Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – F
FAIRCHILD, Cassius, soldier, born in Kent, Ohio. 16 December, 1828; died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 26 October, 1868. In 1846 his father settled at Madison, Wisconsin, where, as state treasurer and in other responsible offices, his time was so fully occupied that Cassius, the eldest living son, devoted himself mainly to the care of his father's private business. He was elected a member of the state legislature in 1860. On President Lincoln's first call for troops in 1861, he was commissioned major of the 16th Wisconsin Volunteers. In the battle of Shiloh, 6 April, 1862, he received a wound that disabled him until 18 April, 1863, when he rejoined his regiment at Lake Providence, and took command of it on 18 June. He served on general court-martial at Vicksburg, Mississippi, from 10 October, 1863, till 7 March, 1864, at which date he again took command of his regiment, participated in the march from Clifton, Tennessee, to Ackworth, Georgia, and was engaged in the battles of Big Shanty and Kenesaw Mountain, and many other conflicts. He was detached on recruiting service, 12 August, 1864, but rejoined his regiment at Beaufort, South Carolina, in January following. He commanded a Brigade of the 3d Division of the 17th Army Corps from 15 January, 1865, till 1 April, and, on being mustered out in July, was brevetted brigadier- general, his commission to date from 13 March, 1865. On his return to Wisconsin he was appointed U. S. Marshal, the duties of which office he continued to discharge until his death, which was caused by the reopening of his wound. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 400-401.
FAIRCHILD, Lucius, statesman, born in Kent, Portage County, Ohio, 27 December, 1831. He was educated in the public schools of Cleveland, and at Carroll College in Waukesha, Wisconsin In 1846 his father moved to Wisconsin, then a territory, and settled in Madison. On the discovery of gold in California, the son, at the age of eighteen, joined with others, and with a four-yoke ox-team set out for the gold fields across the plains. After months of toil and travel the party arrived in San Francisco with a capital of twenty-seven cents. For six years he worked as digger, miner, prospector, and laborer, then returned to Wisconsin in 1855, not much richer than when he left. His entrance into politics began in California with his election as delegate to a convention for the nomination of governor. On his way to the gathering his mule fell off a height, carrying with him all of young Fairchild's baggage. He finished the remainder of his journey on foot, and sat in the convention without a coat and without a cent in his pocket. He was elected clerk of the circuit court in 1858, and in 1860 admitted to the bar. At the beginning of the Civil War he was a member of a local company known as the "Governor's Guard," and promptly enlisted. He entered the service as captain in the 1st Wisconsin Regiment, and served in the three months' campaign. In August, 1861, he was commissioned by President Lincoln a captain in the 16th Regiment of the regular army, also about the same time a major in the 2d Wisconsin Infantry. He accepted both appointments, and was the first officer of the regular army to receive leave of absence to serve with a volunteer regiment. At Bull Run he commanded the consolidated 2d and 7th Wisconsin Regiments, forming part of the famous "iron brigade." At the beginning of the battle of Antietam he was sick in an ambulance at the rear, but went into action, where his regiment lost more than half its force. As colonel of the 2d Wisconsin, in the battle of Gettysburg, he led a charge at Seminary Hill, where he lost his left arm. While recovering from his wounds he was commissioned a brigadier-general, 19 October, 1863, and shortly afterward elected Secretary of State in Wisconsin, where he remained two years. He was then elected governor, and served for six consecutive terms, during which time he aided the Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Madison, and was one of the founders of the State board of charities and reform. General Fairchild was appointed U. S. consul at Liverpool in November, 1872, and served six years. He was consul-general in Paris in 1878-'80, and then U. S. minister to Spain till 1882, when he resigned and returned to Madison, Wisconsin In 1886 he was elected commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 401.
FAIRFAX, Donald McNeill, naval officer, born in Virginia. 10 August, 1822, became a midshipman, 12 August, 1837, served under Dupont on the west coast of Mexico and California during the Mexican War, and was at the capture of several towns. He was promoted to a lieutenancy, 26 February, 1851, made commander, 16 July, 1862, and served on the "Cayuga," of the West Gulf Squadron, from June, 1862, till February, 1863, under Farragut, when he was transferred to the command of the steamers " Nantucket" and "Montauk," of the South Atlantic Squadron, in which he made several attacks on the defences of Charleston Harbor, under Dupont and Dahlgren. In 1864-'5 he was in command of the Naval Academy, promoted to a captaincy, 25 July, 1866, served on the flag-ship " Rhode Island," in the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1866-'7, and on the steam sloop "Susquehanna" in 1867-"8. He was advanced to the rank of commodore, 24 August, 1873, and made rear-admiral, 11 July, 1880. Admiral Fairfax was in service forty-eight years and five months; of this time, twenty years and four months were spent at sea, his last cruise terminating in 1868. See "Magazine of American History, vol. xiii. pp. 217-236. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 403.
FALES, Almira L., philanthropist, born in New York; died in Washington, D. C. 8 November, 1868. She was for some time a resident of Iowa, but her husband, Joseph T. Fales, having received an appointment as examiner in the Patent-office in Washington, she thence forth made that city her home. As early as 1860, from her extended knowledge of southern feeling and action, she foresaw and predicted the approaching struggle, and, much to the surprise of her friends, began the collection and preparation of articles for hospital use. At the beginning of the war she entered, fully prepared, on the care of sick and wounded soldiers, and at Pittsburg Landing and other battlefields of the west was busy in ministering to the wants of the sufferers. The government placed an ambulance at her command, and during the war she was unremitting in her visits to the hospitals in the neighborhood of Washington, at Fredericksburg, on the Peninsula, and elsewhere. In the yard of her own house she pitched a large tent, into which she gathered sick and disabled soldiers, and there ministered to their needs until means could be provided to send them to their homes. For some time Mrs. Fales was charged by the government with the superintendence of soldiers sent from the hospitals in and around Washington to the hospitals in New York and elsewhere. Amid all this activity she found time to correspond extensively and obtain pecuniary aid to carry on her work. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 404.
FALLOWS, Samuel, bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church, born in Pendleton, near Manchester, England, 13 December, 1835. He moved with his parents to Wisconsin in 1848, was graduated at the State University there in 1859, and was vice president of Gainesville University till 1861, when he was ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He served as a colonel in the Civil War, and was brevetted brigadier-general. On returning to civil life he became a pastor in Milwaukee. He was chosen state superintendent of public instruction for Wisconsin in 1871, and was twice re-elected. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 405.
FARMER, George Edgar, soldier, born in New York City in 1840; died there, 16 February, 1870. He engaged early in life in mercantile pursuits, but at the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 was commissioned 2d lieutenant of the 6th New York Cavalry. He was subsequently appointed quartermaster, but before leaving for the seat of war was promoted to captain, and led his company in all the battles in which the regiment participated. At Trevillian Station, during General Sheridan's first raid, Captain Farmer was shot, but, continuing in the field, was still more seriously wounded at Deep Bottom. He rejoined his regiment in the autumn of 1864, and was with Sheridan throughout his campaign in the valley of the Shenandoah. After the battle of Cedar Creek he was made major, and was for some time in command of the regiment. Continuing with Sheridan's Cavalry Corps until the surrender of Lee, he was then promoted to lieutenant-colonel by brevet. He was honorably discharged at the close of the war, returned to business, and became a prominent and earnest member of the Grand Army of the Republic, at his death being in command of the oldest post in the state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 409.
FARNHAM, Noah Lane, soldier, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 4 June, 1829; died in Washington, D. C., 14 August, 1861. His ancestor, Henry Farnham, came from Kenilworth, England, and settled in Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1644. In 1833 Noah's parents moved to the city of New York. He was educated in New Haven and at Cheshire, Connecticut, and entered business in New York at the age of sixteen. When eighteen years old he joined the City Guard, and was present with that corps at the Astor Place riot. He subsequently joined the fire department, and was soon chosen foreman of a "hook and ladder" company, where he introduced new methods of drill, and practised his men in climbing, jumping, and other athletic exercises. In 1856 he was elected assistant engineer of the New York Fire Department, and in 1857 joined the 7th Regiment, soon attaining the rank of 1st lieutenant. He became acquainted with Colonel Ellsworth on the arrival of the latter from Chicago in April, 1861, was persuaded by him to accept the lieutenant- colonelcy of the New York Fire Zouaves, and succeeded to the command after Ellsworth's death. When the regiment was ordered to march on Manassas, Colonel Farnham was confined to a sick bed, but left it, and rode into action at the head of his men. He was wounded early in the engagement and removed to a hospital in Washington, where he died a few weeks afterward. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 411.
FARNHAM, Roswell, governor of Vermont, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 23 July, 1827. When he was thirteen years of age his family moved to Bradford, Vermont. He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1841, was admitted to the bar in 1857, and was state attorney from 1859 till 1862. He then entered the army as lieutenant of the 1st Vermont Regiment, and was provost-marshal at Newport News, Virginia. He afterward became lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Vermont during its service in the field, he was in the state senate in 1858-'9, a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1876, and a presidential elector on the Hayes ticket the same year. He has served on the state board of education, and has been one of the trustees of the University of Vermont and the State Agricultural College since 1878. He was governor of Vermont from 1880 till 1882, having received the largest vote ever cast, and defeating Edward J. Phelps, afterward minister to England. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 411.
FARNSWORTH, John Franklin, 1820-1897, Chicago, Illinois, Union soldier. Colonel, 8th Illinois Cavalry, later commissioned Brigadier General, 1861-1862. Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois, 1857-1861, 1863-1873. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 411-412; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 3, Pt. 2, p. 284; Congressional Globe)
FARNSWORTH, John Franklin, legislator, born in Eaton, Quebec, Canada, 27 March, 1820. He moved with his parents to Michigan in 1834, received an academic education, studied and practised law, and afterward went to Chicago, Illinois. He was elected to Congress as a Republican, and served from 1857 till 1861, when he became colonel of the 8th Illinois Cavalry. He subsequently raised the 17th Illinois Regiment, by order of the War Department, and was commissioned brigadier-general, 29 November, 1862, but was compelled to resign from the army in March, 1863, owing to injuries received in the field. He then moved to St. Charles, Illinois, and from 1863 till 1873 was again a member of Congress. Since 1873 he has been engaged in the practice of his profession in Washington, D. C. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 411-412.
FARNSWORTH, Elon John, soldier, born in Green Oak, Livingston County, Michigan, in 1837; died in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 3 July, 1863, was educated in the public schools, and spent a year at the University of Michigan. Leaving college in 1858, he served in the quartermaster's department of the army during the Utah Expedition of that year. He then engaged in buffalo hunting, and in carrying freight to the then newly discovered mines at Pike's Peak. In 1861 he became assistant quartermaster of the 8th Illinois Cavalry , which his uncle was then organizing. He was soon promoted to captain, and took part in all the battles of the Peninsula, and in those of Pope's campaign. He was appointed aide to General Pleasanton in May, 1863, promoted to brigadier-general on the 29th of the following month, and was killed four days afterward while leading a charge during the battle of Gettysburg. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 412.
