, which was put on the first engine in 1840. He also invented the four-driving-wheel locomotive, the first that was built being the "Phoenix." Mr. Mason is perhaps best known by his locomotive head-light, which he perfected in 1842. In recognition of this important addition to the safety of railway travelling, he received a silver medal from the New York State Agricultural Society. He also invented a snow-plough, and was the builder of the first four-cylinder engine, the "E. P. Williams." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 248.
MASTIN, Claudius Henry, surgeon, born in Huntsville, Alabama, 4 June, 1826. He received his collegiate education at the University of Virginia, was graduated at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1849, went abroad in 1850, studying in Edinburgh, Paris, and London. On his return he settled in Mobile, where he has since practised, chiefly as a surgeon. During the Civil War he served in the latter capacity in the Confederate Army. In 1885 he presented a memoir to the American Surgical Association, then in session in Washington, D. C, which resulted in uniting the various special American Medical Associations into a common body, under the name and title of the "Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons," which organization was completed, 5 October, 1887. He was vice-president of the American Surgical Association in 1883. He has invented several surgical instruments and contributed largely to medical journals, especially on genito-urinary surgery. The University of Pennsylvania gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1875. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 250.
MATHER, Fred, pisciculturist, born in Albany, New York, in August, 1833. In 1854 he became interested in the lead-mines of Potosi, Wisconsin, and afterward hunted and trapped in the Bad Axe country in that state. Here he learned enough of the Chippewa language to become interpreter to the government survey in northern Minnesota. During the political troubles in Kansas he served under General James Lane, and was one of Jennison's "Jayhawkers." He enlisted in the 113th New York Regiment in 1862, and became 1st lieutenant two years later. At the close of the Civil War he took a clerkship in the live-stock yards near Albany. In 1868 he bought a farm at Honeoye Falls, New York, and began to hatch fish of various kinds. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 251.
MATTHEWS, Stanley, 1824-1889, lawyer, jurist, newspaper editor, anti-slavery activist, soldier and U.S. Senator. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1881-1889. Assistant editor of the anti-slavery newspaper, the Cincinnati Morning Herald, the first abolitionist paper there. Served in the Union Army, attaining the rank of Colonel, commanding both a regiment and a brigade. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 418)
MATTHEWS, Stanley, jurist, born in Cincinnati. Ohio, 21 July, 1824. He was graduated at Kenyon College in 1840, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, settling in Maury County, Tennessee. He shortly afterward returned to Cincinnati, early engaged in anti-slavery movements, and in 1846-'9 was an assistant editor of the "Cincinnati Herald," the first daily anti-slavery newspaper in that city. He became judge of the court of common pleas of Hanover County in 1851, was state senator in 1855, and in 1858-'61 was U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Ohio. In March, of the last-named year, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 23d Ohio Regiment, and served in West Virginia, participating in the battles of Rich Mountain and Carnifex Ferry. In October, 1861, he became colonel of the 57th Ohio Regiment, and in that capacity commanded a brigade in the Army of the Cumberland, and was engaged at Dobb's Ferry, Murfreesborough. Chickamauga, and Lookout Mountain. He resigned from the army in 1863, to become judge of the superior court of Cincinnati, and was a presidential elector on the Lincoln and Johnson ticket in 1864, and on the Grant and Colfax ticket in 1868. In 1864 he was a delegate from the presbytery of Cincinnati to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Newark. New Jersey, and as one of the committee on bills and overtures reported the resolutions that were adopted by the assembly on the subject of slavery. He was defeated as Republican candidate for Congress in 1876, and in the next year was one of the counsel before the electoral commission, opening the argument in behalf of the Republican electors in the Florida case, and making the principal argument in the Oregon case. In March he was elected U. S. Senator in place of John Sherman, who had resigned. In 1881 he was appointed associate justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262.
MATTISON, Hiram, 1811-1868, Norway, Herkimer County, New York, clergyman, reformer, abolitionist. Sought to exclude slaveholders from church membership in Methodist denomination. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 423)
MATTISON, Hiram, clergyman, born in Norway. New York, 11 February, 1811, died in Jersey City, New Jersey, 24 November, 1868. He entered the Methodist ministry in 1835, was appointed agent of the American Bible Society for the state of New Jersey in 1841, and, resuming pastoral work the next year, was successively stationed in Watertown and Rome, New York. From 1846 till 1860 he was largely employed in the preparation of works on astronomy and in lecturing. In 1856-'7 he was pastor of churches in Adams and Syracuse, New York, and took an active part in anti-slavery movements. By correspondence with the Methodists of Great Britain in 1859, he obtained the names of about 85,000 petitioners to the general conference of 1860, praying that body to extirpate slavery from the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a like paper from 45,000 petitioners in central New York was largely due to his efforts. In November, 1861, he withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church, because, as he affirmed, of its toleration of slave-holding, soon afterward becoming pastor of St. John's independent Methodist Church of New York City. He returned to his former connection in 1865, and was stationed in Jersey City, where he vehemently opposed the claims of the Roman Catholic Church, and published a tract on the case of Mary Anne Smith, a Methodist, whose father, a Roman Catholic, he alleged, had unjustly caused her arrest and detention in a Magdalen asylum, in New York City. His controversies with the Roman Catholics led to his appointment in 1868 as district secretary to the American and Foreign Christian Union. His numerous works include " The Trinity and Modern Arianism" (New York, 1843); "Tracts for the Times " (1843); "Elementary Astronomy, accompanied by Maps " (1846); Burritt's " Geography of the Heavens, edited and revised (1850); "High School Astronomy" (1853); "Spirit-Rapping Unveiled" (1854); ""Sacred Melodies" (1859); "Impending Crisis " (1859); "Immortality of the Soul" (1866); "Resurrection of the Body (1866); "Defence of American Methodism " (1866): and " Popular Amusements " (1867). See " Work Here, and Rest Hereafter, a Life of Reverend Hiram Mattison," by Reverend Nicholas Vansant, with an introduction by Reverend Edward Thomson (New York, 1870). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262.
MAURY, Matthew Fontaine, scientist, born in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, 14 January, 1800: died in Lexington, Virginia, 1 February, 1873. In his sixteenth year young Maury entered Harpeth Academy, then under the charge of Reverend James H. Otey, afterward bishop of Tennessee. On 1 February, 1825, he was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy, making his first cruise in the frigate "Brandywine," on the coast of Europe and in the Mediterranean. In 1820 the "Brandywine" returned to the United States, and Maury was transferred to the sloop-of-war "Vincennes," for a cruise around the world. After the expiration of the cruise he passed with credit the usual examination, and in 1831 was appointed master of the sloop-of-war " Falmouth," then fitting out for the Pacific. He did not complete his cruise in this vessel, being transferred to the schooner "Dolphin," serving as acting 1st lieutenant, until he was again transferred to the frigate "Potomac," in which he returned to the United States in 1834, and published his first work, "Maury's Navigation," which was adopted as a textbook in the navy. During this intermission of active service he married Miss Ann Herndon, of Virginia, a sister of Lieutenant William L. Herndon, of the navy, who was conspicuous on the occasion of the foundering of the "Central America," which he commanded. In 1837, after thirteen years of service, Maury was promoted to the grade of lieutenant and offered the appointments of astronomer and hydrographer to the exploring expedition to the South Seas, then preparing to sail under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, but declined. In 1839 he met with a painful accident by which he was lamed for life. Being unable for several years to perform the active duties of his profession, he devoted the time to study, to the improvement of the navy, and to other matters of national concern. His forcibly stated views were published first and mainly in the "Southern Literary Messenger," of Richmond, Virginia, over the pen-name of Harry Bluff, and under the general head of "Scraps from the Lucky Bag." These essays produced great reforms in the navy, and led to the foundation of a naval academy. He also advocated the establishment of a U.S. Navy-yard at Memphis, Tennessee, which was done by act of Congress. Under his direction, Lieutenant Robert A. Marr made at that point the first series of observations on the flow of the Mississippi. He proposed a system of observations that would enable the investigators to give information, by telegraph, as to the state of the river and its tributaries, to the captains of steamers and all others who might be interested. He advanced the enlargement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, that vessels of war might pass between the Gulf and the lakes. For this he received the thanks of the Illinois Legislature. He suggested to Congress, through one of its committees, plans for the disposition of the drowned lands along the Mississippi belonging to the U. S. government. In the interest of commerce he brought forward and successfully advocated, in a series of papers, what is known as the warehousing system. In 1842 he was appointed superintendent of the depots of charts and instruments at, Washington, afterward known as the hydrographical office, and upon the organization and union with it of the National Observatory in 1844, he was made superintendent of the combined institutions. To his labors as astronomer of the Naval Observatory he added the task of determining the direction of the winds and currents of the ocean. In pursuance of these objects he collected from the log-books of ships of war, long stored in the government offices, and from all other accessible sources, the material for his purpose. In 1844 he made known his conclusions respecting the Gulf stream, ocean currents, and great-circle sailing, in a paper read before the National Institute, and printed under the title of "A Scheme for Rebuilding Southern Commerce " (1851). They were also embodied in the " Wind and Current Charts" and "Sailing Directions" issued by the observatory. With the accumulation of material the need was felt of systematizing the observations and records themselves, particularly as ships of different nations used different methods of observation and registry. Lieutenant Maury accordingly suggested a general maritime conference, which, at the request of the U. S. government, assembled at Brussels in 1853, and recommended a form of abstract log to be kept on board ships-of-war and merchant vessels. The first fruits of his investigations on the winds and currents of the sea, with its currents and its atmosphere, appeared in 1856 in his work "The Physical Geography of the Sea," which, translated into the languages of France, Germany, Holland, Norway, Spain, and Italy, mode its author well known throughout Europe. By Humboldt, Maury was declared to be the founder of a new and important science, and France, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Belgium, Portugal, Sweden, Sardinia, Holland, Bremen, and the Papal States bestowed orders of knighthood and other honors upon him. The academies of science of Paris, Berlin, Brussels, St. Petersburg, and Mexico received him into membership. In his works he was the first to give a complete description of the Gulf Stream, and to mark out specific routes to be followed in crossing the Atlantic. Maury also instituted the system of deep sea sounding, and was the first to suggest the establishment of telegraphic communication between the continents by cable on the bed of the ocean, and the existing cable was laid along the line indicated by him. There are letters from him to Cyrus W. Field on this subject in the observatory at Washington, D. C. In 1855 he was promoted to the rank of commander. When Virginia seceded, Maury resigned his commission in the U. S. Navy, and was selected as one of a council of three to assist the governor, so serving until the army and navy of Virginia were incorporated with those of the Confederacy. When it became known in Europe that he had resigned from the U. S. service, he was invited to Russia and to France, to continue in either of those countries the work to which his life had been devoted. These offers, from a sense of duty, he declined. He entered the Confederate Navy on 10 June, 1861, served on the court-martial of Captain Josiah Tatnall, of the " Merrimac," and in October, 1862, established at Richmond the naval submarine battery service. Before the torpedo bureau was far advanced, Commander Maury was sent to Europe to continue his experiments. While abroad he invented an ingenious method of arranging and testing torpedo mines, which he was about to put into use at Galveston, Texas, against blockading vessels, when General Lee surrendered. He had been appointed one of the Confederate Navy agents in Europe, and while serving in this capacity purchased and fitted out armed cruisers abroad. At the close of the war, in anticipation of a large emigration from the southern states to Mexico, with the view of aiding his countrymen, he went to that country, and was cordially received by the Emperor Maximilian, who appointed him to a place in his cabinet. Thence he was sent on a special mission to Europe. The revolution terminating his relations with Mexico, he resumed, as a means of support, his scientific and literary labors. During this period the University of Cambridge gave him the degree of LL. D., and the emperor of the French invited him to the superintendency of the Imperial Observatory at Paris. He finally accepted the chair of physics in the Virginia Military Institute. While connected with the institute he prepared and published "The Physical Survey of Virginia" (Richmond, 1868) in connection with the establishment of through routes by rail, and of a great and free water-line uniting the east and west, and this again in connection with foreign commerce by his familiar pathways on the sea, the perfecting of a system of observations and reports of the crops of the world, tending to reduce the fluctuations and to destroy the oppositions of trade in the staple productions of agriculture. Subsequently, with William M. Fontaine, he published "Resources of West Virginia" (Wheeling, 1870). In September. 1872, he addressed the Agricultural Society of Norfolk, Massachusetts, and in October the State Agricultural Society of Missouri, at its annual fair at St. Louis. He reached the Virginia Military Institute on 23 October quite ill, and lingered until 1 February, 1873, when he died. Resides the works mentioned, he published " Letters on the Amazon and the Atlantic Slopes of South America" (Washington, 1853); "Relation between Magnetism and the Circulation of the Atmosphere," in the appendix to "Washington Astronomical Observations for 1846" (1851); "Lanes for Steamers Crossing the Atlantic" (1854); and a series of geographies; "Manual of Geography: Mathematical, Civil, and Physical Geography " (1870); a "Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology (New York, 1853); and smaller works on geography. His life has been written by his daughter (London, 1888).— John Minor's son, Dabney Herndon, soldier, born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 21 May, 1822, was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1841, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, assigned to the Mounted Rifles, and brevetted 1st lieutenant for Cerro Gordo, Mexico, where he was severely wounded. For his services there he was also presented with a sword by the citizens of Fredericksburg and the legislature of Virginia. He was assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics at West Point from 1847 till 1850, assistant instructor of infantry tactics in 1850-'2, and then served on frontier duty in Texas. In 1858 he was made superintendent of the Cavalry-School for Practice, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was assistant adjutant-general in New Mexico from 1 June. 1860, till 24 May, 1861, then became adjutant-general in the Confederate Army, and was sent to the Trans-Mississippi Department in February, 1862, as chief of staff to General Earl Van Horn, and promoted to brigadier-general after the battle of Pea Ridge. He led a division at Corinth, where he was made major-general, served in the operations around Vicksburg, and participated in the defence of Mobile, commanding the Department of the Gulf. On 12 May, 1865, General Maury and the Army of Mobile were paroled prisoners of war under the terms of surrender made by General Richard Taylor and General Edward S. Canby. He organized the Southern Historical Society in 1868, and originated the movement for the reorganization of militia of the nation in 1878. In 1880 he was appointed U. S. minister to Colombia He has published "Skirmish Drill for Mounted Troops" (Washington, 1859). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 264-266.