FARNUM, John Egbert, soldier, born in New Jersey, 1 April, 1824; died in New York City, 16 May, 1870. He was educated in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, entered the army as sergeant-major of the 1st Pennsylvania Infantry in 1846, and served through the Mexican War. Subsequently he joined the Lopez Expedition to Cuba which left New Orleans in 1850, and also took an active part in Walker's Nicaraguan Expeditions. Still later he was captain of the slave-yacht " Wanderer," and was indicted at Savannah for carrying on the slave-trade. He is said to have regretted this episode in his life, and at the beginning of the Civil War he became major in the 70th New York Volunteers, which was raised and commanded by General Sickles. He distinguished himself for gallantry in all the engagements in which Sickle’s brigade took part, and was promoted colonel of his regiment. At the battle of Williamsburg, 5 May, 1862, he was severely wounded, but recovered in time to take part in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, and was brevetted brigadier-general for gallant conduct in those engagements. He was then compelled by his wounds to abandon active service, and accepted the colonelcy of the 11th Regiment of the Veteran Reserve Corps, which he retained till the close of the war. Later he was appointed inspector of customs in the city of New York, which office he held at the time of his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 412.
FARQUHAR, Norman von Heldreich, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania, 11 April, 1840. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1859, became a lieutenant in 1861, a lieutenant-commander in 1865, and a commander in 1872. In 1862-'3 he was executive officer of the steamer "Mahaska," of the North Atlantic Squadron, and during that period frequently engaged the enemy both afloat and in expeditions on shore. As executive officer of the "Santiago de Cuba" he took part in both attacks on Fort Fisher, North Carolina, and led the men of that vessel in the successful assault on the fort of 15 January, 1865. He was commandant of cadets at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1881-'6, and in the latter year was promoted captain. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 412.
FARRAGUT, David Glasgow, naval officer, born at Campbell's Station, near Knoxville, Tennessee, 5 July, 1801; died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 14 August, 1870. His ancestry is traced to Don Pedro Ferragut, called “El Conquistador,” who served under James I., king of Aragon, in the campaign in which the Moors were expelled from Majorca and Valencia in the 13th century. The estates of the family were in the Balearic Islands, and among the notable members were Agustin, a theologian; Pablo, an historian; Antonio, a distinguished soldier of the 17th century; Gonzalo, bishop of Urgel; and three magistrates of the kingdom of Majorca. But the name is now extinct in those islands. The admiral's grandfather married Juana Mesquida, and that surname appears to have superseded Ferragut. The admiral's father, George Farragut, born in Minorca, 29 September, 1755; died at Point Plaquet, West Pascagoula, Louisiana, 4 June, 1817, emigrated to this country in 1776, took part in the Revolutionary War, and was the friend and companion of General Andrew Jackson during his Indian Campaigns of 1813-'14. The journal of the U. S. House of Representatives for 1797 records that William C. C. Claiborne presented “the petition of George Farragut, praying that he may be allowed the balance of pay due to him for services rendered the United States as muster-master of the militia of the District of Washington [East Tennessee], employed in actual service for the protection of the frontiers of the United States south of the Ohio, from the 1st of March, 1792, to the 26th of October, 1793.” George Farragut. as sailing-master of an expedition to the Bay of Pascagoula in 1810-'11, sent by Governor Claiborne, of the Mississippi territory, bore a principal part in securing from the Spaniards the disputed territory on that coast. Dr. Flood, the commissioner, wrote in his report “At the special request of the inhabitants of Pascagoula, by whom he is greatly beloved, I prevailed on Sailing-Master George Farragut to accept the commission of magistrate.” George Farragut married Elizabeth Shine, of North Carolina, who bore him five children — three sons and two daughters — and died in New Orleans in 1808, of yellow fever.
The boyhood of David Glasgow Farragut lacked none of the dangers and hardships of frontier life. In his journal he says: “I remember that on one occasion, during my father's absence, a party of Indians came to our house, which was somewhat isolated; when my mother, who was a brave and energetic woman, barred the door in the most effectual manner, and sent all of us trembling little ones up into the loft of the barn while she guarded the entrance with an axe. The savages attempted to parley with her, but she kept them at bay until finally they departed. My father arrived shortly afterward with his command (he was a major of cavalry), and immediately pursued the Indians, whom I believe he succeeded in overtaking and punishing.” At the age of eight the boy accompanied his father in a small boat across Lake Pontchartrain, during a gale. “This expedition,” he says in his journal, “was my first experience on salt water, and I fervently hoped at that time it would be my last.” The father, who appears to have been afraid of nothing on land or sea, and once went from New Orleans to Havana in a pirogue (a sort of canoe), was in the habit of taking his children across the lake in all sorts of weather, saying “now was the time to conquer their fears.” At this time Sailing-Master David Porter, father of Commodore Porter, of the “Essex,” being at the New Orleans naval station, became ill, was taken care of at Farragut's house, and died there, his funeral being on the same day with Mrs. Farragut's. This circumstance led to a warm friendship with Commodore Porter when he succeeded his father on that station, and he offered to adopt one of the boys. The eldest son, William, had already received an appointment in the U.S. Navy. The choice being presented to the two others, David promptly said that he would go, and accompanied Porter in the bomb-ketch “Vesuvius” to Washington. There he was placed in school, and there also he was introduced to Paul Hamilton, Secretary of the Navy, who promised to give him a midshipman's warrant as soon as he should complete his tenth year. Subsequently Farragut attended school in Chester, Pennsylvania, where the Porter family resided. He was but nine and a half years old when he received the promised appointment in the U.S. Navy, 17 December, 1810. In July of the next year he went to Norfolk, Virginia, in company with Captain Porter, who there took command of the frigate “Essex,” which cruised up and down the coast, her men by constant practice being brought to the highest state of efficiency. The midshipmen were sent to school in Newport, Rhode Island, during the greater part of the winter.
When war with England was declared in June, 1812, the “Essex” was quickly made ready for sea, and soon captured several prizes. On this cruise Farragut discovered and frustrated a mutiny among the prisoners. In October the “Essex” put to sea again, under orders to join Bainbridge's squadron in the West Indies; but Porter failed to find the squadron, and on his own responsibility continued his voyage southward, doubled Cape Horn, and made a memorable cruise in the Pacific. (See Porter, David.) Young Farragut was made prize-master of one of the captured vessels, and ordered to take her to Valparaiso, the captain to navigate her. When Farragut, who confesses that he “ was a little afraid of the violent-tempered old fellow,” gave his first order, the captain flew into a rage, declared he “had no idea of trusting himself with a d—d nutshell,” and went below for his pistols. The twelve-year-old prize-master thereupon assumed complete command, had his orders obeyed, called down to the captain that if he came on deck with his pistols he would be thrown overboard, and thenceforth was master of the ship. While the “Essex” was refitting in the Marquesas Islands, Farragut and the other midshipmen played with the native boys, and became expert swimmers. The first battle in which Farragut participated — that of the “Essex” against the “Phoebe” and the “Cherub,” in the Harbor of Valparaiso, 28 March, 1814 — was one of the bloodiest ever fought on the sea. He says in his journal: “I performed the duties of captain's aide, quarter-gunner, powder-boy, and in fact did everything that was required of me. I shall never forget the horrid impression made upon me at the sight of the first man I had ever seen killed. It staggered and sickened me at first, but they soon began to fall around me so fast that it all appeared like a dream, and produced no effect on my nerves.” After the battle he was at work for nearly a month assisting the surgeons in the care of the wounded, when the survivors were sent to New York in the “Essex Junior.” Farragut was sent to school again at Chester, Pennsylvania, where he was not only instructed in the usual branches, but also drilled as a soldier.
In April, 1815, he sailed for the Mediterranean in the “Independence,” as aide to Captain William M. Crane; but she arrived too late to take part in the Algerine war, and, after visiting Malaga, Carthagena, and Gibraltar, returned home and wintered at Boston. In 1816 he visited the Mediterranean again, on board the “Macedonian,” which conveyed William Pinkney, U. S. minister to Naples; and in 1817 the ship made an extended cruise in that sea, stopping in almost every port, and giving officers and crew abundant opportunities to visit the places of interest. In the autumn of that year the chaplain, [[Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/Folsom, Charles Folsom (q. v.), was appointed U. S. consul at Tunis, and at his request Midshipman Farragut spent nine months with him, studying French, Italian, English literature, and mathematics. At this time Richard B. Jones, U. S. consul at Tripoli, wrote to Mr. Folsom: “With regard to my young friend, Farragut, if he will only apply steadily to useful purposes the talents with which he is so bountifully enriched, it must, with his amiable disposition and obliging manners, insure him the respect and esteem of all who know him, and place him, at some future period, high in the niche of fame.” In a later letter the same appreciative friend spoke of Farragut as “the young admiral.” He attended the grand duke's ball in Pisa, and gives a humorous account of his misadventures. “At one time my shoe-buckle caught in the flounce of the archduchess's dress. I kicked off the offending shoe with great elegance, and then knelt down and extricated it, with a suitable apology. Soon after this I trod on the grand duke's toe, and had to make another apology. Chagrined at my own awkwardness, I determined to retire, and looked around for my cocked hat, when I found the Countess Testa using it for a foot-warmer. I drew it to me rather unceremoniously, at which she remarked that I ‘ought to feel myself highly complimented, and should not be offended.’ To which I replied, ‘Madame, it might be so considered in your country, but not in mine.’ ”
In the spring of 1819 Farragut made another cruise in the Mediterranean, and was made acting lieutenant on the brig “Shark.” In 1820 he was ordered home for his examination, and sailed in a merchantman. On the voyage they were sighted and chased by a Colombian war vessel, which the frightened captain supposed to be a pirate. Farragut therefore took command of the ship, mustered the crew, and prepared for resistance. When a small boat from the man-of-war came alongside, he had a grindstone and a barrel of tar ready to drop into it and sink it if they should prove to be pirates. He passed his examination, but not well enough to satisfy himself, and went to Norfolk, Virginia, where he fell in love with Miss Susan C., daughter of Jordan Marchant, whom he married three years later.
In May, 1822, he was ordered to sea in the sloop-of-war “John Adams,” which conveyed the newly appointed U. S. representatives to Mexico and Guatemala. On this cruise he met General Santa Aña (afterward president of Mexico) at Vera Cruz, and made his first acquaintance with the Gulf where his fame was to be won forty years later. After his return he obtained orders to sail in the schooner “Greyhound,” of Commodore Porter's fleet, which was preparing for a cruise against freebooters of the West Indies. They had numerous encounters with the pirates, and on one occasion Farragut was sent ashore at the Isle of Pines, in command of a detachment who, after making their way through swamps and thick chaparral, found the caves and concealed houses of the robbers, drove them out, and set fire to everything that would burn. Soon afterward Farragut was made executive officer of Porter's flag-ship, the “Seagull,” which made a cruise to examine the reefs and shoals of the Gulf. In a subsequent cruise he obtained leave of absence and went to visit his friends in New Orleans, taking passage in a vessel that was carrying thither the first load of bricks for the construction of Fort Jackson, with which Farragut fought his first battle in the Civil War. In July, 1823, he was assigned to the command of the “Ferret,” which convoyed merchantmen through the Gulf, to protect them from pirates. He had many cases of yellow fever on board, and treated them himself, the only death being that of a midshipman who refused his prescription because he was not a physician. He himself took the fever on his homeward voyage, and on his arrival was sent to the hospital in Washington, where he remained until his recovery.
In 1825 he was commissioned lieutenant, and ordered to the frigate “Brandywine,” Captain Charles Morris, which in September carried Lafayette home to France, and after that made a cruise in the Mediterranean. On his return home in May, 1826, Farragut took his wife to New Haven, Connecticut, to be treated for neuralgia, and remained there four months, attending the lectures of the Yale professors. Those of Professor Silliman especially interested him. After this he spent two years at Norfolk, Va. He was an accomplished cook, and prepared all the food for his invalid wife, and personally took a large part of the care of her. At the same time he established a successful school for boys on the receiving-ship “Alert.” When Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy, inspected this school, he gave it what Farragut calls “one of the few, the very few, compliments I ever received from the navy department or its head.”
In October, 1828, he was ordered to the new sloop-of-war “Vandalia,” which in December sailed for the Brazil station. The squadron went to Buenos Ayres, and was there when Rosas became dictator. In the autumn of 1829 it returned to Rio de Janeiro, where Farragut witnessed the marriage of the Emperor Dom Pedro I., and was presented at court. In December an affection of the eyes, which had long troubled him, compelled him to ask for leave of absence, and he went home in a merchantman, which on the way was chased by a pirate. Farragut found four carronades and twenty-four pounds of powder on board, mounted the guns, and got everything ready for a vigorous defence; but the merchantman outsailed her pursuer. In December, 1832, he was ordered to the “Natchez,” which in January, 1833, sailed for Charleston Harbor, where she remained until the nullification troubles were over. The vessel was next ordered to the Brazil station. Of Farragut's qualities as executive officer at this time, one of those that sailed with him wrote: “Never was the crew of a man-of-war better disciplined or more contented and happy. The moment all hands were called, and Farragut took the trumpet, every man under him was alive and eager for duty. I remember well one occasion when he took the ‘Natchez’ out of the Harbor of Rio, which at the entrance is quite narrow, against a head wind, by a manœuvre termed ‘box-hauling.’ There were several men-of-war in port, English and French, whose officers and crews were watching us closely. Many declared that the manœuvre could not be successfully accomplished, but it was done splendidly, without a balk or failure, and I shall remember to my dying day the glow of pride and satisfaction which we all felt.” In March, 1834, he took command of the schooner “Boxer,” which he thoroughly overhauled and repaired in the harbor of Rio. The “Boxer” was ordered home in the summer, and for four years the lieutenant was in Norfolk and Washington, serving on courts-martial, waiting for sailing orders, and taking care of his wife, who died in 1840. In August, 1838, he was given command of the sloop “Erie,” and ordered to Tampico, because of the prospect of war between France and Mexico. There he made minute observations of all the military and naval movements, particularly the bombardment of the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, and gave his conclusions in a long letter to Commodore Barron, in which he wrote: “ If we who wander about the world do not keep those at home informed of the daily improvements in other navies, how can we hope to improve, particularly when we see men impressed with the idea that, because they once gained a victory, they can do it again? So they may; but I can tell them it must be with the means of 1838 and not those of 1812.”
He now spent two years more at home, serving on courts-martial and learning the carpenter's trade, till the spring of 1841, when he became executive officer of the “Delaware,” and in September he received his commission as commander. He sailed once more for South American waters, and in June, 1842, received command of the “Decatur.” He took every opportunity to travel in the countries whose ports he visited, and became specially familiar with South American affairs. The cruise ended in Norfolk Harbor in February, 1843. There, in December of that year, he married Virginia, eldest daughter of William Loyall, a woman of superior character and cultivation, and no little literary ability, who survived him fourteen years. In April, 1844, he became executive officer of the “Pennsylvania,” and at the beginning of the Mexican War in 1846 applied for command of a ship and active service. After much difficulty, he obtained the sloop-of-war “Saratoga,” in February, 1847. He collected a crew, and sailed two days after his assignment, eager to capture the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, which he believed could be done with three vessels; but when he arrived at Vera Cruz the castle had just surrendered to the land forces. Farragut always thought Commodore Conner had lost a great opportunity in not attacking it. He says in his journal: “Of all the service I had seen since entering the U.S. Navy, this cruise was the most mortifying. As I had the ill-will of my commodore” [Matthew C. Perry]. “I was not permitted to participate in any of the expeditions and more honorable duties, but was placed under a reef of rocks off Tuxpan, to blockade that port. When I could bear the imposition no longer, I reported the facts to the navy department, and asked to be relieved from under his command, or from command of the ship. Accordingly, I was ordered home with my vessel. My letters were considered improper by the Secretary of the Navy.” Commodore Perry denied that he had any prejudice against Farragut.
In February, 1848, Farragut's vessel returned home, when he was assigned to the Norfolk Navy-yard for two years, and in October, 1850, was ordered to Washington to compile a book of ordnance regulations for the navy, in collaboration with Commander T. A. Dornin and Lieuts. Barron, Harwood, and Fairfax. This work occupied them a year and a half. When it was completed, Farragut says: “Many of the best features were overruled and stricken out, as were also the drawings, which we considered fine illustrations. The book was highly commended by officers of other navies than our own; but where is it now? God only knows! For those who had the power called a new board ten years afterward, and made a few necessary changes to suit the introduction of steam and heavy guns, and the names of the original board were obliterated.” During those eighteen months he attended regularly the lectures at the Smithsonian institution. When he returned to the Norfolk Navy-yard as ordnance officer, he gave the officers a weekly lecture on gunnery. Lieutenant Percival Drayton was associated with him at this time in a series of experiments at Fort Monroe, to test the various classes of guns used in the navy, and an intimate friendship grew up between the two officers which lasted through their lives.
When the Crimean war began, in 1854, Farragut asked to be sent thither as a professional observer. This request was denied by the navy department; but soon afterward he was sent to establish a U.S. Navy-yard on the Pacific Coast, the site chosen being Mare Island, in the Bay of San Francisco. This task occupied him four years. During this time the affair of the vigilance committee took place, and he was appealed to for aid to the state authorities; but he carefully refrained from all interference.
In July, 1858, he returned to the Atlantic Coast, and was given command of the “Brooklyn,” a new sloop-of-war, in which he conveyed to Vera Cruz Robert M. McLane, the new U. S. minister to Mexico. The ship was then placed at the disposal of Mr. McLane and took him to various points on the coast, that he might communicate with the American consuls. Farragut was taunted with being at the beck and call of a civilian, and made a characteristic answer: “I can only say that I am always at the service of the country in doing my duty, and would rather be subject to the directions of an intelligent man appointed by the government for a purpose on account of his qualifications, than to be under some old fool who has floated up to his position without the first requisites, the only merit that he possesses being that he had been in the navy all his life without having done anything to recommend him either to the government or to his brother officers.” From Vera Cruz he wrote: “I can't help loving my profession; but it has materially changed since the advent of steam. I took as much pleasure in running into this port the other day in a gale of wind as ever a boy did in any feat of skill. The people seemed astonished. McLane said he would sooner have done it than anything else — except to take a ship.” Governmental affairs in Mexico were very much disturbed at this time, 1859, and Farragut was of great service in protecting American interests there, for which he received a letter of thanks from American merchants in Vera Cruz. He made another trip to Mexico in November, and in December passed up the Mississippi to New Orleans, where he arrived just in time to attend the funeral of his brother William, who was retired as a lieutenant. The intimate acquaintance with the Gulf of Mexico and the lower Mississippi, which Farragut gained by these frequent visits, was found to be of inestimable, value to him two years later.
In the winter of 1860-'1 Farragut was on waiting orders in Norfolk, Virginia. The one topic of discussion there, as elsewhere throughout the country, was the impending secession of the south and the probability of Civil War. If an amicable separation of the country should take place, he would remain with the south, because his relatives were there and his home, so far as he had a home on shore. But he did not see how secession could be attempted without war, and in that event he held that his allegiance was due to the National government, to which he was indebted for his naval education, rank, and employment. He watched with intense interest the efforts to carry Virginia into the Confederacy, and when it was accomplished he declared that “the state had been dragooned out of the Union.” As he expressed his opinions freely, and boldly said that President Lincoln was justified in calling for troops, he was told that a person with such sentiments “could not live in Norfolk.” “Well, then,” said he, “I can live somewhere else,” and that very evening (18 April, 1861) he departed with his wife and son, going first to Baltimore, and finally taking a cottage at Hastings-on-the-Hudson. He was a member of a naval retiring-board in Brooklyn, but had little else to do for nearly a year. One privateer, the “Sumter,” had already been sent out by the Confederates. Farragut, who had a theory as to her probable movements, asked the government to let him go in chase of her with a swift vessel, but the suggestion was not approved.
In December, 1861, he was summoned to Washington, whence he wrote a hurried note to his wife: “Keep your lips closed, and burn my letters, for perfect silence is to be observed the first injunction of the secretary. I am to have a flag in the Gulf, and the rest depends upon myself. Keep calm and silent. I shall sail in three weeks.” For some time a formidable expedition had been in preparation, intended to reduce the defences of New Orleans and capture that place, which was by far the largest city in the south. The expedition included twenty-one schooners, each carrying a large mortar, under command of Commander (now Admiral) David D. Porter. Farragut had no faith in the efficacy of these mortars, but, as a great deal of time and money had been spent in their preparation, he accepted the fleet as he found it. He sailed from Hampton Roads, 2 February, 1862, in the steam sloop-of-war “Hartford,” 1,900 tons, which from that time till the close of the war was his flag-ship. She had a speed, under steam alone, of eight knots, or with steam and sail combined, of eleven knots. She carried twenty-two nine-inch Dahlgren guns, two twenty-pounder Parrots, and a rifled Sawyer gun on the forecastle; and Farragut had her fore- and main-tops protected with boiler iron and armed with howitzers. His orders instructed him to “collect such vessels as can be spared from the blockade, and proceed up the Mississippi River and reduce the defences which guard the approaches to New Orleans, when you will appear off that city and take possession of it under the guns of your squadron. . . . As you have expressed yourself perfectly satisfied with the force given to you, and as many more powerful vessels will be added before you can commence operations, the department and the country require of you success.” A military force of 15,000 men, designed to co-operate with the fleet in capturing New Orleans, and to garrison the place after it should be taken, sailed in transports from Fort Monroe, on 20 February, commanded by General Benjamin F. Butler. The place of rendezvous was Ship Island, which is about one hundred miles northeast of the mouths of the Mississippi.