MAXEY, Samuel Bell, soldier, born in Tompkinsville, Monroe County, Kentucky, 30 March, 1825. His family was of Huguenot descent, and came to Kentucky from Virginia, and his father, Rice Maxey, was clerk of the circuit court and county court of Clinton County. Samuel was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1846, and assigned to the 7th U.S. Infantry. During the Mexican War he served at the siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro Gordo, was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and was also at Molino del Rey and the capture of the city of Mexico. He was made commander of a picked company in the city guard by General Winfield Scott. After the war he was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, but resigned on 17 September, 1849, and in 1850 began the practice of law at Albany, Clinton County, Kentucky. He married in 1853, and in 1857 moved to Paris, Texas, where he practised until 1861. He had been brought up a Whig, but voted for John C. Breckinridge, and afterward for the secession of the state. He was elected to the state senate, but never took his seat. He raised the 9th Texas Infantry, and joined General Albert Sidney Johnston in March, 1862, at Decatur, Alabama, whence he was sent to Chattanooga to collect and reorganize troops. In the meantime he had been made a brigadier-general. Maxey now served under Bragg, and assailed the rear of Buell's army on its retreat, driving it from Bridgeport, Battle Creek, and Stevenson, and making valuable captures. He was in the first siege of Port Hudson, when the National troops were repulsed, and was under General Joseph E. Johnston in the defence of Jackson, Mississippi, In 1863 he was assigned to the command of Indian Territory, he organized this military district, and put 8,000 or more men under arms. In 1864, with these troops, he assisted General Sterling Price at Prairie Danne, and at Poison Springs, 18 April, 1864, he fought General Frederick Steele, and captured his entire train of 227 wagons, thus compelling him to retreat. For these services he was made a major-general. He also acted as Indian Agent during this period, and directed important military movements. After the war General Maxey resumed the practice of law at his home, and was appointed a judge, but declined. In 1874 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, took his seat, 5 March, 1875, and was re-elected on 25 January, 1881. He has served on the Committee on Territories, Military Affairs, and on Labor and Education, and as chairman of that on Post-Offices. He has endeavored to protect the frontier and secure its peace and safety, to grant literal appropriations for rivers and harbors and other internal improvements, to procure greater postal facilities, and to increase our foreign trade by generous subsidies to steamship-lines. His bills first asserted the right of way through the Indian Territory, which was afterward obtained for the railroads through that region. General Maxey has favored revenue reform, and regards a protective tariff as unconstitutional and oppressive. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 267-268.
MAXWELL, Augustus Emmet, jurist, born in Elberton, Georgia, 21 September, 1820. After his graduation at the University of Virginia in 1841, he studied law. was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in Tallahassee, Florida. He was a member of the Florida House of Representatives in 1847, Secretary of State in 1848, and state senator in 1849. He was then elected to Congress from Florida as a Democrat, serving from 5 December, 1853, till 3 March, 1857, and from that date until 1861 he was navy agent at Pensacola. From 22 February, 1862, till the end of the Civil War he was a Confederate senator. In 1866 he was made president of the Pensacola and Montgomery Railroad, and in the same year a justice of the state supreme court, but held office only a short time. He became judge of the First Circuit of Florida in 1877, and chief justice in 1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 270-271.
MAXWELL, George Troupe, physician, born in Bryan County, Georgia, 6 August, 1827. He studied at the Chatham Academy in Savannah, Georgia, and was graduated at the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1848. Dr. Maxwell practised in Tallahassee, Florida, until 1857, when he was appointed surgeon of the Marine Hospital in Key West, Florida In 1860 he moved to Savannah, as he had been elected professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children in Oglethorpe Medical College, but a year later he enlisted as a private in the 1st Florida Regiment, and served for four months in the Confederate Army. He was then commissioned major of cavalry, and in 1862 promoted to colonel. Late in 1863 he organized the Florida Brigade in the Army of the Tennessee, and led it, under General Braxton Bragg, until the battle of Missionary Ridge, where he was captured. He was imprisoned on Johnson's Island in Lake Erie until March, 1865. Meanwhile he had been recommended for promotion to brigadier-general. On the close of the war he returned to Florida, and was elected a delegate from Leon County to the convention that was held for the purpose of remodelling the constitution and reorganizing the state government, and in 1860 he was elected to the legislature. In 1871 he moved to Delaware, and has since made Middletown his residence. Dr. Maxwell has held various offices in the Delaware Medical Society, including that of vice-president in 1874. He claims to have invented the laryngoscope independently several months before Professor Johann N. Czermack announced his discovery, and he was the first American physician to see the vocal cords of a living person. He had contributed professional papers to the medical journals, and published " An Exposition of the Liability of the Negro Race to Yellow Fever "; and a history of his invention of the laryngoscope (1872). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 271.
MAXWELL, Sidney Denise, statistician, born in Centreville, Montgomery County. Ohio, 23 December, 1831. He studied law, settled in Cincinnati in 1868, and in 1862-'3 was army correspondent of the Cincinnati "Commercial." also serving as a private in the 131st Ohio Regiment, and rising to the rank of colonel. In 1864-'5 he was aide-de-camp to the governor of Ohio. He was assistant city editor of the Cincinnati "Gazette " from 1868 till 1871, and agent of the Western Associated Press from 1870 till 1874. Since 1871 he has been superintendent of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, and is now (1888) its statistician. In addition to pamphlets and the annual reports of the chamber of commerce, he has published "The Suburbs of Cincinnati" (Cincinnati. 1870), and “The Manufactures of Cincinnati and their Relations to the Future Progress of the City" (1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 271.
MAY, Abby, 1800-1877, Boston, Massachusetts, abolitionist, temperance activist and women’s suffrage advocate. Wife of abolitionist and transcendentalist Amos Bronson Alcott. Mother of novelist Louisa May Alcott.
MAY, Samuel Joseph, Reverend, 1797-1871, reformer, abolitionist leader, temperance advocate, clergyman, early advocate of women’s rights. Unitarian minister. Organized local auxiliary of the American Colonization Society (ACS). May was won over to the abolitionist cause and became an advocate for immediate, uncompensated emancipation of slaves. He was Vice president, 1848-1861, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), December 1833. He also was Co-founder, lecturer and agent of the New England Anti-Slavery Society (NEASS). He was an officer of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. May was opposed to both the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War. He adamantly opposed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law and actively advocated resistance to it. He was active in Underground Railroad in Syracuse, New York. In 1851, he helped rescue a fugitive slave, Jerry McHenry, from the federal government. He was also an early supporter of William Lloyd Garrison. In 1856, he joined the anti-slavery Republican Party, supporting John Frémont for the presidency of the United States.
(Bruns, 1977, p. 456; Drake, 1950, p. 176; Dumond, 1961, pp. 182, 211-212, 273, 276; Filler, 1960, pp. 34, 44, 59, 65-66, 216; Mabee, 1970, pp. 12, 13, 20, 22-24, 26, 28, 29, 35, 37, 43-48, 78-79, 93, 124, 132, 149, 156, 168-170, 232, 272, 287, 289, 296, 300, 307, 308, 310, 359, 360, 368; Sernett, 2002, pp. 63, 102, 132, 134-144, 175, 176, 274-275, 312-313n39; Sinha, p. 222; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 273; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 447; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 585-586; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 313; May, Samuel Joseph. Memoir of Samuel Joseph May. Boston, 1873; May, Samuel Joseph, Recollections of the Anti-Slavery Conflict. Boston, 1868; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 169. Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 127)
MAY, Samuel Joseph, reformer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 12 September, 1797: died in Syracuse, New York, 1 July, 1871. He was graduated at Harvard in 1817, studied divinity at Cambridge, and in 1822 became pastor of a Unitarian Church at Brooklyn, New York. He was early interested in the anti-slavery cause, wrote and preached on the subject, and in 1830 was mobbed and burned in effigy at Syracuse for advocating immediate emancipation. He was a member of the first New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832, and, when Prudence Crandall (q. v.) was proscribed and persecuted for admitting colored girls to her school in Canterbury, Connecticut, he was her ardent champion. He was also a member of the Philadelphia Convention of 1833 that formed the American Anti-Slavery Society, and signed the "Declaration of Sentiments." of which William Lloyd Garrison was the author. In 1835 he became the general agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, for which, by a union of gentleness and courage, he was peculiarly fitted, and in this capacity he lectured and travelled extensively. He was pastor of the Unitarian Church at South Scituate, Massachusetts, in 1836-'42, and became at the latter date, at the solicitation of Horace Mann, principal of the Girls' Normal School at Lexington, Massachusetts He returned to the pulpit in 1845, and from that date till three years previous to his death was pastor of the Unitarian Society in Syracuse, New York. Mr. May was active in all charitable and educational enterprises, and did much to increase the efficiency of the public-school system in Syracuse. He published "Education of the Faculties " (Boston. 1846): "Revival of Education" (Syracuse, New York, 1855): and "Recollections of the Anti-Slavery Conflict" (Boston, 1868). See "Memoir of Samuel Joseph May," edited by George B. Emerson, Samuel May, and" Thomas J. Mumford (Boston, 1873). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 273.
MAY, Samuel Jr., Leicester, Massachusetts, abolitionist. American Anti-Slavery Society, Executive Committee, 1849-1864, Corresponding Secretary, 1854-1860, Vice President, 1840-1848. Counsellor, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.