At the last great bend in the river, about thirty miles above the mouth, stood Fort Jackson on the right bank and Fort St. Philip on the left. A single fort at this point had held the British forces in check for nine days in 1814-'15, though they threw a thousand shells into it. Fort Jackson was a bastioned fortification, built of brick, with casemates and glacis, rising twenty-five feet above the water. Fort St. Philip was smaller, and rose nineteen feet. The whole number of guns in the two works was about 115, which were of various kinds and sizes, but mostly smooth-bore thirty-two-pounders. Above the forts lay a Confederate fleet of fifteen vessels, including an iron-clad ram and a large, unfinished floating battery covered with railroad iron. Below the forts two iron chains were stretched across the river, supported on eight hulks anchored abreast. Two hundred Confederate sharp-shooters kept constant watch along the banks, and several fire-rafts were ready to be lighted and sent down against the fleet. To pass these obstructions and fight his way to the city, Farragut had six sloops-of-war, sixteen gun-boats, twenty-one mortar schooners, and five other vessels, carrying in all over 200 guns. This was the largest expedition that had ever sailed under the United States flag, but it did not include a single iron-clad, and while it was mainly built for sea-service, its task now was to operate in a River with many shoals and a shifting channel. To get the larger vessels over the bar at Southwest pass, it was necessary to lighten them as much as possible, and then drag them over through a foot of mud. With the “Pensacola” alone, this process occupied two weeks. The “Colorado” could not be taken over at all.
The mortar schooners were towed up the stream to a point within reach of the forts, and began to take their places and open fire on 18 April. There was a stretch of woods between them and the forts, and their masts were trimmed with bushes to prevent them from being distinguished. The gunners could not see the forts, but fired with a computed aim, the result of careful observation and triangulation by a coast-survey officer. They used shells weighing 285 pounds, and kept up a constant fire for six days and nights, throwing nearly 6,000 shells. This resulted in disabling fifty-three of the garrison and destroying some of the buildings, but not in materially damaging the forts. Farragut was impatient with this operation, as it only served to give the enemy warning, and he found the greatest difficulty in preventing collisions in his fleet. Half a dozen fire-rafts were sent down, but boats'-crews tackled them, and either towed them ashore or sent them out to sea. Perhaps no commander was ever so completely master of every detail as Farragut. He could have taken the place and performed the duties of any man in the fleet. He issued orders in which minute directions were given for every contingency that he could anticipate, and in addition to this he bade his officers use their own ingenuity. They whitewashed the decks (for the attack was to be in the night) and took other precautions, the most important of which were those intended to protect the boilers and machinery. Not only was the coal so placed as to guard these, but all the spare chains were “stoppered” up and down the side amidships. In the night of 20 April, Captain Henry H. Bell went silently up the river with a boat's-crew and unfastened the chains to make an opening for the fleet to pass through. In the night of the 23d, Lieutenant-Commodore C. H. B. Caldwell was sent up to see if the way was still clear, and signaled that it was; but the enemy discovered him and opened fire, at the same time sending down fire-rafts and lighting two large piles of wood near the ends of the chain, so that the whole scene was made as bright as day. But the fleet was now ready for the attack, and at half past three o'clock in the morning it was under way. The first Division , consisting of eight vessels, was commanded by Captain Theodorus Bailey; the second, three vessels, was led by Farragut's flag-ship; the third, six vessels, commanded by Captain Bell. As the line of battle passed through the opening in the chain, it came within reach of the guns of the forts, and each vessel in succession was subjected to a raking fire. One became entangled among the rafts and did not get free in time to make the passage, another received a shot in her boiler and was compelled to drop down-stream again, while a third, being delayed till daylight, attempted to pass up alone and was driven back by a destructive fire. With these exceptions, the whole line moved steadily up the river, sailing close to the forts and pouring in broadsides of shell and grape-shot that at times swept the bastions clear of the enemy and silenced the guns. After passing by the forts, the fleet was subjected to a raking fire similar to that which it had encountered in the approach, and no sooner had it gone beyond the range of this than it encountered the Confederate fleet. But of this it made short work; some of the enemy's vessels were driven ashore, some were run down, and others were riddled with shot. The flag-ship “Hartford” grounded on a shoal, and at the same time the ram “Manassas” pushed a fire-raft against her. But the flames were promptly extinguished and the vessel gotten off into deep water, when she was approached in the smoke and darkness by a steamer crowded with men, evidently intending to board her. She at once planted a heavy shell in the stranger, which exploded, and the vessel disappeared. The “Hartford” then passed on up-stream, firing right and left into the enemy's gun-boats. The “Brooklyn” encountered several of these, into one of which she sent eleven shells at a single discharge, all of which exploded, and the gun-boat ran ashore in flames. The “Mississippi,” a side-wheel steamer, encountered the ram “Manassas,” and received a blow that disabled her machinery; but she sent a broadside through the ram, and promptly boarded it and set it on fire, so that it drifted down the river and exploded. The gun-boat “Varuna,” of Farragut's fleet, was rammed by two Confederate gun-boats and sank in fifteen minutes. At daylight the fleet continued on its way up the river, and Captain Bailey, leading in the “Cayuga,” captured a Confederate regiment encamped on the bank. On the morning of the 25th the Chalmette batteries, three miles below the city, were attacked and silenced, and an hour later New Orleans itself was at the mercy of Farragut's guns. This exploit had cost the National fleet 37 men killed and 147 wounded, and one vessel sunk out of the seventeen. The Confederate fleet was completely destroyed. At noon the surrender of the city was demanded of the mayor, and Captain Bailey was sent ashore to haul down the Louisiana flag and raise the stars and stripes over the public buildings. A troublesome correspondence with the mayor ensued, and Farragut was glad to turn over the city to General Butler as soon as the troops could be brought up, on the evening of 1 May. The forts had surrendered to Commodore Porter on the 28th. It appears that this timely capture of New Orleans changed the purpose of the Emperor Napoleon, who was about to recognize the Confederacy and take measures to raise the blockade.
Farragut wanted to take his fleet at once to Mobile, capture that place, and close the port to blockade-runners; but the government was anxious to open the Mississippi through its whole length, and the ships were therefore kept in the river for some months. Before daylight, on 28 June, 1862, he ran by the batteries at Vicksburg with eight vessels, joining Commodore Charles H. Davis's fleet of iron-clads above the city. In this passage Farragut's fleet was under fire about two hours, and lost fifteen men killed and thirty wounded. On 15 July, finding that nothing could be effected at Vicksburg by the fleet alone, he ran the batteries again, descending the river to New Orleans. The next day he was commissioned rear-admiral.
On 14 March, 1863, to assist General Nathaniel P. Banks in his siege of Port Hudson, Farragut attempted to run by the batteries at that place with seven vessels three sloops-of-war, each with a gun-boat lashed to the port-side, and the side-wheel steamer “Mississippi.” By this arrangement, if a vessel were disabled, the gun-boat could take her out of the fight. But they met so destructive a fire that only the “Hartford” and her attendant gun-boat succeeded in getting by. The “Mississippi” ran aground and was burned, and the others were compelled to drop down stream. With the “Hartford” and the “Albatross” Farragut proceeded up stream and blockaded the mouth of Red River, thus preventing Confederate supplies from coming down, or re-enforcements from going up to the army of General Richard Taylor. Coal and provisions were sent down to him by General Grant and Admiral Porter, on barges that drifted past the Vicksburg batteries in the night. Subsequently he assisted General Banks in the investment of Port Hudson, till it was surrendered, 8 July.
The Mississippi was now open to navigation through its entire length. Admiral Porter took Farragut's place at New Orleans, while Farragut sailed far New York in the “Hartford,” arriving in August. When the flag-ship was examined at the U.S. Navy-yard, it was found that she had been struck 240 times by shot and shell during her nineteen months of service. Farragut was given public welcome home and receptions by the New York chamber of commerce and committees of citizens, and rested five months while the ship was refitted.
In January, 1864, he returned to the Gulf, visited Ship Island and Pensacola, establishing depots of supplies, and prepared for his long-meditated attack on the defences of Mobile. In May a beautiful sword, with a gold and silver scabbard and the hilt set in brilliants, was sent to him by the Union League club of New York. About this time he wrote: “If anyone asks what I am doing, answer, Nothing but waiting for the world to turn round till it comes my turn to do something.” He reconnoitered the forts, and declared that an attack would be useless till he had some iron-clads. These came at last, as did also the troops under General Gordon Granger for the land attack.
The defences of the bay consisted mainly of two forts — Morgan at the eastern side of the entrance, and Gaines at the western — three miles apart. From Fort Gaines eastward to a point near Fort Morgan stretched a line of piles and a double line of torpedoes. The point where they terminated was indicated by a red buoy, and the blockade-runners were accustomed to pass in by the narrow channel between this buoy and Fort Morgan. Inside of these defences lay the Confederate iron-clad ram “Tennessee” and three wooden gun-boats. As at New Orleans, Farragut issued general orders containing the most minute instructions for every contingency. His seven sloops-of-war the “Brooklyn” leading and the “Hartford” coming second were to form one line, each sloop having a gun-boat lashed on the port side, to take her through if her machinery should be disabled. The “Brooklyn” was given the lead because she had four chase guns and a contrivance for picking up torpedoes. The four iron-clad monitors, “Tecumseh,” “Manhattan,” “Winnebago,” and “Chickasaw,” formed another line to the right of the line of wooden ships, between them and Fort Morgan. Six steamers were placed south and east of that work, to keep up a flank fire upon it. Before daylight on 5 August everybody in the fleet was astir, and at half-past five the signal was given for the advance. An hour later the combatants were within range, and the firing began immediately, and was heavy and destructive on both sides. The admiral mounted into the port main rigging, in order to see over the smoke, and as this increased he gradually mounted higher. Captain Drayton, to prevent his falling to the deck in case of being wounded, sent up a quarter-master with a piece of lead-line, which was made fast to one of the shrouds and passed around the admiral, to prevent such an accident. The commanders had all been instructed to keep to the east of the red buoy; but the leading monitor, in her eagerness to engage the Confederate ram, passed west of it, struck a torpedo, and suddenly went down. (See Craven, Tunis A. M.) A little later the “Brooklyn” stopped, and this seemed likely to throw the whole line into confusion. “What is the trouble?” was shouted through a trumpet from the “Hartford.” “Torpedoes!” was the answer. “Damn the torpedoes!” exclaimed Farragut. “Four bells! Captain Drayton, go ahead! Jonett, full speed!” Thus the “Hartford” passed the “Brooklyn,” took her place at the head of the line, and led the fleet into the bay. Every vessel suffered from the enemy's fire as it approached the fort, poured in rapid broadsides that silenced the Confederate guns when it was abreast of the work, and suffered again from raking fire after it had passed. Inside of the bay, the signal “Chase enemy's gun-boats” was given, and the lashings that held the gun-boats to the sloops were cut with axes and the former made off for their prey, and one Confederate gun-boat was captured, one was sunk, and another driven under the guns of the fort. There was a brush with the iron-clad ram, but it was not serious, and the fleet came to anchor three miles up the bay. Farragut was planning to attack the ram as soon as it should be dark enough to prevent the garrison of the fort from seeing which was friend and which foe; but the ram anticipated him, steaming directly for the flag-ship in the midst of the fleet. The admiral at once gave orders for every ship to attack her, not only with shot but by ramming, and a desperate contest ensued. The ram had the advantage in that she was sure of striking an enemy with every blow, while the fleet had to avoid running and firing into one another. Their shot had no effect on the sloping iron sides of the monster, and when the wooden vessels rammed her they splintered their own bows and only heeled her over. But the monitors, with their enormous guns, shot away her smoke-stack and steering-apparatus and jammed her shutters, while one fifteen-inch shot actually penetrated her armor. Her commander was wounded, her crew could do nothing in the smoke that filled their vessel, and she displayed a white flag and surrendered. In the fight the “Lackawanna” had accidentally run into the flag-ship and cut her down nearly to the water's edge. The victory cost the National fleet 335 men, including 52 killed by shot and 113 drowned in the “Tecumseh.” The Confederate fleet lost 10 killed, 16 wounded, and 280 prisoners. The loss in the forts is unknown. A few days later they were surrendered. Farragut in his official report awarded the most generous praise to all that had assisted in winning the victory. He said: “The commanding officers of all the vessels that took part in the action deserve my warmest commendations, not only for the untiring zeal with which they had prepared their ships for the contest, but for their skill and daring in carrying out my order's during the engagement,” and he mentioned every one of them specially. He also wrote: “I witnessed the terrible effects of the enemy's shot, and the good conduct of the men at their guns; and although no doubt their hearts sickened, as mine did, when their shipmates were struck down beside them, yet there was not a moment's hesitation to lay their comrades aside and spring again to their deadly work.” The quarter-master that tied him in the rigging says he saw the admiral come on deck just as the killed of the “Hartford” were being laid out, and “it was the only time I ever saw the old gentleman cry, but tears came in his eyes like a little child.” Henry Howard Brownell was on board the flag-ship as an acting ensign, and described the battle in one of his finest poems, “The Bay Fight.” The city of Mobile could not be captured by the fleet as New Orleans had been, because of shoal water and obstructions in the channel. But the purpose of the operation, to stop the passage of blockade-runners and so close another main avenue of supply to the Confederacy, was accomplished. The accompanying view of the “Hartford” shows the ship as she appeared in Mobile Bay after the battle. The stunted appearance of her masts is due to the fact that her top-gallants were housed. Her hull was painted lead-color.
In November, as Farragut's health was failing, the department ordered him home, and on 12 December he reached New York, where he was given a public reception, and a purse of $50,000 was presented to him for the purchase of a home in the city. A bill creating the grade of vice-admiral was passed by Congress on 22 December, and the next day President Lincoln signed it, and nominated Farragut for the office, which nomination the Senate at once confirmed. When Richmond fell into the hands of the National forces, Farragut, who was on the James, with General George H. Gordon, procured horses, and rode thither post haste, entering the city a short time before the president got there. A few days later he visited his old home, Norfolk, and was given a public reception by the naval and military officers there and those of the citizens who had remained true to the Union. In the course of his speech he said: “This meeting recalls to me the most momentous events of my life, when I listened in this place till the small hours of the morning, and returned home with the feeling that Virginia was safe and firm in her place in the Union. Our Union members of the convention were elected by an overwhelming majority, and we believed that everything was right. Judge, then, of our astonishment in finding, a few days later, that the state had been voted out by a miserable minority, for want of firmness and resolution on the part of those whom we trusted to represent us there, and that Virginia had been dragooned out of the Union. . . . I was told by a brother officer that the state had seceded, and that I must either resign and turn traitor to the government which had supported me from childhood, or I must leave this place. Thank God, I was not long in making my decision! I have spent, half of my life in revolutionary countries, and I know the horrors of Civil War, and I told the people what I had seen and what they would experience. They laughed at me, and called me ‘granny’ and ‘croaker’; and I said, ‘I cannot live here, and will seek some other place where I can live.’ I suppose they said I left my country for my country's good, and, thank God. I did!”
On 6 July, 1865. the Union club of Boston gave a dinner to the admiral, at which Oliver Wendell Holmes read one of his happiest occasional poems, a few lines of which may be quoted here:
Fast, fast are lessening in the light
The names of high renown —
Van Tromp's proud bosom pales from sight,
Old Benbow's half hull down.
Scarce one tall frigate walks the sea,
Or skirts the safer shores.
Of all that bore to victory
Our stout old commodores.
Hull, Bainbridge, Porter — where are they?
The answering billows roll,
Still bright in memory's sunset ray,
God rest each gallant soul!
A brighter name must dim their light,
With more than noontide ray —
The Viking of the River Fight.
The Conqueror of the Bay.
I give the name that fits him best —
Ay, better than his own —
The Sea-King of the sovereign West,
Who made his mast a throne.”
On 25 July. 1866, Congress created the grade of admiral, before unknown in the U. S. Navy, and the rank was given to Farragut. The next year he was assigned to the European Squadron, hoisted his flag on the “Franklin,” and made along cruise in European waters. By special permission of the president, Mrs. Farragut and her cousin, Mrs. Pennock, wife of his fleet captain, Alexander M. Pennock, accompanied them. They visited the principal European capitals, and were everywhere received with the highest honors. One of the most interesting incidents of the cruise was a visit to the Island of Minorca, the home of Farragut's ancestors, where the whole population turned out to welcome him. In the summer of 1869 the admiral and Mrs. Farragut visited Vallejo, California. His last official duty was to take charge of the naval obsequies of George Peabody, when the remains arrived at Portland, Maine, in January, 1870. The next summer he spent in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the guest of Rear-Admiral Pennock. An old sailor, who had charge of the dismantled sloop-of-war “Dale,” lying in the harbor, says that one day the admiral wandered on board, and on stepping ashore again remarked: “That is the last time I shall ever tread the deck of a man-of-war.” The foreboding proved true, and not long afterward he quietly passed away. The remains were conveyed to New York, and, after a public funeral, were finally deposited in Woodlawn Cemetery.
Admiral Farragut had a strongly religious nature, believing in the constant guidance of Divine Providence. At the time of his death he was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He is one of the few great heroes of the world whose character has never been clouded by the slightest suspicion of a want of honesty or personal purity. Many entertaining anecdotes are told of him. When we consider the novel and complicated problems that confronted him in naval warfare, and the providential manner in which he seemed to have been schooled for them through a long life when we remember how other commanders merely fought line against line in simple though courageous fashion, while he contended with casemated forts, fire-rafts, fleets, and hidden torpedoes, all at once, and conquered them all, we can hardly refuse to pronounce him the greatest naval commander the world has ever seen.
There is a colossal bronze statue of the admiral in Farragut square, Washington, executed by Vinnie Ream, and paid for by a Congressional appropriation. There is one of heroic size in Madison square, New York, executed by Augustus St. Gaudens, paid for by a subscription raised among the citizens. In the chancel of the Church of the Incarnation, New York, is a mural tablet containing a bas-relief likeness by Lannt Thompson. William Page's original picture of “Farragut's Entry into Mobile Bay” is now in the possession of the emperor of Russia; a replica is still owned by Mr. Page's family. (See illustration on page 417.) The admiral's son, Loyall Farragut, has written his life, which includes his journals and many of his letters (New York, 1879). See also James E. Montgomery's “Cruise of the Franklin” (1869) and “Admiral Farragut,” by Captain Alfred T. Mahan, U. S. N., Great Commanders Series (1892). [Appleton’s 1900 Vol. II. pp. 412-419
FASNACHT, Charles H., soldier, born in Lancaster County. Pennsylvania, 27 March, 1842. He enlisted in 1861 in the 99th Pennsylvania Regiment, and mustered out of service in July, 1865, as 1st lieutenant. On 12 May, 1864, just after the taking of the salient at Spottsylvania, he captured the flag of the 2d Louisiana Regiment, taking the color-bearer and color-guard prisoners, but was shortly afterward wounded, and fell into the enemy's hands. With over one hundred others he lay on the battle-field several days, waiting to be taken to Richmond, and was finally rescued by National troops. During this time he had the flag concealed in the lining of his blouse. For his gallantry he received the United States medal of honor, a silver medal from the directors of the sanitary fair at Philadelphia, And the bronze " Kearny badge. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 421.
FAULKNER, Charles James, lawyer, born in Martinsburg, Virginia, in 1806; died in Boydville, West Virginia, 1 November, 1884. He was graduated at Georgetown University, D. C, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. Three years later he became a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, where he introduced a measure for the gradual abolition of slavery in Virginia, declaring that all children born of slave parents after 1 July, 1840, should be free, but the proposition was defeated. Mr. Faulkner after this devoted himself with success to his profession. He served as a commissioner on the disputed boundary-line between Virginia and Maryland. He was elected a state senator in 1841, but resigned in the. following year. In 1848 he was elected to the House of Delegates, and introduced a bill that was passed and sent to Congress, which became the famous Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850. He was a member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850. The next year he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, and was reelected by the Democratic vote for four successive terms, serving from 1 December, 1851, till 3 March, 1859. When James Buchanan became president in 1857, he offered Mr. Faulkner the mission to France, which he at first declined, but accepted in 1859. Louis Napoleon was encouraged by him to sympathize with the south in the approaching contest, rather than with the nation, and accordingly President Lincoln recalled Mr. Faulkner, who, on his return to the United States, was arrested and confined in Fort Warren as a disloyal citizen. When released in exchange for Alfred Ely, a member of Congress who was imprisoned in Richmond, he joined the Confederate Army, and served on the staff of General "Stonewall " Jackson until the death of that officer. For some years he was debarred the rights of citizenship on account of having borne arms against the government, but in 1872 his political disabilities were removed. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of West Virginia in 1872, and in 1874 was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives for the term that expired on 8 March, 1877. He was an unsuccessful candidate subsequently for the U. S. Senate and for the governorship of West Virginia, after which he retired to private life.—His son, Charles James, senator, born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, about 1840, was graduated at the University of Virginia, served as a private in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and after its close studied law, and rose rapidly in the profession. In 1880 he was appointed a circuit judge, to fill an unexpired term, and in 1882 was elected to the same office. On 5 May, 1887, he was elected as a Democrat to the U. S. Senate from West Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp.421-422.
FAUNTLEROY, Thomas Turner, soldier, born in Richmond County, Virginia, 6 October, 1796; died in Leesburg, Virginia, 12 September, 1883. He was commissioned a lieutenant in the war of 1812—'15 when but seventeen years old. He studied law in Winchester, practised in Warrenton, and in 1823 was elected to the legislature. In 1830 he was commissioned a major of dragoons in the regular army, and served in the Seminole War. In September, 1845, he was detached from General Taylor's army to hold in check the Indians on the frontier of Texas. From this duty he was ordered to join General Taylor, and subsequently, in Mexico, he commanded the cavalry of General Scott's army. In 1849 he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 1st U.S. Dragoons, and commanded the troops on frontier duty in Texas. In 1850 he was promoted colonel. In the winter of 1854-'5 he conducted a campaign against the hostile Indian tribes of the Rocky Mountains, and in 1858 he made another midwinter campaign against the Indians in New Mexico. In May, 1861, He entered the Confederate service. He was commissioned a brigadier-general by the convention of Virginia, and placed in command of Richmond and its defences. But, after the organization of the Confederate government, it refused to confirm his commission, although he ranked all the officers but one that had resigned from the U. S. Army to serve the Confederacy.—His. son, Archibald Magill, physician, born in Warrenton, Virginia, 8 July, 1837; died in Staunton, Virginia. 19 June, 1886, was graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1856, and in 1857 entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon; but he and his brother, a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy, resigned at the same time with their father. He became a surgeon in the Confederate Army, and was president of the board for the admission of surgeons, and chief officer on the medical staff of General Joseph E. Johnston, and served with him until the battle of Seven Pines. He was then ordered rebuild and organize the hospitals at Danville, Virginia, and afterward had charge of the military hospital at Staunton, Virginia, until the war ended. He remained and practised at Staunton after the war, and was for several years superintendent of the lunatic asylum at that place. His contributions to medical literature include papers on bromide of potassium, chloral hydrate, the use of chloroform in obstetrical practice, and a "Report upon Advance in Therapeutics," which was printed in the Transactions of the Virginia Medical Society.— Another son, Thomas T., became judge of "the Virginia supreme court of appeals.—Their sister, Mary Thurston, married Surgeon-General Barnes,, of the U. S. Army. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 422.