MAYER, Brantz, author, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 27 September. 1809: died there, 21 March, 1879. He was educated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, and studied law during a long voyage to the East in 1827-'8. On his return home he entered the law department of the University of Maryland, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. After practicing for several years he visited Europe in 1833, and in 1843 was appointed secretary of legation in Mexico. When he returned home he published his first work, "Mexico as it Was, and as it Is" (Philadelphia, 1844), which was accused of unfairness and gave rise to animated controversy. In the winter of 1844 Mr. Mayer founded the Maryland Historical Society, the original object of which was "the collecting the scattered materials of the early history of the state, and for other collateral purposes. From a membership of twenty it has steadily increased to the present membership of two hundred, including many professional men as well as merchants. During the Civil War Mr. Mayer was an active Unionist, and in 1861 was appointed president of the Maryland Union State General Committee, and did much to aid the National cause. In February, 1863, he was appointed a paymaster in the U. S. Army, and was retained in the service after the close of the war. He served in Maryland, Delaware, and California until his sixty-second year, when he was retired from active service with the rank of colonel. Besides the work mentioned above, he published "Mexico. Aztec, Spanish, and Republican" (2 vols.. Hartford. 1851): "Captain Canot, or Twenty Years of an African Slaver." founded on fact (New York, 1854); "Observations on Mexican History and Archaeology" in "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge''(Washington, 1856); "Mexican Antiquities" (Philadelphia, 1858); "Memoir of Jared Sparks" (1807); and " Baltimore as it Was and as it Is" (1871), and he contributed to the papers of the State Historical Society "The Journal of Charles Carroll during his Mission to Canada" (1844), and " Tah-gah-jute, or Logan and Captain Michael Cresap" (1851; Albany, 1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 273-274.
MAYER, Constant, artist, born in Besancon, France, 4 October, 1832. He studied in Paris in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and under Leon Cogniet, and followed his profession in that city till 1857, when he moved to New York. Mr. Mayer is best known by his life-sized genre pictures, many of which have been photographed or engraved. He has contributed frequently to the Paris salon since 1865, and in 1869 was made a chevalier of the Legion of honor. He was elected an associate of the National Academy in 1866. and he is also a member of the American Art Union. Mr. Mayer's works include portraits of General Grant and General Sherman; "Beggar-Girl" (1863); "Consolation" (1864); "Recognition" (1865); "Good Words" (1866): "Riches and Poverty "; "Maud Muller "; "Street Melodies" (1867); "Early Grief" (1869): "Oracle of the Field "; "Song of the Shirt" (1875); "Song of the Twilight" (1879); "In the Woods " (1880); "The Vagabonds" (1881); " Lord's Day" and "Lawn Tennis" (1883); "Mandolin Player" (1884); "First Grief" (1885); and " The First Communion " (1880), which has been etched by Thomas Hovenden. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 274.
MAYES, Joel Bryan, Cherokee chief, born in the Cherokee reservation, Georgia, 2 October, 1833. His father was white, and his mother was of mixed blood and descended on the paternal side from James Adair, an Indian agent under George III. Joel was moved in his youth to the Cherokee Reservation in Indian Territory, was graduated at the Cherokee Male Seminary in 1856, and taught until the beginning of the Civil War, through which he served as quartermaster in the Confederate Army. He returned to his farm on Grande River in 1865, was county commissioner and chief clerk of the Cherokee Court for many years, and county judge for two terms. While holding the latter office he was chosen associate and subsequently chief justice of the Supreme Court. In August, 1887, he became chief of the Cherokee Nation. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 275.
MAYNAIDER, William, soldier, born in Maryland in 1806; died in Washington, D. C, 3 July, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1827, became 1st lieutenant in 1832, captain in 1838, major and lieutenant-colonel in 1861, colonel in 1863, and brevet brigadier-general in 1865. He was aide to General Winfield Scott in the Black Hawk War, and on similar duty under General Alexander Macomb during the early part of the Florida War. He was frequently assigned to ordnance duty while in the artillery, and in 1838, on the increase of that corps, became captain of ordnance, and was assigned to the Pikeville, Maryland, Arsenal, where he was in command, acting also as Chief of Ordnance till 1842, when he became principal assistant to the chief of ordnance. From this date he was closely associated in official connection with the successive chiefs of the Ordnance Bureau, by whom he was greatly valued for his ability and long experience. He was charged and acquitted in 1862 of disloyalty, as accessory to the alleged attempt of Secretary John B. Floyd to transfer U. S. cannon, munition, and arms to the south. In 1864 he was inspector of arsenals and depots. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 276.
MAYNARD, Edward, inventor, born in Madison, New York, 26 April, 1813. He entered the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, but resigned in the same year, and in 1835 became a dentist, which profession he has since followed. In 1857 he became professor of theory and practice in Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, and he now (1888) holds that chair in the dental department of the National University at Washington. He has devised many methods and instruments in connection with his profession, but is best known by his improvements in fire-arms. These include a system of priming to take the place of the percussion cap (1845), which has been applied to rifles and muskets by the U. S. government and abroad; the Maynard breech-loading rifle (1851—'9), which is now in use by nearly all civilized nations; a method of converting muzzle-loading arms into breech-loaders, which has also been adopted here and abroad (1860); a device for joining two gun-barrels so that they may expand or contract endwise independently; an indicator for showing the number of cartridges in the magazine of a repeating firearm at any time; and numerous minor inventions, all of which have been patented. Dr. Maynard has received many honors, both in the United States and from foreign governments. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 276.
MAYNARD, Horace, statesman, born in Waynesborough, Massachusetts, 13 August, 1814; died in Knoxville, Tennessee, 3 May, 1882. He was graduated at Amherst in 1838, and moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he was instructor in East Tennessee College in 1839-'43, and the next year was appointed professor there of mathematics and natural history. He was admitted to the bar in 1845, and practised with success till 1857, when he took his seat in Congress, having been elected as an American, and served till 1863. He returned to Knoxville after its occupation by General Ambrose E. Burnside in the autumn of that year, but his property had been confiscated and his family driven from east Tennessee. He was state attorney-general in 1864, a delegate to the Baltimore Republican Convention, and a presidential elector. He was returned to the 39th Congress as a Republican, but did not take his seat till 29 July, 1866, after which he served till 1875. In 1867 he was president of the Border State Convention. He was appointed U. S. minister to Russia in 1875, resigned in 1880, and in August of that year became Postmaster-General in President Hayes's cabinet, serving till March, 1881. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 276.
MAYO, Joseph, lawyer, born in Fine Creek Mills, Powhatan County, Virginia, 16 November, 1795; died in Richmond, Virginia, 9 August, 1872, studied medicine in Philadelphia, but left it for law, attaining high rank in his profession. He was commonwealth attorney in Richmond from 1823 till 1853, a member of the legislature, and mayor of Richmond from 1853 till the occupation of the city by the U. S. forces in April, 1865. Mr. Mayo was the author of a "Guide to Magistrates," a standard authority (Richmond; 2d ed., revised, 1860). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 277.
MEACHAM, Alfred Benjamin, 1826-1882, clergyman, reformer, author, historian, Native American rights advocate, abolitionist.
MEAD, Lark in Goldsmith, sculptor, born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, 3 January, 1835. At an early age he moved to Brattleboro, Vermont, where he was educated and first displayed his artistic talent by modelling in snow a colossal figure of an angel, which excited much admiration. An account of this, published in various newspapers, attracted the attention of Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, who provided for the boy's artistic education. From 1853 till 1855 he studied with Henry Kirke Brown in Brooklyn, New York. In 1855 he produced the "Recording Angel" and in 1857 a colossal statue of "Vermont," which crowns the dome of the statehouse in Montpelier, and in 1861 he executed the statue of Ethan Allen that stands in the portico. From the encampment of the Army of the Potomac he sent to a New York illustrated paper, early in the Civil War, numerous spirited sketches of camp and battle scenes. In 1862 he went to Florence, where he has since resided, and has produced there statuettes of "Echo," "Sappho, "Joseph the Shepherd," and "The Mountain Boy." His first elaborate work in Italy was a group. "The Returned Soldier" (1866). Between 1868 and 1874 he produced the groups "Columbus's Last Appeal to Queen Isabella" and "America," for the soldiers' monument at St. Johnsbury, Vermont. Besides portrait busts he has modelled "Venice, the Bride of the Sea," and "The Discovery of America." In 1874 he completed for Vermont a statue of Ethan Allen to be placed in the old hall of representatives in Washington, now called the National Statuary Hall. His statue of Lincoln for the president's monument in Springfield, Illinois, was placed there on 15 October, 1874. (See Lincoln, Abraham.) It represents Mr. Lincoln as having just signed the proclamation of emancipation, he has executed four colossal groups, entitled "Cavalry," "Infantry," "Artillery." and "Navy," and his latest work is a colossal statue in marble of the Mississippi River represented as a river-god. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 278.
MEADE, George Gordon, soldier, born in Cadiz, Spain, 31 December, 1815; died in. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 6 November, 1872, attended school in Philadelphia and afterward Salmon P. Chase's school in Washington, D. C. and Mt. Hope Institution near Baltimore, Maryland, from which he went to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1835. He was assigned to the 3d U.S. Artillery, and ordered to Florida. While he was serving in the war against the Seminoles his health failed, and he was detailed to conduct a party of Seminoles to Arkansas, and then ordered to Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts, and was on ordnance duty there till 26 October, 1836, when he resigned. He was engaged as assistant civil engineer in the is construction of the railroad at Pensacola, Florida, till April, 1837, then, under the appointment of the War Department, made a survey of the mouth of Sabine River, and afterward assisted in the survey of the delta of the Mississippi till February, 1839. In 1840 he was employed in the astronomical branch of the survey of the boundary-line between the United States and Texas, and in August of that year became civil assistant in the survey of the northeastern boundary between the United States and British North America. On 31 December, 1840, he married Margaretta, a daughter of John Sergeant. On 19 May, 1842, he was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, and continued on duty in the survey of the northeastern boundary till November, 1843. In 1844-'5 he was engaged on surveys in Delaware Bay. In September, 1845, he joined the staff of General Zachary Taylor at Corpus Christi, Texas. He took part in May, 1846, in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and in the occupation of Matamoras, and later, under General William Worth, led the assault on Independence Hill at Monterey, for which he was brevetted 1st lieutenant, and shared in the march to Tampico. In the siege of Vera Cruz he served on the staff of General Robert Patterson. Then returning home, he was engaged in 1847-9 in constructing light-houses in Delaware bay and in mapping surveys of Florida reefs. He served in the field against the Seminoles in 1849-50. Mead was on light-house duty in Delaware bay in 1850-'l, was commissioned 1st lieutenant of Topographical Engineers on 4 August, 1851, and for the next five years was engaged in the construction of light-houses at Carysfort Reef, Sand Key, Cedar Key, and Coffins's Patches, in the Florida reefs. He was promoted captain on 19 May, 1856, served on the Geodetic Survey of the northwestern lakes in that year, and in 1857-61 was in charge of all the northern lake surveys. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War Captain Meade was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, dating from 31 August, 1861, and assigned to the command of the 2d brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves, in the Army of the Potomac. On 18 June, 1862, he was promoted major of Topographical Engineers. In the Peninsular Campaign he commanded his brigade in the battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines’s Mills, and at New Market Cross-Roads, otherwise called Glendale, where he was severely wounded. He was taken to Philadelphia, but, soon recovering, rejoined the army in time to render service against the enemy then advancing toward Washington, and took part in the second battle of Bull Run. In the invasion of Maryland he commanded the division of Pennsylvania Reserves, in the absence of General John F. Reynolds, at the battle of South Mountain and at Antietam, where he flanked the enemy from the right, and so signalized himself by his skill and intrepidity that he was placed, by General McClellan, on the field of battle, in command of the 1st Corps after the wounding of General Joseph Hooker. In this engagement General Meade's horse was shot under him. In October and November, 1862, he marched to Falmouth, Virginia, in command of his division, which at Fredericksburg was opposed to the troops of Stonewall Jackson. It alone, of all the army, drove everything before it, and broke through the enemy's lines, finding itself, as General Meade expressed himself in testifying before a commission, "in the presence of the enemy's reserves." During the action two horses were shot under him. For want of timely support, the division was finally forced to fall back. General Meade was now promoted major-general, his commission dating from 29 November, 1862, and on 25 December was placed in command of the 5th Corps. He commanded this corps at the battle of Chancellorsville, and on the first day was pressing forward on the left, meeting with some resistance, but successfully overcoming it, when he was recalled and ordered to retire to his former position before Chancellorsville. General Meade was placed in command of the Army of the Potomac on 23 June, 1863. The change of commanders was made while the corps were on the march in pursuit of an enemy who had pushed far into the invaded country. The general had yet to learn everything of the positions of the enemy and of his own separated corps, of personnel and materiel at his command, and to gain all the essential knowledge that a commander possesses who directs a movement from its inception. He was ordered to relieve General Hooker, without warning, in the night of 27 June, 1863. His army lay encamped about Frederick, Maryland, while Lee's had marched up the Cumberland valley. Meade determined to follow the enemy in a parallel march on the opposite side of South Mountain, dispose his troops so as to guard the passes of the mountain and prevent a descent on Baltimore and harass Lee, with a view of bringing on a general engagement. The troops began to move on the morning of 29 June, and by two forced marches gained positions that would enable them to deploy along the line between Westminster and Waynesborough. When Lee began to concentrate east of South Mountain, Meade ordered his columns to occupy the slope along Pipe Creek, and advanced his left wing to the neighborhood of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, making his dispositions so as to face either north or west. The advanced forces at Emmettsburg and Gettysburg were only expected to delay the march of the Confederates until the concentration could be accomplished on the selected line, fifteen miles in the rear of those positions. On the morning of 1 July, National cavalry came into collision with the head of a Confederate column near Gettysburg. General John F. Reynolds sent infantry to support his cavalry, and at first gained an advantage, but the Confederates soon came up in overwhelming force, and drove the National troops through the town to the hills. General Winfield S. Hancock, who, after Reynolds had fallen, was sent by Meade to conduct operations at Gettysburg, found the Confederate Army approaching by the roads that led to that village, and sent word to General Meade to bring forward his forces to the heights near Gettysburg, on which he posted the remnants of the two corps that had been engaged. Meade, after hearing the report of Hancock, who returned to Taneytown in the evening, was convinced of the superiority of Gettysburg as a defensive position, and ordered a concentration there. During that night and the following morning his troops came up and took position on Cemetery ridge, while Lee posted his on Seminary ridge farther west, both commanders deferring an attack until their main force was on the ground. General Meade arrived at the front soon after noon. The battle was opened at four o'clock in the afternoon by a vigorous attack on the 3d Corps forming the left and left centre, and soon became general along the entire line. The 3d Corps was routed, but the line was not broken, because the National troops, strongly re-enforced from the right, fell back to the ridge more directly connecting the wings of the army, while, after a desperate conflict, they gained possession of Little Round Top, a position of vital importance, which they had neglected to occupy before the battle. The partial defeat impelled General Meade to make preparations for a retreat. Generals Abner Doubleday and Alfred Pleasanton, who were intrusted with the arrangements, subsequently represented that their commander had already given up the hope of holding the position, but he denied, with solemn protestations, before the Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War, "ever having intended or thought, for one instant, to withdraw that army unless the military contingencies which the future should develop during the course of the day might render it a matter of necessity that the army should be withdrawn." In the evening he called a council of war, which advised him against either retreating or attacking, in which opinion he coincided, though expressing the belief, it is said, that the position was bad. Flushed with the success of the day, and relying on the prestige gained at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, General Lee determined to renew the attack on the National Army in its strong position on the following day. In the morning Meade took the offensive against Ewell, and drove him from the intrenchments that he had captured on the right, nearest the town. At one o'clock the Confederates opened fire with 145 guns, to which the National artillery replied with 80, which was all that could be advantageously planted on their ridge. When the National fire ceased, after two hours, General George E. Pickett's division charged Meade's centre under a heavy artillery and infantry fire, poured in from all sides, and was nearly annihilated; a few of them reached the breastworks, only to fall there or be made prisoners. General Meade then ordered an advance on the left, and drove back General John B. Hood's division. Both armies remained in their positions until the evening of the next day, when Lee retreated to the Potomac, and was there obliged to intrench until the waters subsided. Meade followed slowly by a longer route, and when he came up to the Confederates, on 12 July, intrenched himself, postponing an attack, in deference to the decision of a council of war, until he could make a reconnaissance. An advance was ordered to be made on the morning of the 14th, but during the night the enemy had crossed the river. The Confederate force engaged at Gettysburg was about 69,000 men, while the effective strength of the Army of the Potomac was between 82,000 and 84,000, but its numerical superiority was in a measure neutralized by the fatigues of its long marches. General Meade was commissioned brigadier-general in the regular army on 3 July, 1863. After the advance of the Army of the Potomac into Virginia the detachment of large forces caused comparative inactivity, which was followed in the autumn by the actions at Bristoe's Station, Kelly's Ford, and Rappahannock Station, and the operations at Mine Run in December. The army experienced no reverse while General Meade was commander-in-chief, and he was continued in the command of the Army of the Potomac after General Ulysses S. Grant had been made commander of all the armies of the United States and assumed the direction of the operations in person. He was made major-general on 18 August, 1864. During two years, or more than half the period of its existence, General Meade was in immediate command of the Army of the Potomac, and, having been in every campaign of the army since its formation and in all of its battles except two, commanded in the grand review that took place in Washington after the close of the war. During the time that intervened before the southern states resumed regular political relations with the government he commanded the Military Division of the Atlantic. From August, 1866, till January, 1868, he commanded the Department of the East, then till August, 1868, the military district embracing Georgia and Alabama, next the Department of the South, comprising the same states with South Carolina and Florida, and from March, 1869, till his death, he was at the head of the Military Division of the Atlantic again. He received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1865, and was a member of the American Philosophical Society, of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and one of the commissioners of Fairmount Park. His death was caused by pneumonia, aggravated by complications resulting from the gun-shot wound that he had received at New Market Cross-Roads. He was buried with imposing military honors. An equestrian statue of General Meade, designed by Milne Calden, was dedicated in Fairmount park, Philadelphia, on 18 October, 1887. The allegation that General Meade planned a retreat on the second day at Gettysburg is controverted in a pamphlet by George Meade, entitled " Did General Meade desire to retreat at the Battle of Gettysburg" (Philadelphia, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 279-281.
MEADE, George, born in Philadelphia, 2 November, 1843, was educated in Philadelphia, and in September, 1862, enlisted as a private in the 8th Pennsylvania militia Regiment, and served in the ranks during the Antietam Campaign, after which he was honorably discharged. In October he was appointed 2d lieutenant in the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry (Rush's lancers), and served in the Army of the Potomac in the Fredericksburg Campaign, and in General Stoneman's cavalry raid of April and May, 1863. He was promoted to the rank of captain and Aide-de-camp in June, 1863, and appointed to the staff of his father [General George Gordon Meade], who then commanded the 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, and he served continuously on the staff until the surrender of General Lee. In November, 1865, he was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the 9th U. S. Infantry, and in July, 1866, promoted to a captaincy in the 31st U.S. Infantry. Upon the consolidation of the army in 1869 he was transferred to the 22d U.S. Infantry, after being brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services during the Civil War. He continued on the staff of General Meade most of the time until the death of the general, and resigned from the army in October, 1874. Colonel Meade was the only one of his father's sons that was associated with him in the army, his elder brother being in ill health, and his other brothers too young. He is the author of the pamphlet mentioned above and of various articles and letters that have appeared in the daily press regarding his father's career. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 281-282.
MEADE, Richard Worsam, naval officer, born in Cadiz, Spain, in 1807; died in New York City, 16 April, 1870, entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman on 1 April, 1826, and passed that grade on 14 June, 1834. He became a lieutenant on the reserved list, 20 December, 1837, commander on the active list, 14 September, 1855, and captain on 16 July, 1862. In 1861 he took command of the receiving-ship " North Carolina," which vessel he greatly improved, and in 1864 he commanded the steam sloop-of-war "San Jacinto," which was wrecked and lost on one of the Florida reefs. He was retired with the rank of commodore on 11 December, 1867. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 281.
MEADE, Richard Worsam, naval officer, born in New York City, 9 October, 1837, entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman, 2 October, 1850, passed that grade, 20 June, 1856, became a lieutenant, 23 January, 1858, lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, commander, 20 September, 1868, and captain, 13 March, 1880. He served during the Civil War on the Mississippi River, and in the South Atlantic and Western Gulf Blockading Squadrons, being highly commended in the official despatches for "skill and gallantry." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 281.
MEADE, William, 1789-1862, Virginia, clergyman, soldier. American Colonization Society, Vice-President, 1834-1841. Influential member of the Colonization Society. Freed his slaves. (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 27-28, 53-54, 70-74, passim 189-190; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 282-283; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 480)
MEADE, William, P. E. bishop; born near Millwood, Frederick (now Clarke) County, Virginia, 11 November, 1789; died in Richmond, Virginia, 14 March, 1862, was graduated at Princeton in 1808, studied theology, was made deacon, 24 February, 1811, and ordained priest, 10 January, 1814. He began his ministry in his native parish as assistant to Reverend Alexander Balmaine, but in the autumn of 1811 he became rector of Christ Church, Alexandria, Virginia, where he remained for eighteen months. He then returned to Millwood, succeeding the rector on the death of the latter in 1821. Being independent in his pecuniary circumstances, Mr. Meade officiated gratuitously for many years in his own parish and in the surrounding country. ln 1813-‘14 he took an active part in procuring the election of Dr. Richard C. Moore, of New York, as the successor of Bishop James Madison in the episcopate of Virginia, and contributed materially to the establishment of a diocesan theological seminary at Alexandria, and various educational and missionary societies connected with his denomination. In 1819 he went to Georgia as a commissioner to negotiate for the release of certain recaptured Africans who were about to be sold, and succeeded in his mission. On his journey he was active in establishing auxiliaries to the American Colonization Society, and was similarly occupied during a subsequent trip through the middle and eastern states. He emancipated his own slaves, but the experiment proved so disastrous to the Negroes that he ceased to advise its repetition by others. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888 Vol. IV, pp. 282-283.
MEAGHER, Thomas Francis (marr), soldier, born in Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; died near Fort Benton, Montana, 1 July, 1867. His father, a merchant, who had made a fortune in the Newfoundland trade, represented Waterford in parliament for several years. At the age of nine Thomas Francis was sent to the Jesuit College of Clongowes Wood, County Kildare, where he remained six years, and then entered Stonyhurst College, near Preston, England. In 1843 he left that institution, and soon afterward made his appearance as a public speaker at the great national meeting at Kilkenny, over which Daniel O'Connell presided. From that time he was devoted to the cause of Ireland, and in 1846 became one of the leaders of the Young Ireland Party, whose object was to obtain Irish independence by force of arms. In 1848 he was sent to Paris with an address to the provisional government of France from the Irish confederation, and on his return he presented the citizens of Dublin with an Irish tricolor, upon which occasion he made a fiery patriotic speech. On 21 March he was arrested on the charge of sedition, and was bailed to appear at the court of queen's bench. After the passage of the treason-felony act Meagher was arrested again, and in October, 1848, was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. The sentence was afterward commuted to banishment for life, and on 9 July, 1849, he was transported to Van Diemen's Land, but he escaped in 1852 and took refuge in the United States. In 1855 he had begun the study of the law, and he was subsequently admitted to the bar, but at, the beginning of the Civil War he at once abandoned his profession, and, organizing a company of Zouaves for the National Army, he joined the 69th New York Volunteers, under Colonel Michael Corcoran, and served during the first campaign in Virginia. At the first battle of Bull Run, where he was acting major of his regiment, a horse was shot under him. Upon the expiration of his three months' term of service he returned to New York, and in the latter part of 1861 organized the "Irish Brigade," being elected colonel of the first regiment. He was afterward assigned to command the brigade, his commission as brigadier-general bearing the date of 3 February, 1862. General Meagher and his command fought bravely during the seven days' battles around Richmond, Virginia, and at the second battle of Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Antietam, where again a horse was shot under him. At Fredericksburg he was wounded in the leg. After Chancellorsville his brigade was so decimated that he resigned, and was out of the war until early in 1864, when he was recommissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to the command of the District of Etowah. In January, 1865, he was relieved from duty in Tennessee, and ordered to report to General Sherman in Savannah, but the close of the war prevented his performing any further active service. After being mustered out of the service in 1865, General Meagher became secretary of Montana Territory, and in the following September, Governor Sydney Edgerton, being on the point of leaving the territory for a few months, appointed General Meagher governor pro tempore. The hostile attitude of the Indians compelled him to take measures to protect the white settlers. While engaged in this duty he fell into the Missouri, from the deck of a steamboat, and was drowned. He was the author of " Speeches on the Legislative Independence of Ireland" (New York, 1852), of which six editions were issued. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 283.