FEARING, Benjamin Dana, soldier, born in Harmar, Ohio, 10 October, 1837; died there. 9 December, 1881. He was graduated at Marietta in 1856, and entered a Philadelphia publishing house. In April, 1861, he enlisted in the 2d Ohio Regiment, took part with it in the battle of Bull Run, became adjutant of the 36th Ohio In August, and on 17 December was made major of the 77th Ohio, which he commanded at Shiloh. On 26 August, 1862, he was made lieutenant-colonel of the 92d Ohio, which he had assisted in raising, and was promoted to colonel on 22 March, 1863. He defended Hoover's Gap at the head of three regiments, and distinguished himself at Chickamauga, where he was severely wounded. He rejoined his regiment in March, 1864, led it at Resaca, Kenesaw, Atlanta, and Jonesboro, and on 2 December was brevetted brigadier- general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade m Sherman's march to the sea, and was again severely wounded at Bentonville, where he led a charge, of which Anson C. McClurg, in his "Lost Chance of the Confederacy," says, "Upon this movement of General Fearing's brigade, in all probability, turned the fortunes of the day." After the war he engaged in manufacturing in Cincinnati, but illness caused by his wounds forced him to retire in 1869, and finally ended his life. General William T. Sherman spoke of him as "the bravest man that fought on Shiloh's field." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 424.
FEATHERSTON, Winfield Scott, soldier, born in Rutherford County, Tennessee, 8 August, 1821. He was educated at various academies, and in 1836, while at school in Georgia, served for three months as a volunteer against the Creek Indians. He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. He was afterward elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served in 1847—'51, but was defeated for a third term by the Union candidate. He was a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1852, and was sent by his state to Kentucky in December, 1860, to confer with the authorities on the subject of secession. In May, 1861, he became colonel of the 17th Mississippi Regiment. He served in Virginia in 1861-'2, and on 4 March of the latter year was promoted to brigadier-general for gallantry at Ball's Bluff. He was wounded on the fifth day of the battles around Richmond, and in January, 1863, was transferred to Vicksburg at his own request. He commanded an expedition sent to meet Porter's gun-boats, ascending Deer Creek, joined Johnston in Georgia in May, 1864, and continued with that army till the surrender in 1865, commanding a division much of the time. After the war he returned to the practice of law, and was a member of the Mississippi legislature in 1876-'8 and 1880-'2. In 1881 he became judge of the 2d Judicial Circuit of the state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 424.
FEBIGER, John Carson, naval officer, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 14 February, 1821, entered the U.S. Navy from Ohio as a midshipman, 14 September, 1838, and was in the "Concord, of the Brazil Squadron, when she was wrecked on the eastern coast of Africa in 1843. He became passed midshipman, 20 May, 1844, and lieutenant, 30 April, 1853. He was on the "Germantown," of the East India Squadron, in 1858-'60, and on the sloop "Savannah " in 1861, and on 11 August, 1862, was commissioned commander, and assigned to the steamer "Kanawha," of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron. After commanding various vessels in that and the Mississippi Squadron, he was given the "Mattabeset," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1864, and in that steamer took part, on 5 May, 1864, in the fight between the little fleet of wooden vessels, under Captain Melancton Smith, and the Confederate ram "Albemarle," in Albemarle sound, North Carolina. In this engagement the ram was defeated, and her tender, the "Bombshell," captured, and Febiger was commended for his "gallantry and skill" by Captain Smith and Rear-Admiral Samuel P. Lee. He commanded the "Ashuelot," of the Asiatic Squadron, in 1866-'8, and on 6 May of the latter year was promoted to captain. He was inspector of naval reserve lands in 1869-'72, was made commodore, 9 August, 1874, was a member of the board of examiners in 1874-'6, and commandant of the Washington Navy-yard in 1876-'80. He was promoted to rear-admiral, 4 February, 1882, and on 1 July, 1882, was retired on his own application, having been in the service over forty years. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 424-425.
FEE, Reverend John Gregg, 1816-1901, American Missionary Association, clergyman, educator, abolitionist. Founder of Berea College, Madison County, Kentucky, in 1855. The lad for Berea College was granted by abolitionist politician Cassius M. Clay. Became active in the abolitionist movement in 1844. Founded two anti-slavery churches. Fee was educated at Lane University. Fee was a religious abolitionist. He wrote Non-Fellowship with Slaveholders the Duty of Christians in 1849. (Filling, 1960, pp. 213, 222, 247, 272; Goodell, 1852, p. 492; Mabee, 1970, pp. 141, 142, 157203, 220, 228, 229, 232, 236, 238, 241, 258, 326, 339, 376; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 166, 380; Sinha, 2016, p. 477; Autobiography of John G. Fee, Berea, Kentucky, 1891; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 3, Pt. 2, p. 310, Vol. 7, p. 786)
FEGAN, James, soldier, born in Athlone, Ireland, in 1827; died in Fort Shaw, Montana, 25 June, 1886. He served in the constabulary in his native country, but came to the United States in early life, and enlisted as a private in the 2d U. S. Infantry, 29 October, 1851. He re-enlisted eight times, entering the service again as soon as his term expired, and was finally retired on 8 May, 1885. He was sent to the soldiers' home in Washington in 1870, but obtained a discharge and returned to active service. Fegan was a well-known character in his regiment, and many stories are told of his shrewdness and humor. He served with credit in the Civil War, and was wounded at Antietam. In March, 1868, at Plum Creek, Kansas, he stood guard single-handed over a deserter he had captured and a powder-train, defended both against a crowd of men who wished to recapture the deserter, and brought his charge safe to camp. For his gallantry he was given the U. S. Medal of Honor. On 6 December, 1882, Fegan was made the subject of a special presidential message to Congress. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 426.
FENTON, William Matthew, lawyer, born in Norwich, Chenango County, New York, 19 December, 1808; died in Flint, Michigan, 13 May, 1871. He was one of the earliest emigrants to Genesee County, Michigan, and, after taking an active part in founding the village that bears his name, he resided there and at Flint, and engaged in the practice of law. In 1848 he was elected lieutenant-governor of Michigan, and re-elected in 1850 and 1851. At the beginning of the Civil War he became a member of the State Military Board, and was one of the principal organizers of the 8th Michigan Regiment, which he commanded and which participated in so many battles in various parts that it became known as the "wandering regiment.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 431.
FERRERO, Edward, soldier, born in Granada, Spain, 18 January, 1831. His parents were Italian, and he was brought to the United States when an infant. His father's house in New York was frequented by Italian political refugees, and he enjoyed the friendship of Garibaldi, Argenti, Albius, and Avazzana. Before the Civil War the son conducted a dancing-school, and also taught dancing at the U. S. Military Academy. At the beginning of the war he was lieutenant-colonel of the 11th New York Militia Regiment. In 1861 he raised the 51st New York Regiment, called the "Shepard Rifles," and led a brigade in Burnside's expedition to Roanoke Island, where his regiment took the first fortified redoubt captured in the war. He also commanded a brigade at Newbern, and under General Reno, and in 1862 served in Pope's Virginia Campaign. He was in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and for his bravery in the latter engagement was appointed brigadier-general, 19 September, 1862. He served at Fredericksburg and at Vicksburg, commanded the 2d Brigade of General Sturgis's division, 9th Army Corps, and a division at the siege of Knoxville. He afterward marched the 9th Corps over the mountains, without roads and by compass only, to Cincinnati. Ferrero was in command at the defence of Fort Sanders against the desperate assault of Longstreet, and at the battle of Bean's Station, under General Shackleford, by his timely occupation of Kelley's Ford, frustrated Longstreet's attempt to send a detachment across the Holston, and so paralyze the National forces by striking them in the rear. In Grant's final campaign, including the siege of Petersburg, he commanded the colored division of the 9th corps. He was brevetted major-general, 2 December, 1864, and mustered out in August, 1865. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 441
FERRY, Orris Sanford, senator, born in Bethel Fairfield County, Connecticut, 15 August, 1823; died in Norwalk. Connecticut, 21 November, 1875. He was graduated at Yale in 1844, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1846, and began practice in Norwalk. In 1847 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the first Division of Connecticut militia, and from 1849 till 1856 was judge of probate for the District of Norwalk. He was elected to the state senate in 1855, serving two years, and in 1857-'9 was district attorney for the County of Fairfield. He was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for Congress in 1856, but was elected two years later, serving in 1859-'61, and being again defeated in 1860. When the Civil War began, he zealously supported the National government, and in July, 1861, became colonel of the 5th Connecticut Regiment, joining General Banks's corps in Maryland. He was promoted to brigadier-general. 17 March, 1862, and was assigned a brigade in Shields's division, from which he was transferred to Peck's division of the 4th Army Corps under General Keyes. He served till the close of the war, resigned his commission. 15 June, 1865, and on 23 May. 1866, was elected U. S. Senator from Connecticut, taking his seat in March, 1867. During the latter part of the reconstruction period he opposed President Johnson, and voted guilty at his impeachment trial. In 1873 Mr. Ferry was re-elected by a coalition of Independent Republicans and Democrats, but he adhered to General Grant's administration and opposed the Liberal Republican candidates at the presidential election of that year. He voted against the civil rights bill on the ground that it would prejudice the cause of public education. While in the lower house of Congress General Ferry served as a member of the committee on Revolutionary Claims, and the Special Committee of Thirty-Three on the Rebellious States. While in the Senate he was a member of the committees on Private Land Claims, Public Buildings, and Patents, and after his re-election in 1872 was chairman of the latter committee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp.442-443.