MEANS, Alexander, clergyman, born in Statesville, North Carolina, 6 February, 1801; died in Oxford, Georgia, 5 June, 1883. He was educated at the academy in Statesville, but moved to Georgia about 1822. and, after teaching for four years, attended medical lectures at Transylvania University. In 1826 he began the practice of medicine in Covington, Georgia, and in 1828 was licensed to preach by the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was called to the charge of a manual labor school near Covington in 1834, and on the organization of Emory College, at Oxford, in 1838, he was chosen professor of physical sciences, which chair he held for eighteen years. In 1840 he was appointed professor of chemistry and pharmacy in the Medical College of Georgia, at Augusta, delivering the regular course of lectures there during the winter months in addition to his duties at Emory. He was made president of the Masonic female College in 1853, and in 1854 called to the presidency of Emory, but in 1855 resigned to accept the professorship of chemistry in Atlanta Medical College, which he held for twelve years, including the period of the Civil War. He was a member of the Georgia State Convention in 1861, and opposed the ordinance of secession, but on the passage of that act promptly identified himself with the south. After the Civil War he became state chemist of Georgia at Savannah, and resumed his relations with Emory College as professor of natural philosophy. He received the degree of M. D., from the Medical College of Augusta in 1841, that of D. D. in 1854, and that of LL.D. in 1858 from Emory. His publications include papers on chemistry in the "Medical and Surgical Journal " and other southern monthly periodicals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 283.
MEANS, John Hugh, governor of South Carolina, born in Fairfield District, South Carolina, 18 August, 1812; died in Manassas, Virginia, 28 August, 1862. His father, Thomas, was a native of Boston, Massachusetts The son was graduated at South Carolina College in 1832, after which he engaged in planting. His advocacy of state sovereignty brought him into notice, and he served in the legislature during the agitation regarding state rights. He was elected governor of South Carolina in 1850 and served one term, the constitution of the state forbidding re-election. During his administration he made many speeches favoring secession, and gave much attention to the state militia. He was president of the Convention of 1852 which passed a resolution that affirmed the right of the state to dissolve at once all political connection with her co-states and that she forbear the exercise of this manifest right of self-government from considerations of expediency only. He then retired to private life, but was a delegate to the Convention of 1860, affixing his name to the Ordinance of Secession. He was elected colonel of the 17th South Carolina Regiment, and was killed in the second battle of Bull Run, 28 August, 1862. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 283-284.
MECHLIN, Joseph, Dr., colonial agent in Africa for the American Colonization Society. Replaced Dr. Richard Randall, who had died in Africa in April 1829. Served four years, until 1833. (Campbell, 1971, pp. 47-50, 64, 72-73; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 164-167, 207, 222, 226)
MEDARY, Samuel, editor, born in Montgomery Square, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 25 February, 1801; died in Columbus. Ohio, 7 November, 1864. The family name was originally spelled Madeira, and is still so pronounced. He was reared in the Quaker faith, his mother's ancestors having emigrated to this country with William Penn. He was sent to the Norristown Academy, and at sixteen years of age became a contributor to the " Norristown Herald," both in prose and poetry. He then taught and continued his studies in the higher branches. In 1820 his family went to Montgomery County, Maryland, and two or three years later to Georgetown, D. C. In 1825 he went to Ohio, and settled in Batavia, Clermont County When he was twenty-six years old he was made county surveyor and school trustee, and later he became auditor of the county. In 1828 he established the "Ohio Sun" to advocate the claims of General Jackson for the presidency. He was elected as a Jackson man to the state house of representatives in 1834, was then sent to the senate, and, after serving two years, moved to Columbus and purchased the " Western Hemisphere," which was afterward changed to the "Ohio Statesman," and which he edited almost continuously till 1857. This paper soon became a power, not only in Ohio but in all the northwest and the south. He supported Jackson in his contests with the U. S. Bank, and advocated his views on the tariff with ability, and probably no man enjoyed the confidence and warm personal esteem of the president to a greater extent than Medary. The cry of " Fifty-four forty, or fight," relative to the Oregon boundary question, is said to have been originated by him, and he became the warm friend of Stephen A. Douglas from his support of that measure. In 1844 he was chairman of the Ohio delegation to the Baltimore Convention. Jackson had written a letter to Mr. Medary asking him in the event of discord to present the name of James K. Polk for the presidency. In the midst of wild excitement Mr. Medary produced this letter with the result that Polk was nominated by acclamation. Mr. Medary declined the office of U. S. minister to Chili in 1853. In 1856 he was temporary chairman of the Cincinnati Convention that nominated James Buchanan, and strongly advocated the nomination of his friend Douglas. He was the last territorial governor of Minnesota in 1857-'8, and of Kansas in 1850-'60. His administrations were eminently successful, particularly in Kansas. The press of both parties in that territory accorded him equal praise. In December, 1860, he resigned and returned to Columbus, Ohio, to establish the "Crisis," which he edited until his death. In his early days he was devoted to horticulture and agriculture, and he was one of the originators of the Ohio State Fairs, being their first treasurer and for several terms president. He also actively aided Samuel F. B. Morse in promoting the electric telegraph. He was known as the " Old wheel-horse of Democracy." One of his characteristics was the ability to write while keeping up a running conversation. In 1869 a monument was erected to his memory in Columbus by the Democrats of Ohio. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 284-285.
MEDILL, Joseph, journalist, born in New Brunswick, Canada. 6 April, 1823. His father moved in 1832 to Stark County, Ohio, where the son worked on a farm, subsequently studied law, and practised at Massillon. He founded a Free-Soil paper at Coshocton in 1849, established "The Leader," a Whig journal, at Cleveland in 1852, and in 1854 was one of the organizers of the Republican Party in Ohio. Soon afterward he went to Chicago, and with two partners bought, in May, 1855, the "Tribune," with which he has since been identified. He was a member of the Illinois Constitutional Convention in 1870, and the author of a minority representation clause. In 1871 he was a member of the U. S. Civil Service Commission, and was elected mayor of Chicago. He spent a year in Europe in 1873-'4, and on his return purchased a controlling interest in the "Tribune," of which he became and continues editor-in-chief. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 285.
MEDILL, William, governor of Ohio, born in New Castle County, Delaware, in 1805; died in Lancaster, Ohio, 2 September, 1865. He studied law, and in 1832 was admitted to the bar of Lancaster, Ohio, to which state he had previously moved. He was soon afterward elected to the legislature, served several years, was twice speaker, and in 1838 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving till 1843. He was First Assistant Postmaster in 1845-'9, then became Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and in 1850 was chairman of the Ohio Constitutional Convention. He was lieutenant-governor of the state in 1851-3, and governor in 1853-'6. During Buchanan's administration he was First Comptroller of the U. S. Treasury. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 285
MEEK, Alexander Beaufort, jurist, born in Columbia, South Carolina, 17 July, 1814; died in Columbus, Mississippi, 30 November, 1865. He was educated at the University of Alabama, admitted to the bar in 1835, and in the same year edited a newspaper at Tuscaloosa. He was lieutenant of volunteers in the Seminole War, and at the close of the campaign was appointed Attorney-General of Alabama, but soon resigned and resumed practice. He was judge of the county court of Tuscaloosa in 1842-'4, and during that time prepared a supplement to Aiken's "Digest of Alabama." He was associate editor of the "Mobile Register" in 1848-"52, and in 1853 served in the legislature, where he secured the establishment of a free-school system in the state. He was a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1856, served in the legislature again in 1850, and was chosen speaker. His later years were devoted chiefly to literary pursuits. His publications include "Red Eagle (New York, 1855); "Songs and Poems of the South" (1857); and "Romantic Passages in Southwestern History" (1857). He left an unfinished "History of Alabama." His best-known poem is one on "The Charge at Balaklava Virginia" Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 286.
MEIGS, Montgomery Cunningham, soldier, born in Augusta, Georgia, 3 May, 1816, studied at the University of Pennsylvania, and was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836 with an appointment in the artillery, but in 1837 was transferred to the Corps of Engineers. He was advanced to 1st lieutenant in 1838 and to captain in 1853. Meanwhile he was occupied in the building of Fort Delaware, in the improvement of harbors in Delaware River and Bay, and in various other works along the Atlantic Coast until 1841, when he became superintending engineer of the construction of Forts Wayne, Porter, Niagara, and Ontario, and so continued during 1841-'9. He then spent the year 1849-'50 in Washington, D. C, in the Engineer Bureau, after which he served again as superintending engineer on the building of Fort Montgomery, where he was sent in 1852, but his orders were changed to Washington, D. C, and he was given control of the survey for the aqueduct before he took charge of this work. In November, 1852, he returned to Washington, under orders to take charge of designing and constructing the Potomac Aqueduct, also superintending the building of the new wings and iron dome of the capitol extension, and the extension of the U. S. general post-office, and completion of Fort Madison in Annapolis, Maryland. He was sent to Florida in October, 1860, to take charge of the building of Fort Jefferson, but in 1861 was appointed to organize an expedition to relieve Fort Pickens. Florida, which was besieged by the Confederate forces. On 14 May, 1861, he was promoted to colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry, and on the 15th was made quartermaster-general of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier-general, which post he continued to hold until his retirement in 1882. During the Civil War he was engaged in directing the equipment and supply of the armies in the field, generally from headquarters in Washington, although he was present at the battle of Bull Run in July, 1861, and during 1863-'4 was specially engaged in providing transportation and supplies for the forces at Chattanooga, being present during the investment and bombardment of that city, and the subsequent battle in November, 1863. During the Overland Campaign in 1864 he had, by orders of the War Department, for a short time personal charge of the base of supplies of the Army of the Potomac at Fredericksburg and Belle Plain. He commanded a brigade of quartermasters men and other troops during the threatened invasion of Washington in July, 1864, and was brevetted major-general on 5 July, 1864. Subsequently he visited Savannah, Georgia, supplying and refitting the army under General William T. Sherman, and shipping captured stores, after which he was in Goldsborough, North Carolina, during March, 1865, directing the opening of communications for again supplying General Sherman's armies. After the war he continued in Washington, and in connection with the duties of his office inspected the workings of the department under his control in Texas and the southwest in 1869-70, in California and Arizona in 1871—'2, the western posts and railroad routes in 1872, and in California and Columbia in 1873-'4. He visited Europe in 1867-8 for his health, and again in 1875-'6, on special service, to study the constitution and government of European armies, and then was made a member of the commission for reform and reorganization of the army in 1876. General Meigs has also been a member of the board to prepare plans and specifications for the new War Department Building in 1866, the new building for the National Museum in 1876, and in preparing a plan for a hall of records in 1878. Since his retirement he has been architect of the building for the Pension Bureau in Washington, which was completed during 1887. He is a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and a member of various scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences, to which he was chosen in 1865. He has published annual reports of the Quartermasters' Department in 1861-'82, and other government reports. " Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 289-290.
MEIGS, John Rodgers, soldier, born in Washington, D. C, 9 February, 1842: died near Harrisonburg, Virginia, 3 October, 1864, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1863, standing first in his class, and entered the army as 1st lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. He served as engineer on the staffs of various commanders during the, campaigns in Maryland and at Harper's Ferry, and as aide-de-camp to General Philip H. Sheridan during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign in 1864. For the battles of Opequan and Fisher's Hill he received the brevets of captain and major. He attained the office of chief engineer of the Army of the Shenandoah, and while making a military reconnaissance was shot by guerillas. [Son of Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs]. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 290.
MELINE, James Florant, author, born in Sackett's Harbor, New York, in 1811; died in Brooklyn, New York, 14 August, 1873. His father was a French officer in the U. S. Army. The son was graduated at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmettsburg, Maryland; and after teaching for some time in Cincinnati, Ohio, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He afterward studied for three years in Europe, and held different U. S. consulships there. On his return he was for several years a banker in Cincinnati, was connected with the "Catholic Telegraph" in that city, and was French consul there a short time before the Civil War. He served during the war, chiefly on the staff of General John Pope, first as major and judge-advocate and afterward as colonel. After the war he was chief of the Bureau of Civil Affairs in the 3d Military District. Subsequently he was employed by the government in connection with the Freedmen's Bureau in Georgia, and during that time was a correspondent of the New York "Tribune." His later years he devoted to literature. He was a regular contributor to the " Catholic World," in which his vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, in answer to James Anthony Fronde, first appeared. He also wrote for the “ Galaxy," and at the time of his death was completing a series of articles on Savonarola, three of which have been published. His principal works are "Two Thousand Miles on Horseback " (New York, 1867); "Commercial Travelling " Cambridge. 1869); " Mary, Queen of Scots, and her latest English Historian " (New York, 1871); and a "Life of Sixtus the Fifth " (1871). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 292.
MELL, Patrick Hues, educator, born in Walthourville, Georgia, 19 July, 1814; died in Athens, Georgia, 26 January, 1888. His parents died when he was a boy, leaving him without means for his support, but with an elementary education. He spent two years at Amherst, in 1833-'5, but left before graduation, and taught for several years in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Georgia. In 1842 he was elected to the professorship of ancient languages in Mercer University. After thirteen years of service he was called to the same professorship in the state University at Athens. In 1860 he was transferred to the chair of metaphysics and ethics, which he held until his death. In 1878 he was elected chancellor of the university and ex-officio president of the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Dr. Mell was a clergyman of the Baptist denomination, to whose ministry he was ordained in 1842. In connection with his educational work he had pastoral charge of various churches. He was president of the Southern Baptist Convention, to which post he was regularly elected during a long term of years. During the Civil War he was in the Confederate service, and was elected colonel of a regiment. He received the degree of D. D., from the University of Georgia in 1858, and that of L.L. D. from Howard College, Alabama, in 1869. Dr. Mell is the author of "Baptism" (Charleston, South Carolina, 1852); "Corrective Church Discipline" (1860); a treatise on " Parliamentary Practice" (Atlanta. Georgia, 1868); "The Philosophy of Prayer" (New York, 1875); and "Church Polity" (Atlanta, 1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 292.
MELLEN, Prentiss, 1764-1840, lawyer. U.S. Senator from Maine, 1818-1820. Chief Justice, Maine Supreme Court, 1820-1834. First President of the Portland Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 292; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 517)
MELLEN, Prentiss, jurist, born in Sterling, Massachusetts, 11 October. 1764; died in Portland, Maine, 31 December, 1840, was graduated at Harvard in 1784, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1786. He began practice at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, moved in 1792 to Biddeford, and in 1806 to Portland. Massachusetts (afterward Maine), and was a member of the executive council of Massachusetts in 1800-'9 and 1817. He was elected U. S. Senator from Massachusetts in place of Eli P. Ashmun, who had resigned, and served from 16 November, 1818, till 15 May, 1820, when he resigned in consequence of the separation of Maine from Massachusetts. He was elected the first chief justice of the new state, and served from 1820 till 1834. when he was disqualified by age. He afterward practised law at Portland, Maine Judge Mellen was a trustee of Bowdoin from 1817 till 1836. His judicial decisions are published in the first eleven volumes of the "Maine Reports." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 292.
MELVILLE, George Wallace, engineer, born in New York City, 10 January, 1841. He was educated in his native city, and entered the U. S. Navy in July, 1861, as third assistant engineer, with rank of midshipman, and has passed through all the intermediate grades to that of chief engineer, with the rank of lieutenant-commander, which he attained in 1881. He was engineer of the "Jeannette," which sailed from San Francisco, 8 July, 1879, under the command of Lieutenant George W. De Long with the object of discovering an opening to the supposed polar sea by a northeast passage near Wrangel land. After the sinking of the "Jeannette," 13 June, 1881, Engineer Melville accompanied De Long over the ice to Bennett Island, and after the party divided. Lieutenant John W. Danenhower being disabled, commanded one of the "Jeannette's" boats on the subsequent perilous passage to one of the eastern mouths of the Lena Delta, which was reached on 17 September, 1881. He now searched for Lieutenant De Long and his party, and discovered some of the huts where De Long had stayed, and obtained from the natives certain of his records. In the following spring Melville explored the delta thoroughly for traces of the missing party, and about the end of March the remains of De Long and his eleven companions were found. Melville subsequently returned to the United States, and was appointed chief of the Bureau of Steam-Engineers, with the rank of commodore, 8 August, 1887, and engineer-in-chief of the U. S. Navy. He is the author of "In the Lena Delta" (Boston, 1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 293.
MELVILLE. Herman, author, born in New York City, 1 August, 1819. His grandfather, Major Thomas Melville (1751-1832). was a member of the Boston Tea-Party, served in the Revolution, and is supposed to have been the last American that adhered through life to the cocked hat. His maternal grandfather was Peter Gansevoort (q. v.). His father, Allan, was a merchant, who travelled widely and cultivated literary tastes. Herman shipped as a sailor before the mast in 1837 for a voyage to Liverpool. Four years later he sailed round Cape Horn in the "Dolly" for a whaling cruise in the South Pacific. But the treatment of the captain was so harsh, and the state of affairs on board was so bad in every respect, that Melville and a companion resolved to leave the ship. While she lay in the harbor of Nukahiva, in the Marquesas Islands, in the summer of 1842, they made their escape. The island, about twenty miles long by ten miles broad, and is mountainous rising nearly 4,000 feet, with alternate ridges and valleys radiating to the sea. One of these valleys is inhabited by the Typees, a war-like tribe of cannibals, and the next by the Happars, a friendly tribe. Commodore David Porter (q. v.), while refitting his ships here in 1813-'14, had taken part with the Happars in a war against the Typees. which he described in his published journal. Melville and his companion, with great labor and many narrow escapes, climbed the mountains, intending to descend into the Happar Valley, but lost their way and finally found themselves among the Typees. While still uncertain where they were, they were surrounded by a group of savage chiefs, one of whom sternly demanded whether they were friendly to Happar or to Typee. "I paused for a second," writes Melville, " and I know not by what impulse it was that I answered Typee.' The piece of dusky statuary nodded in approval, and then murmured ' Mortarkee' [good ?] 'Mortarkee.' said I. without further hesitation—'Typee mortarkee.' The dark figures around us leaped to their feet, clapped their hands in transport, and shouted again and again the talismanic syllables, the utterance of which appeared to have settled everything." Melville was held in captivity for four months, treated in most respects as an honored guest, but constantly watched to prevent his escape. His companion soon got away, and at length Melville himself was rescued. An Australian whaler, short of men, visited the harbor of Nukahiva, where the captain learned that there was an American sailor in the Typee valley, and accepted the offer of a native to obtain him. The native made his way to Melville, and guided him to the beach, where a boat from the whaler was in waiting, and Melville was taken off after a bloody fight, he spent, two years more in the Pacific, and on his return home published "Typee: a Peep at Polynesian Life during a Four Months' Residence in a Valley of the Marquesas" (New York and London, 1846). This work, in which the story of his romantic captivity is told with remarkable vividness, had an immediate success and rapidly passed through several editions. It was dedicated to Chief-Justice Lemuel Shaw, of Massachusetts, whose daughter Mr. Melville afterward married. He moved to Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1850, but subsequently returned to New York and was appointed to a place in the custom-house. His remaining works are " Omoo, a Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas" (1847); "Mardi, and a Voyage Thither," a philosophical romance (1848); “Redburn." a novel (1848); "White-Jacket, or the World in a Man-of-War" (1850); "Moby Dick, or the White Whale" (1851); "Pierre, or the Ambiguities" (1852); "Israel Potter, his Fifty Years of Exile" (1855); "The Piazza Tales" (1856); "The Confidence Man" (1857); "Battle-Pieces, and Aspects of the War," a volume of poems (1866); and "Clarel, a Pilgrimage in the Holy Land." a poem (2 vols., 1876). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 293-294.
MEMMINGER, Charles Gustavus, financier, born in Würtemberg, Germany, 9 January, 1803. His mother, a widow, emigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, when he was an infant, and soon died. He was placed in an orphan asylum, but at the age of nine was adopted by Governor Thomas Bennett. He was graduated at the South Carolina College in 1820, began to practice law in Charleston in 1825, and was a leader of the Union Party during the nullification excitement. He published "The Book of Nullification " (1832-'3), satirizing the advocates of the doctrine in biblical style. In 1836 he was elected to the legislature, where he opposed the suspension of specie payments by the banks in 1839. He assisted the attorney-general in the prosecution of the principal case, which resulted in a decision that the banks had forfeited their charters. For nearly twenty years he was at the head of the finance committee in the lower house of the legislature, from which he retired in 1852. He was again returned in 1854, having become particularly interested in the reformation of the public-school system. In 1859 he was a commissioner from South Carolina to Virginia to secure co-operation against the movements of abolitionists. He was appointed secretary of the Confederate Treasury in February, 1861, and resigned in June, 1864. Since the Civil War he has lived in retirement. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 294-295
MENDENHALL, George, physician, born in Sharon. Pennsylvania, 5 May, 1814; died in Cincinnati. Ohio, 4 June, 1874. He studied medicine in Salem, Ohio, and was graduated at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1835. He settled in Cincinnati in 1843, and there acquired a large practice, making a specialty of obstetrics, in which he held a high rank. He was professor of that branch in the Miami Medical College, where he was also dean. On the organization of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, at the beginning of the Civil War, he was one of the associate his wife's aid, he rendered valuable services to the work of that body. After the close of the war they continued their philanthropic work in other directions, and were distinguished for their charitable labors. Dr. Mendenhall was a fellow of the Royal Obstetric Society in England, and in 1870 was president of the American Medical Association. In 1854, with other physicians, he established the " Cincinnati Observer" and also contributed to other medical journals. He was the author of "The Medical Student's Vade-Mecum" (Philadelphia, 1852). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 296.
MERCER, Charles Fenton, 1778-1858, Leesburg, Virginia, soldier, political leader, opponent of slavery. Vice President, American Colonization Society, 1834-1841, Director, 1839-1840, life member. Called the “American Wilberforce.” Introduced a bill in the U.S. Congress for the federal government to “make such regulations and arrangements, as he deem expedient, for safeguarding, support and removal of” the Africans in the United States. $100,000 was appropriated by the bill. It became the Slave Trade Act of 1819. It became law on March 4, 1819. (Dumond, 1961, p. 61; Mason, 2006, pp. 124-125, 269; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 163; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 31, 48, 50-51, 70, 73, 176-178, 184, 207, 307; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 300; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 539)
MERCER, Charles Fenton, soldier, born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 6 June, 1778; died in Howard, near Alexandria, Virginia, 4 May, 1858. He was graduated at Princeton in 1797, and commissioned captain of cavalry the next year by General Washington, in anticipation of war with France, but subsequently studied law, and after a tour abroad in 1802-'3, practised his profession. He was a member of the Virginia Legislature in 1810-'17, and during the war of 1812 was aide to the governor and in command of the defences of Norfolk, with the rank of brigadier-general. He was chairman of the committee on finances in the legislature in 1816, and introduced the bill for the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, of which he became president. He was elected to Congress as a Federalist in this year, and returned till 1840, a longer period of continued service than that of any of his contemporaries. He was an active protectionist, and an opponent of slavery. He visited Europe in 1853 and conferred with eminent men of several countries in the interests of abolition. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 300.