FESSENDEN, Francis, soldier, born in Portland, Maine, 18 March, 1839, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1858, and studied law at Harvard and in New York. He was appointed captain in the 19th U. S. Infantry on 14 May, 1861, and was severely wounded at Shiloh. From October, 1862, till July, 1863, he was colonel of the 25th Maine Volunteers, and commanded a brigade in front of Washington and near Centreville, Virginia. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 10 May, 1864, and major-general, 9 November, 1865. In 1864 he was with General Banks in the Red River Expedition, and was present at Sabine Cross-Roads, Pleasant Hill, and Monett's Bluff, where, leading his brigade in an assault, he lost a leg. In November, 1864, he was on duty in Washington, and in 1865 was in command of the 1st Infantry Division, Department of West Virginia, and was afterward assigned to Hancock's 1st Veteran Corps. He was a member of the Wirtz Military Commission in Washington in 1865, and assistant commander of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in 1866. He was retired with the rank of brigadier-general in the regular army, 1 November, 1866. He served as mayor of Portland in 1876, but declined a renomination. [son of William Pitt Fessenden; Appleton’s 1900]
FESSENDEN, James Deering, born in Westbrook, Maine, 28 September, 1833; died in Portland, Maine, 18 November, 1882, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1852, studied law, and practised in Portland. He enlisted a company early in the Civil War, and entered the service as captain of the 2d U. S. sharp-shooters, 2 November, 1861. He served on General David Hunter's staff in the Department of South Carolina in 1862-'3, was present at the attack on Fort Pulaski in 1862, at the operations on the Edisto, and at Dupont's attack on Charleston. He was assigned to the duty of organizing and commanding the First Regiment of Colored Troops in 1862, but the government was not then ready to use colored troops. He was promoted to colonel in 1862, and in September, 1863, reported to General Hooker, and was engaged in the campaign of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, and in the Atlanta Campaign in 1864. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 8 August, 1864, ordered to General Sheridan in October, and was with him at Cedar Creek. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, and was on duty in South Carolina. He was appointed register in bankruptcy for the first District of Maine in 1868, and represented Portland in the legislature in 1872-'4. [son of William Pitt Fessenden]; Appleton’s 1900 Vol. II pp. 444-445.
FESSENDEN, Joshua Abbe, born in Rockland, Maine, was appointed 2d lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Cavalry , 24 March, 1862; 2d lieutenant 5th U.S. Artillery , 6 September, 1862; 1st lieutenant, 30 November, 1865; captain, 26 June, 1882; and was wounded at Chickamauga. [son of Samuel Clement Fessenden; Appleton’s 1900]
FESSENDEN, Samuel, soldier, born in Portland, Maine, 6 January, 1841; died in Centreville, Virginia, 1 September, 1862, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1861. He began to study law, but soon entered the military service as 2d lieutenant in the 2d Maine battery, 30 November, 1861. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant, 3 June, 1862, was aide to General Zebulon B. Tower in July, 1862, and was mortally wounded in the second battle of Bull Run, 31 August [son of William Pitt Fessenden]; Appleton’s 1900
FESSENDEN, Samuel, born in Rockland, Maine, was appointed 2d lieutenant in the 5th Maine battery, 18 January, 1865. He is a lawyer and politician in Stamford, Connecticut [son of Samuel Clement Fessenden]; Appleton’s 1900
FIELD, James Gaven, lawyer, born in Walnut, Culpeper County, Virginia, 24 February, 1826. His ancestors were identical with those of the Fields of New York. He attended for a time a classical school, and became a teacher. In 1848 he went to California, and in 1850 was elected one of the secretaries of the convention that framed the first constitution of that state. In the same year he returned to Virginia, and began the study of law, and in 1852 was admitted to the bar. He served as the attorney for the commonwealth in his native county from 1860 till 1865. During the Civil War he was actively engaged in the Confederate service, and lost a leg at the battle of Slaughter's Mountain. Since the war he has been attorney-general of the state. General Field is a Baptist, being a zealous and liberal promoter of all the enterprises in which that denomination is engaged. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 449
FILLEBROWN, Thomas Scott, naval officer, born in the District of Columbia, 13 August, 1834; died in New York City, 26 September, 1884. He was appointed to the U.S. Navy from Maine as a midshipman, 19 October, 1841, was promoted to passed midshipman, 10 August, 1847; became lieutenant, 15 September, 1855: lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862; commander, 25 July, 1866 ; captain, 6 January, 1874; and commodore, 7 May, 1883. He was present in all the operations on the Gulf Coast during the Mexican War, and took part in the North Pacific and Paraguay Expeditions. In 1863 he was placed in command of the steamboat "Chenango," and while proceeding down New York Harbor lost four officers and thirty men through the explosion of a boiler. He also commanded the iron-clad " Passaic," operating against Fort Sumter in May, 1864, the iron-clad "Montauk," in the attack on Battery Pringle, Stono River, South Carolina, in July of the same year, and the steamer "Sonoma," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1864-'5. He was also present at the engagement with Confederate batteries in Tagoda River, South Carolina, in February, 1865. At the close of the war he was assigned to special duty at the Navy Department in Washington, where he remained until just before his last illness. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 452
FINLEY, Jesse Johnson, senator, born in Wilson County, Tennessee, 18 November, 1812. He was educated at Lebanon, Tennessee, and in 1836-'7 was captain of a company of mounted volunteers from Tennessee that served in the Seminole War in Florida. On his return he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1838, and in 1840 moved to Mississippi County, Arkansas, where he was elected to the state senate in 1841. The following year he resigned and went to Memphis, Tennessee, where he practised law. He was elected mayor in 1845, and after the expiration of his term of office in 1846 moved to Marianna, Jackson County, Florida. In 1850 he was elected to the state senate, and in 1852 was presidential elector on the Whig ticket. In 1853 he was appointed judge of the Western Circuit of Florida to fill a vacancy, and was subsequently elected to the same office for two terms without opposition. He was appointed judge of the Confederate Court for the District of Florida in 1861, but resigned in March, 1862, and volunteered as a private in the army. He was promoted successively to captain, colonel, and brigadier-general. At the close of the war Judge Finley went to Lake City, Florida, and in 1871 moved to Jacksonville in the same state. He was then elected to Congress as a Conservative Democrat, and served in 1875-'9. In 1880 he was nominated against his wishes and took his seat, but was subsequently unseated by the rival candidate. In March, 1887, he was selected by the governor to supply the vacancy in the United States Senate that had been occasioned by the expiration of the term of Charles W. Jones, until a choice could be made by the legislature. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 460.
FISH, Hamilton, statesman, born in New York City, 3 August, 1808, was graduated at Columbia in 1827, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1830. He was for several years a commissioner of deeds. In politics he was a Whig, and was the defeated candidate of that party for the state assembly in 1834. In 1842 he was elected a representative in Congress from the Sixth District of New York over John McKeon, the Democratic candidate, and served one term. In 1846 he was a candidate for lieutenant-governor. The Whig candidate for governor, John Young, was elected, but Mr. Fish, who had incurred the hostility of the anti-renters by his warm denunciation of their principles, was defeated. His successful competitor, Addison Gardiner, a Democrat who had received the support of the anti-renters, resigned the office in 1847 on becoming a judge of the court of appeals, and Mr. Fish was elected in his place. In 1848 he was chosen governor by about 30,000 majority, the opposing candidates being John A. Dix and Reuben H. Walworth. In 1851 he was elected U. S. Senator in place of Daniel S. Dickinson. In the Senate he opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and acted with the Republican Party from its formation to the end of his term, though he was not especially prominent in the party. When his senatorial term expired in 1857 he went to Europe with his family, and remained till shortly before the beginning of the Civil War. On his return he took an active part in the campaign that resulted in the election of Abraham Lincoln. In January, 1862, in conjunction with Bishop Ames, he was appointed by Secretary of War Stanton a commissioner to visit the U. S. soldiers imprisoned at Richmond and elsewhere," to relieve their necessities and provide for their comfort." The Confederate government declined to admit the commissioners within their lines, but intimated a readiness to negotiate for a general exchange of prisoners. The result was an agreement for an equal exchange, which was carried out substantially to the end of the war. In 1868 he aided in the election of General Grant, was appointed Secretary of State by him in March, 1869, and was reappointed at the beginning of his second term in March, 1873, serving from 11 March, 1869, to 12 March, 1877. He introduced a system of examinations of applicants for consulates, to test their knowledge of subjects connected with their duties. On 9 February, 1871, the president appointed him one of the commissioners on the part of the United States to negotiate the Treaty of Washington, which was signed by him on 8 May of that year. He effected a settlement of the long-standing northwestern boundary dispute, giving the Island of San Juan to the United States, and successfully resisted an effort by Great Britain to change the terms of the extradition treaty by municipal legislation. In the settlement of the Alabama question he procured the acceptance of a doctrine by the Geneva tribunal, securing the United States against claims for indirect damages arising out of Fenian raids, or Cuban filibustering expeditions. In November, 1873, he negotiated with Admiral Polo, Spanish minister at Washington, the settlement of the "Virginius" question. He was for some years president of the New York Historical Society, and was president-general of the New York Society of the Cincinnati. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 463-464.
FISK, Samuel, soldier, born in Shelburne, Massachusetts, 23 July, 1828; died in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 22 May, 1864. He was graduated at Amherst in 1848, was in Andover Theological Seminary from 1850 till 1852, was tutor at Amherst from 1852 till 1855, then travelled a year in Europe and the east, and was pastor of the Congregational Church at Madison, Connecticut, in 1857. He entered the National Army as a private in the 14th Connecticut Regiment in 1862, became captain, was for some time a prisoner in Richmond, distinguished himself in several battles, and fell at the head of his company on the second day of the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, dying in the hospital. His letters from Europe and the east, first published in the Springfield "Republican” under the pen-name of “Dunn Browne," appeared in a volume in 1857. His Experiences in the Army," under the same assumed name, were published in 1866. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 468.
FITCH, Graham Newell, senator, born in Le Roy, New York, 5 December, 1809. He received a classical education, studied at the Medical College in Fairfield, New York, and settled at Logansport. Indiana, in 1834, where he still (1887) resides. From 1844 till 1847 he was a professor in Rush Medical College, Chicago, and from 1878 till 1883 taught the art and science of surgery in the Indiana Medical College. He was an Indiana presidential elector in 1844, 1848, and 1856, and a delegate to the National Democratic Convention, New York, in 1868. From 1836 till 1839 he was a member of the legislature of Indiana, and held a seat in Congress from 3 December, 1849, till 3 March, 1853. He was subsequently elected United States Senator from Indiana, and served as such from 9 February, 1857, till 3 March, 1861. In the autumn of that year Dr. Fitch raised the 46th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, with other troops, and was commissioned colonel. He remained in the field until November, 1862, when he was compelled to resign on account of injuries received. He commanded the land forces at the capture of Fort Pillow, at Memphis. Tennessee, and also at St. Charles, Arkansas. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 470-471.