MERCER, Margaret, 1791-1846, Lynchburg, Virginia, abolitionist, anti-slavery activist, reformer, educator. Active supporter of the American Colonization Society in Lynchburg. Slaveholder who freed her slaves in 1846 and paid their way to Liberia. Raised money for colonization. Daughter of the Governor of Maryland, John Francis Mercer. (Burin, 2005, pp. 34, 38, 39, 60, 67, 103-104, 115; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 301; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 546; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 110-231; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 331)
MERCER, Margaret, born in Annapolis. Maryland, in 1792; died in Virginia in June, 1840, voluntarily reduced herself from affluence to poverty by freeing her slaves and sending them to Liberia, and she subsequently taught for twenty years in Virginia. She prepared two volumes for her pupils, “Studies for Bible Classes" and " Ethics, a Series of Lectures to Young Ladies." See memoir of her, by Caspar Morris (Philadelphia, 1848). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 301
MERCHANT, Charles Spencer, soldier, born in Albany, New York, 22 February, 1795; died in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 6 December, 1879. His father, George, was a graduate of Princeton, a paymaster in the army in the War of 1812-'15, subsequently mayor of Albany, and treasurer of the state of New York. The son was appointed to the recently established U. S. Military Academy. 7 September. 1812, and was the first cadet that presented himself there. He was graduated in 1814, assigned to the Corps of Artillery, and during the war with Great Britain was engaged in garrison and recruiting service. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, 20 April, 1818, and with thirty soldiers escorted General James Miller to Eastport, Maine, where the British garrison of Fort Sullivan was relieved, and Merchant was left in command. At the reorganization of the army, on 1 June, 1821, he was retained as 1st lieutenant in the 2d U.S. Artillery, and on 20 April, 1828, received the brevet of captain for faithful service for ten years in one grade. During the disturbances on the orders of Canada in 1838-'41 he was stationed at northern frontier posts, and during the latter part of the war with Mexico he was in command of Fort Brown, on the Rio Grande. On 14 February, 1849, he was promoted major of the 3d U.S. Artillery. He was with his regiment in December, 1853, on board the steamer "San Francisco" when she was wrecked off Cape Hatteras, and suffered from the effects for several years. On 10 June, 1857, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 3d U.S. Artillery, which he rejoined in California, remaining there until 1861. On 27 August of that year he was promoted colonel of the 4th Artillery, and he was subsequently placed in command of Fort Washington, on the Potomac, until he was retired from active service, 1 August, 1863. Notwithstanding his retirement, he remained on active duty at Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, and on courts-martial until 1869. On 13 March, 1865, he received the brevet of brigadier-general "for long and faithful service in the army." At the time of his death he was the senior officer of the army in date of original commission, and president of the Association of Graduates of West Point.—His son Charles George, soldier, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 10 March, 1821 ; died in East Pascagoula, Mississippi, 4 September, 1855, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and assigned to the 8th U.S. Infantry. He was made 2d lieutenant, 9 May 1840, brevet 1st lieutenant" for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Molino del Rey," 8 September, 1847, brevet captain for Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847, and 1st lieutenant. 2 August, 1848. His death was caused by a wound that he received in Indian hostilities in Florida.—Another son, Clarke, naval officer, born in Savannah, Georgia, 20 September, 1830, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1857, and promoted successive, and lieutenant-commander, 3 March, 1865. In the early part of the Civil War he was stationed at the Washington U.S. Navy-yard and attached to the " Pensacola," and during the latter part was acting executive officer of the “Roanoke" in James River. Just as the war was closing he was ordered to the Naval Academy as executive officer of the "Constitution" and " Santic." He resigned on 10 August, 1805, and engaged in mercantile business in Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 301-302
MERCUR, Ulysses, jurist, born in Towanda, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, 12 August, 1818; died in Wallingford, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 6 June, 1887. He was a son of Henry and Mary Watts Mercur. During his early life he worked on his father's farm and afterward spent three years in his brother's store as a clerk. He was graduated at Jefferson College in 1841 with the first honors of his class, studied law under Thomas T. McKennan and Edward Overton, was admitted to the Bradford county bar, and soon achieved a high reputation. In 1861 he was a presidential elector on the Lincoln ticket. When David Wilmot was chosen U. S. Senator, he resigned as president judge of the 13th District and Mr. Mercur was appointed as his successor. At the next election he was chosen for ten years, but he resigned in 1865 and was four times successively elected to Congress. He was active in the legislation of the war and of the reconstruction period. During the eighth year of his term in the House he was chosen a justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and he resigned from Congress, 2 December, 1872. On 1 January, 1883, he became under the constitution chief justice, which post he held at the time of his death. His judicial opinions, in the Pennsylvania State Reports, from 1873 till 1887, are distinguished by learning, sound judgment, and clear and forcible language. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 302-303.
MEREDITH, Solomon, soldier, born in Guilford County, North Carolina, 29 May, 1810; died in Cambridge City, Indiana, 21 October, 1875. At the age of nineteen he went to Wayne County, Indiana, and by manual labor earned enough to give himself an education. In 1840 he moved to Cambridge City. He was chosen sheriff of his county in 1834 and 1836, thrice elected to the legislature in 1846-'8, and in 1849 became U. S. Marshal for the District of Indiana. In 1854 he was again chosen to the legislature. In July, 1861, he became colonel of the 19th Indiana Regiment, which saw its first service in Virginia, and lost half its effective force at Gainesville, where Colonel Meredith was wounded. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 6 October, 1862, and commanded what was known throughout the war as the Iron Brigade. Under his leadership this brigade forced a crossing of the Rappahannock in April, 1863, receiving special thanks in general orders, took part in the battle of Chancellorsville, and opened the battle of Gettysburg, where General Meredith was wounded again and disabled till November, 1863. He was ordered to the command of Cairo, Illinois, early in 1864. and in September to a similar post in Paducah, Kentucky, which he retained till the close of the war. On 14 August, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers. In 1867-'9 he was surveyor-general of Montana, and he then retired to "Oakland Farm" near Cambridge City, Indiana, where he devoted himself to raising fine stock, and dispensed a generous hospitality. He was also a pioneer in improved methods of agriculture. General Meredith was six feet six inches in height, of commanding presence, and a ready speaker. He was active in securing the passage of the present Indiana school laws, and as financial agent of the Indiana Central Railroad did much for the success of that enterprise. His three sons were all in the National Army during the Civil War, and two lost their lives in the service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 303.
MEREDITH, William Morris, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, bank president. Philadelphia auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 303; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 39)
MEREDITH, William Morris, cabinet officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 8 June, 1799; died there, 17 August, 1873. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1812, studied law, and about 1820 began practice. He was in the legislature in 1824-'8, president of the Select Council of Philadelphia in 1834-'49, and a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1837. He became Secretary of the U. S. Treasury in 1849, and held office until the death of President Taylor. He was Attorney-General of Pennsylvania in 1861-'7, and president of the State Constitutional Convention in 1873. As a lawyer, Mr. Meredith occupied for many years the foremost rank in his native state, and was constantly engaged in important cases in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and that of the United States. As a ready and able legal debater, he had few superiors in this country. Appletons’ Cylcopædia of American Biography, 1888 Vol. IV, p. 303
MEREDITH, Sullivan Amory, soldier… put entry here under son of William Morris.
MERIWETHER, David; senator, born in Louisa County, Virginia, 30 October, 1800. He moved to Kentucky, was educated in a country school, and in 1818 engaged in the fur-trade. He early entered politics as a Democrat, and between 1832 and 1883 was thirteen times a member of the Kentucky Legislature, becoming Speaker of the House in 1859. He was in the Constitutional Convention of 1849, sat in the U. S. Senate by appointment of the governor, on the death of Henry Clay, from 15 July till 20 December, 1852, and was governor of New Mexico Territory from 1853 till 1857. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 304.
MERRICK, Samuel Vaughan, manufacturer, born in Hallowell, Maine, 4 May, 1801; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 18 August, 1870. In 1816 he left school and went to Philadelphia, where he entered the counting-house of his uncle. He subsequently studied engineering, and about 1835 established at Philadelphia the Southwark Iron-Foundry, which became the finest work of the kind in this country. Among other important constructions he built the iron light-houses that were erected along the Florida reefs, some of them the largest in the world: and the machinery for the U. S. ships "Mississippi," "Princeton," "San Jacinto." and "Wabash.” Mr. Merrick took a deep interest in public affairs. He was active in introducing illuminating gas into Philadelphia, to further which measure he became a member of the city councils, and in 1834 he was sent by the councils to Europe to examine into the methods of manufacturing gas there. His report led to the construction of the Philadelphia Gas-Works, the building of which he superintended. He was at one time president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and of the Catawissa Railroad, was one of the founders of the Franklin Institute, and a member of the American Philosophical Society from 1833 until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 305.
MERRICK, Richard Thomas, lawyer, born in Charles County, Maryland, 25 January, 1826; died in Washington. D. C, 23 June, 1885, raised a company, which he commanded in the Mexican War, although he was under age, after which he practised law and served in the legislature. He then went to Chicago, where he formed a law-partnership and was a delegate from Illinois to the Democratic National Convention of 1860, supporting Stephen A. Douglas. In 1864 he moved to Washington, where during the following twenty years he stood high in his profession. After the war he was a Democratic candidate for delegate to Congress from the District of Columbia under the territorial form of government. He was also engaged in the defence of President Johnson in the impeachment trial in 1868; in 1876-'7 was one of the counsel before the electoral commission, and afterward in prosecuting the Star-route eases. He was a brilliant debater and public speaker, and during the exciting presidential canvass of 1884 took an active part in the western states in the interest of the Democratic ticket. He was lecturer on constitutional law in Georgetown University. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 305.
MERRILL, Joseph, , Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1838-40
MERRILL, Moses Emery, soldier, born in Brunswick, Maine, 3 September, 1803; died near Molino del Rey, Mexico, 8 September, 1847. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, 1 July, 1820, assigned to the 5th U.S. Infantry, and was on frontier duty till 1845. He had been promoted 1st lieutenant in 1833 and captain in 1837. Captain Merrill took part in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6 and in the Mexican War, being engaged at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, the siege of Vera Cruz, and the capture of San Antonio. He was killed at Molino del Rey while leading the assaulting column in its attack on the enemy's works.— His son, William Emery, military engineer, born in Fort Howard, Brown County, Wisconsin, 11 October, 1837, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1859 and assigned to the Engineer Corps. He served for nearly a year at the U. S. Military Academy as assistant professor of engineering, acted as assistant engineer in the Army of the Potomac in March and April, 1862, and was chief engineer of the Army of Kentucky from 12 October, 1862, till 25 May, 1863, and of the Army of the Cumberland from 22 August to 17 Sept, of the latter year. He took part in all the more important engagements of those armies till the close of the war. He was brevetted captain for gallantry in an engagement before Yorktown, Virginia. promoted captain, 3 March, 1863, and made colonel of the veteran volunteer engineers, 2 July, 1864, which corps he had organized and with which he had been engaged in fortifying important points on the lines of military railroads in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. He was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel for "faithful and meritorious services" at the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and Resaca, respectively. He was promoted major, 7 March, 1867, and lieutenant-colonel, 20 February, 1883. Since the close of the war he has served as chief engineer on the staff of Lieutenant-General Sherman and on important duty with his corps in the improvement of rivers and in surveys in the west. In 1878 he was ordered to visit Europe to obtain information respecting the construction of movable dams, and other professional subjects. He has since been stationed at Cincinnati in charge of improvements in the Ohio. Alleghany, Monongahela, and Muskingum Rivers. He has published " Iron-Truss Bridges for Railroads" (New York. 1870) and "Improvement of Non-Tidal Rivers" (Washington. 1881). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 306.
MERRILL, James, lawyer, born in Peacham, Vermont, 8 May, 1790; died in New Berlin, Pennsylvania, 29 October, 1841. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1812 and moved to York, Pennsylvania, with Thaddeus Stevens and John Blanchard, where he read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1815. He settled in 1816 in New Berlin. Union County, Pennsylvania, where he resided until his death. He was for many years one of the most eloquent and popular lawyers in that part of the state. As senatorial delegate he attended the Constitutional Convention of 1836, and it is said that to him more than to any other man in the convention the people of Pennsylvania are indebted for its wisest provisions. In the debates he was the advocate of the present peculiar judicial system of Pennsylvania, by which equity is administered through common law forms, and as the conservative adherent to those principles in the constitution of 1790 for which it was proposed to substitute the rapidly growing doctrines of the pro-slavery thinkers. He also urged the insertion of a provision that would give to colored men the political franchise. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 306.
MERRILL, Lewis, soldier, born in New Berlin, Pennsylvania, 28 October, 1834, left the class of 1852 at Lewisburg University. Pennsylvania, to enter the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1855, and was appointed lieutenant to the 1st Dragoons. After frontier service he was detached to muster in and organize volunteer troops, and in August, 1861, was made colonel and chief of cavalry on the staff of General John C. Fremont. He organized a regiment of Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, of which he was appointed colonel, and the regiment was called Merrill's Horse. He led a brigade in the Army of the Southwest to December, 1861, and the following year look the field in operations against the guerillas of western and northern Missouri. He commanded the District of North Missouri in July, 1863. when he was assigned to the command of a brigade of in the Army of Arkansas. He participated with them and as commander of the cavalry division in the action near Little Rock, 9 September, 1863, and in the battle and capture of Little Rock, and led the pursuit of the enemy, driving them successively in a series of engagements from every position and capturing more than 400 prisoners. On 10 September, 1862, he had been promoted brevet major for "gallant and meritorious service against rebel forces in north Missouri." On 10 September, 1863, he was made brevet lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Little Rock." The following year, while in command of the West Division Cavalry Bureau, he organized and commanded a brigade of cavalry in the campaign against Price's invasion of Missouri, participating in the action near Franklin, Missouri. In January, 1865, he was transferred to the Army of the Cumberland and assigned to the command of a brigade of cavalry in northwest Georgia and northern Alabama. On 5 March, 1865, he was promoted brevet colonel for services against the forces under General Wofford in the operations that terminated in his surrender, and on 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general for "gallant and meritorious service during the war." He then returned to his regiment, and in 1866 was made inspector-general of the Department of the Platte and subsequently judge-advocate of that department. He was promoted major in 1868, and while serving on the frontier was assigned by his brevet rank to the command of a Military district in South Carolina, embracing a territory in which the Ku-klux outrages were most frequent. In return for his services he received the thanks of the War Department and of his department commander for "great work and ability in mastering and breaking up the Ku-klux conspiracy," and those of the legislature of South Carolina for "conspicuous ability" in the performance of his duties. In 1875-'6 he was again called on for similar duty in command of the Red River District of Louisiana. General Merrill was retired from active service on surgeon's certificate of disability in 1886 after several years of frontier duty. Son of James Merrill lawyer, 1790-1841. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 306-307.
MERRIMON, Augustus Summerfield, senator, born in Buncombe County (now Transylvania), North Carolina, 15 September, 1830. He was the son of a Methodist clergyman, and the eldest of ten children. He studied law. was admitted to the bar in 1852, became solicitor to several counties in his circuit, and in 1861 solicitor for the district. In 1860 he was elected to the legislature. At the beginning of the agitation that led to the Civil War, Mr. Merrimon took a decided stand for the Union, but the proclamation of President Lincoln calling for 75,000 men decided him to join the Confederate Army, in which for a short time he was attached to the commissary department as captain. In 1866 he was chosen judge of the superior courts by the legislature, and as such held the first regular sessions on his circuit under circumstances of considerable peril, a police force having to be organized in several counties by the sheriff to preserve the peace. When General Edward R. S. Canby, in command of the U. S. forces, issued military orders to the courts, Judge Merrimon resigned his commission. In 1872 he was nominated for governor, but was defeated by a small majority. He was chosen U. S. Senator in the following December, and served from 1873 till 1879. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 307-308
MERRITT, Edwin Atkins, consul, born in Sudbury, Vermont, 20 February, 1828. He was thrown on his own resources at an early age, and moved in 1841 to St. Lawrence County, New York., and became a surveyor. After holding local offices he was elected to the lower branch of the legislature as a Republican in 1859, and re-elected in 1860. At the beginning of the Civil War he became quartermaster of the 60th New York Regiment, served with the Army of the Potomac, and in Sherman's Georgia Campaign acted as commissary of subsistence. On 1 January, 1865, he was made quartermaster-general of the state of New York, and he superintended the Soldiers' Home in New York City. He also established free agencies for the collection of bounties, back pay, and pensions that were due New York volunteers. In 1869-'70 he was naval officer of the port of New York. In 1875 he was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for state treasurer. In December, 1877, he became surveyor of the Port of New York, and in 1878 he was appointed collector in place of Chester A. Arthur. He was U. S. consul-general in London in 1881-1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 308.
MERRITT, Joseph, Merit, Michigan, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1852-1864.
MERRITT, Wesley, soldier, born in New York City, 16 June, 1836. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, 1 July, 1860, assigned to the U.S. Dragoons and promoted 1st lieutenant, 13 May, 1861, and captain, 5 April, 1862. He took part in General Stoneman s raid toward Richmond in April and May, 1863, and was in command of the reserve cavalry brigade in the Pennsylvania Campaign of the same year, being commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in June. For gallant and meritorious services during the battle of Gettysburg he was brevet ted major. Still in command of his brigade, he took part in the various engagements in central Virginia in 1863-'4, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel in the regular army, and major-general of volunteers, for gallantry at the battles of Yellow Tavern, Hawes's Shop, and Winchester respectively. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier general and major-general in the regular army for bravery at the battle of Five Forks, and his services during the final Virginia Campaign, and on 1 April was commissioned major-general of volunteers. After the war he was employed chiefly on frontier duty until 1882, when he was placed in charge of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point. In June, 1887, he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 9th U.S. Cavalry in 1866, colonel of the 5th U.S. Cavalry in 1876, and in 1887 became brigadier-general. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 308-309.
MERVINE, William, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1790; died in Utica, New York., 15 September, 1868. He entered the U.S. Navy, and was made midshipman, 16 January, 1809, lieutenant, 4 February, 1815, commander, 12 June, 1834, and captain, 8 September, 1841. He was placed on the retired list, 21 December, 1861, promoted commodore, 16 July, 1862, and rear-admiral, 25 July, 1866. He spent twenty-five years in active duty afloat, four years in performing shore service, and the remainder of the time on furlough or awaiting orders. At the beginning of the Civil War, although seventy years of age, he reported promptly for duty, and did good service during the first year of the war, but his health was inadequate to the heavy duties of that period, and he reluctantly submitted to be retired. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 309.
METCALF, Mason Jerome, inventor, born in Fairfax, Maine, 16 October, 1807; died in Monmouth, Maine, 23 July, 1883. When a boy he moved to Zanesville, Ohio, with his father, who was a teacher. Afterward he returned to Litchfield, Maine, was educated in the academy at Monmouth, and settled there. He was for several years a manufacturer of stencils in Boston, Massachusetts, alternately residing in Monmouth, where he owned and operated three mills. His most important invention was a method of producing letter-stencils by means of dies, which he was the first to practice and bring into use. Up to that time such stencils had been made entirely with chisels. He also invented a form of fence, often made of slabs from saw-mills, which by reason of its simplicity and cheapness came widely into use, and may still tie seen on many farms at the west. His other inventions included a fan-wheel for ventilation. He made many experiments with models for flying-machines, all of them involving the use of a fan-wheel or propeller. He held that men would fly, by the use of spiral wheels, as soon as an engine could be invented that was at once sufficiently light and powerful. He also experimented with a plough that was designed to turn up the soil and pulverize it at the same time by means of a revolving cylinder with curved teeth. None of his inventions were ever patented. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 311.
MICHIE, Peter Smith (my'-key), engineer, born in Brechin, Scotland, 24 March, 1839. He came to this country in early life, and was graduated at Woodward High-School, Cincinnati, in 1857, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1863, where he stood second in his class. He was assigned to the Engineer Corps as 1st lieutenant, and served as assistant engineer in the operations against Charleston, South Carolina, 1863-'4, as chief engineer of districts in the Department of the South, and as assistant and then chief engineer of the Army of the James. He was brevetted captain and major, 28 October, 1864, for services in the campaign of that year against Richmond, brigadier-general of volunteers, 1 January, 1865, "for meritorious services in 1864," and lieutenant-colonel, 9 April, 1865, for the campaign that ended in Lee's surrender. He was promoted captain, 23 November, 1865, and since 1867 has served on the staff of instruction at the U. S. Military Academy, first as assistant in the departments of engineering and chemistry, and after 14 February, 1871, as professor of natural and experimental philosophy. From June till November, 1870, he served on a commission that visited Europe to collect information on the fabrication of iron for defensive purposes. Professor Michie has been a member of the board of overseers of the Thayer School of Civil Engineering of Dartmouth since 1871. Princeton gave him the degree of Ph. D. in 1871, and Dartmouth that of M. A. in 1873. He has published " Wave Motion, Relating to Sound and Light" (New York. 1882); "Life and Letters of Emery Upton" (1885); "Analytical Mechanics" (1886); and " Hydromechanics "(West Point, 1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 315.
MICHLER, Nathaniel, soldier, born in Easton, Pa„ 13 September, 1827; died in Saratoga Springs. New York, 17 July, 1881. His great-grandfather, John Wolfgang, a Moravian minister, came to this country in 1743. Nathaniel, after studying at Lafayette, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1848, assigned to the Corps of Topographical Engineers, and served on the Mexican Boundary Survey in 1851-'7. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, 19 May, 1856, and in 1857-'60 was chief engineer in charge of surveys of the proposed ship-canal from the Gulf of Darien to the Pacific. After his promotion to captain, 9 September, 1861, he was chief Topographical Engineer successively of the departments of the Cumberland and the Ohio, and the Armies of the Ohio and the Cumberland, he was transferred to the regular Engineer Corps on 3 March. 1863, promoted, major, 22 April, 1864, and was engaged on the defensive works connected with the Wilderness Campaign, the siege of Petersburg, and the subsequent actions of the Army of the Potomac. He received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, 1 August, 1864, and those of colonel and brigadier-general in the regular army on 2 April, 1865, for services at Petersburg and throughout the war. Afterward he served on various engineering boards, was superintendent of public buildings in the District of Columbia in 1867-'71, and then had charge of river and harbor improvements on the Pacific Coast and in the states of New York and New Jersey. At the time of his death he held the rank of lieutenant-colonel, to which he had been promoted on 16 October, 1877. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 515-316.
MIDDLETON, Henry, author, born in Paris. France, 16 March, 1797; died in Washington, D. C, 15 March. 1876, was educated by private tutors at Middleton Place, South Carolina, and at the U. S. Military Academy. He was graduated in 1815 and assigned to the Corps of Engineers, serving in the construction of defences of the Savannah River, Georgia, until his resignation from the army on 15 July, 1816. In 1819 he entered the Litchfield, Connecticut, law-school, and in 1820 went to Edinburgh to continue his studies. Here he formed a friendship with Dugald Stewart and Mrs. Grant, of Laggan. In 1822 he returned to the United States and was admitted to the bars of Charleston and Philadelphia, but did not practice his profession, his taste for philosophy dominating any active pursuit. He was interested in political economy and wrote much in favor of free-trade. In 1832-'3 he opposed nullification, publishing an essay on the " Prospects of Disunion." He was the author of " The Government and the Currency," of which Edgar A. Poe said: "Nothing so good on the same subject has yet appeared in America" (New York, 1850); “Economical Causes of Slavery in the United States and Obstacles to Abolition" (London, 1857); "The Government of India, as it has been, as it is, and as it ought to be" (1858); and "Universal Suffrage in the Various Conditions and Progress of Society." Son of Henry Middleton, 1771-1846. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 317.
MIDDLETON, John Izard, author, born at Middleton Place, 3 February, 1800; died in Summerville, South Carolina, 12 January. 1877, entered South Carolina College at an early age, but was graduated with the highest honor at Princeton in 1819. He became a large rice-planter in Prince George, South Carolina, representing that parish in the state legislature from 1832 till 1840. In 1848 he was speaker of the house. He was a member of the Conventions of 1832 and 1850, and in 1860 with his brother Williams signed the South Carolina Ordinance of Secession. He was ruined by the Civil War. and spent his last years in retirement. Son of Henry Middleton, 1771-1846. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 317.
MIDDLETON, Henry Edward, naval officer, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 11 December, 1810; died in Washington; D. C, 27 April, 1883, was educated in Europe and appointed from South Carolina to the U. S. Naval Academy in 1828. He became passed midshipman in 1834, and served on the "Constitution," of the Mediterranean Squadron, from 1835 till 1838, and in the Brazil Squadron from 1839 till 1842. After being commissioned lieutenant, 2 March, 1841, he served on the store-ship "Lexington" in 1843-'4, in the Home Squadron, the U.S. Navy-yard, Philadelphia, and the Mediterranean Squadron. He was executive officer of the sloop “Decatur,” of the Pacific Squadron, in 1854-"6, operating against a combination of hostile Indians in Washington and Oregon territories. On 16 April, 1856, he was made commander and assigned the sloop "Decatur," and he commanded steam sloops in the Pacific Squadron from 1861 till 1865. He became captain on 24 April, 1863, was on special duty in New York in 1866, held charge of the U.S. Navy-yard, Mare Island, California, in 1867-'8, and commanded the steam sloop “Pensacola." of the Pacific Squadron, in the latter year. He was made commodore on 26 November, 1868, and had charge of the U.S. Navy-yard, Pensacola, Florida, from 1 June, 1870, till 8 March, 1873. He was retired on 11 December, 1872, and made rear-admiral, 15 August, 1876. Son of Henry Middleton 1771-1846. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 317-318.