FITCH, Leroy, naval officer, born in Indiana in October, 1835; died in Logansport, Indiana, 13 April, 1875. He was graduated at the Naval Academy in 1856, promoted to be master, 5 September, 1859, lieutenant, 21 September, 1862, and commander, 28 August, 1870. He served in the Mississippi Squadron during the Civil War, taking part in the capture of Forts Donelson and Pillow, the reduction of Island No. 10, and the victory over the Confederate fleet at Memphis, Tennessee. On the morning of 19 July, 1863, being then in command of the steamer "Moose," he succeeded in intercepting Morgan, and frustrated his attempts to cross the Ohio at Buffington Island, having followed him for more than live hundred miles up the river. He seized Morgan's train and a portion of his guns, crippling his strength, leading to his capture. For these signal services he received complimentary letters from Generals Burnside, Cox, and Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. He also defended Johnsonville, Tennessee, from the attack of General Forrest, was present at the engagement before Nashville during the operations of Hood, and participated in many minor skirmishes with guerillas on the Mississippi, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers. He also accompanied several land expeditions in the same section. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 472
FITZHUGH. Edward Henry, judge, born in Caroline County, Virginia, 21 September, 1810. He studied law, practised for many years at Wheeling, West Virginia, moved to Richmond, Virginia, in 1861, and served in an important capacity in the quartermaster's department of the Confederate Army, from 1861 till 1865. He was judge of the chancery court of the City of Richmond from 1870 till 1883, when he returned to the practice of his profession. Judge Fitzhugh has been active in the councils of the Presbyterian Church, and in 1867 was elected a member of the executive committees of "publication and education" of the general assembly. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 474.
FLANAGHAN, James Winright, lawyer, born in Gordonsville, Virginia, 5 September, 1805. In 1814 his parents moved to Kentucky, where he received a limited education, engaged in mercantile pursuits, and was a justice of the peace for twelve years. He was a member of the Circuit court of Breckinridge County from 1833 till 1843, when he moved to Harrison County, Kentucky, and after spending one year settled in Henderson, Husk County, Texas, where he was the first to sell merchandise. He also became interested in cotton-planting. He was a member of the state house of representatives in 1851-'2, and of the state senate in 1855-'6. In 1857 he was a presidential elector, and a delegate to the Peace Congress of 1861. He was a member of the state constitutional conventions of 1866 and 1868. In 1869 he was elected to Congress for the state at large, and in that year he also held the office of lieutenant-governor. He was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, serving from 1870 till 1875, and was a member of the committees on mines and mining, and post-offices, and chairman of the committee on education and labor. —His son, Webster, politician, born in Cloverport, Breckenridge County, Kentucky, 9 January, 1832, was admitted to the bar in 1851, and became interested in politics, holding important local offices. At the beginning of the Civil War he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in the Confederate service. In 1865 he was appointed judge of the 5th Judicial District of Texas. He was elected to the state constitutional convention in 1860, and two years afterward became lieutenant-governor of the state. He was chairman of the delegation to the Republican Convention which met in Philadelphia in 1872, and served as member of the Texas Senate till 1875, when he represented his district in another constitutional convention, thus assisting in the formation and adoption of two state constitutions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 478.
FLANDERS, Benjamin Franklin, statesman, born in Bristol, New Hampshire, 26 January, 1816. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1842, moved to New Orleans in 1843, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began practice, at the same time devoting much of his time to teaching in the public schools of the city, of which he was for several years the principal, being finally chosen superintendent in the 3d municipality, an office which he declined. He was part proprietor and one of the editors of the New Orleans "Tropic," a short-lived newspaper. In 1862 he was compelled to leave New Orleans for the north because of his devotion to the Union, but on the capture of that city he returned, and in the same year the Federal military authorities made him treasurer of New Orleans. This office he resigned in a few months, having been elected a representative to Congress, as a Unionist. taking his seat within a fortnight of its final adjournment, in March. 1863. In that year Secretary Chase appointed him supervising special agent of the Treasury Department for Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, which place he resigned in 1866. In June, 1867, General Philip H. Sheridan created him military governor of Louisiana, superseding J. Madison Wells, an office which he assumed without inauguration ceremonies, and resigned in six months. By the choice of Governor Warmoth, he was made mayor in May, 1870, and in November following was elected for two years. In 1873 General Grant-appointed him U.S. Assistant Treasurer in New Orleans, and this office he held until 1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 478.
FLETCHER. Thomas Clement, governor of Missouri, born in Jefferson County. Missouri, 21 January, 1827. He received a common-school education, was clerk of the circuit and county courts from 1849 till 1850, and was admitted to the bar in 1857. He was colonel of the 31st Missouri Regiment in the National Army from 1862 till 1864, when he became colonel of the 47th Missouri, and in that year was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1863 he was captured and taken to Libby Prison. In 1865-'9 he was governor of Missouri, and issued the proclamation abolishing slavery in that state. Governor Fletcher was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1860 and 1864. He was the first speaker in the first Republican Convention held in a slave-state, and although his parents were slave-owners, he had been an ardent abolitionist since his boyhood. He has made many political speeches, most of which were published, but they have never been collected in book-form. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 481-482.
FLOURNOY, Thomas Stanhope, lawyer, born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 15 December 1811; died in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, 13 March, 1883. He was educated at Hampden-Sidney College, studied law, and was admitted to practice at Halifax Court House. Virginia. He was distinguished throughout the circuit, which was noted for its brilliant bar, as a speaker of much eloquence, and for his great success as a criminal lawyer. Though a Whig, through his personal popularity he was elected to Congress in 1846 in a largely Democratic District. In 1856 he was nominated by the Whig and Know-Nothing Parties as candidate for governor of Virginia against Henry A. Wise, who was elected. Mr. Flournoy was a member of the convention of Virginia in 1860-'l, and used all his influence to prevent the secession of the state. When it finally declared for the Confederacy, he joined the Army of Northern Virginia as a private, but was appointed colonel, and was in active service throughout the war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 486.
FLOWERS, Samuel Bryce, physician, born in Wayne County. North Carolina, 31 October, 1835. He was educated at Wake Forest College, North Carolina, and was graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1859. In that year he settled in Camden, Arkansas, but returned to North Carolina in 1862, and served as surgeon in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He is a member of the Board of Health of Wayne County, of the Wayne County Medical Society, of the North Carolina Medical Society, of which he was elected vice-president in 1875, and of the Eastern Medical Association, of which he was vice-president in 1877. He has contributed to the "Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reports," and to the " Virginia Medical Monthly." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 487.
FLOYD, John Buchanan, statesman, born in Blacksburg, Virginia, 1 June, 1807; died near Abingdon, Virginia, 20 August, 1803. He was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1820, moved to Arkansas in 1830, and resided there three years, when he returned to Virginia and practised law in Washington County. He served in the state legislature in 1847-'9 and 1853, and was governor of Virginia in 1850-'3. He was a member of the electoral college in 1856. and a supporter of James Buchanan for the presidency, who appointed him Secretary of War. He held this office from 1857 till the autumn of 1860, when, having declared for secession, he resigned, and returned to his home in Abingdon, Virginia. In the whiter of 1861 he was indicted in Washington, on the charge of having secretly, during the latter portion of his administration of the War Department, prepared the means to aid secession leaders, dispersed the army into remote parts of the country, where the troops could not readily be conveyed to the Atlantic Coast, and transferred from northern to southern arsenals 113,000 muskets; and that he was privy to the abstraction of $870,000 in bonds from the Department of the Interior during the latter part of 1860. Immediately on learning of these charges, Mr. Floyd went to Washington, appeared before the court, gave bail, and demanded trial. In January, 1861, a committee of the House of Representatives made an investigation, and completely exonerated Mr. Floyd from each charge or the indictment. In 1861 he was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, and was engaged at the battle of Carnifex Ferry, 10 September, 1861. At the battle of Fort Donelson, 16 February, 1862, he reached the field when the engagement had begun, and found the position untenable and the Confederate Army in a cul de sac from which nothing but the hardest fighting could extricate it. He gave orders to that effect, and, after two days' heavy fighting, succeeded in opening a way for the extrication of his troops by a movement to his left. Afterward General Pillow ordered back the main body of the Confederate Army which was under his command to its original position, leaving General Floyd's troops without support on the ground they had gained, whereupon he retreated, with little comparative loss to his own command. Two weeks afterward General Floyd was censured by Mr. Davis for this act, and relieved from command. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 487-488.
FLUSSER, Charles W., naval officer, born in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1833; died near Plymouth, North Carolina, 18 April, 1864. He moved to Kentucky when a child, and was appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 19 July, 1847. His first cruise was made in the " Cumberland." He was promoted to lieutenant, 16 September, 1855, and in 1857 became assistant professor at the U. S. Naval Academy. He was in the brig "Dolphin " in 1859-'60, and during his succeeding leave of absence the Civil War began. He refused the offer of a high command in the Confederate service, applied for active duty, and was assigned to the command of the gun-boat "Commodore Perry," with which vessel no took part in the attack by Commodore Goldsborough that preceded the capture of Roanoke Island on 7 February, 1862. In October he took part in the shelling of Franklin, Virginia, and afterward commanded the "Perry" in the North Carolina waters. He was killed while in command of the gun-boat " Miami" in battle with the iron-clad "Albemarle " in Roanoke River. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 489.
FOLTZ, Jonathan Messersmith, surgeon, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 25 April, 1810; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 12 April, 1877. He entered the U. S. Navy as assistant surgeon, 4 April, 1831, and landed with the storming party at Qualah Battoo, Sumatra, being specially commended in Captain Shubrick's official dispatch. He was made surgeon, 8 December, 1838, and was attached to the frigate "Raritan," of the Brazil Squadron, in 1844-'7, and to the "Jamestown," of the same squadron, in 1851-'4. He was fleet-surgeon of the Western Gulf Squadron in 1862-'3, and was with Farragut on the "Hartford" in all his battles during those years. He occupied the same place on the " Franklin" during Farragut's voyage to Europe in 1867-'8, and in 1870-'l was president of the naval medical board. He became medical director on 3 March, 1871, and chief of the bureau of medicine and surgery, with the rank of commodore, on 25 October of that year. He was placed on the retired list, 25 April, 1872. Dr. Foltz published "Endemic Influence of an Evil Government" (New York, 1843). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 493.
FOOTE, George Anderson, physician, born in Warren County, North Carolina 16 December. 1835. He was graduated at Jefferson Medical College. Philadelphia, in 1850, and was a surgeon in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He was publicly thanked by the general commanding the troops at Plymouth, North Carolina, for his gallantry. He was on the ram "Albemarle" when she was blown up by Lieutenant Cushing, and assisted in capturing Cushing's party. He has been president of the North Carolina Medical Society, and has contributed to periodical literature under the pen-name of "Civis." His publications include a pamphlet on "Higher Education," and an article on " Hypodermic Medication." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 495-496.
FOOTE, Andrew Hull, naval officer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 12 September, 1806; died in New York City, 26 June, 1863, was entered as midshipman, 4 December, 1822, on the elder Commodore David Porter's squadron that was sent out in 1823 to break up the piratical nests among the West India Islands. He was promoted lieutenant in 1830. and in 1849 was appointed captain of the brig " Perry," in which he cruised off the African Coast for two years, doing effective service in the suppression of the slave-trade. He was put in command of the sloop-of-war " Plymouth " in 1856, and arrived at Canton, China, on the eve of the hostilities between the Chinese and English. He exerted himself to protect American property, and was fired on by the Barrier forts while thus engaged. He obtained permission from Commodore Armstrong to demand an apology, and when it was refused he attacked the forts, four in number, with the " Portsmouth " and the "Levant." breached the largest, and tarried them by storm. His loss was 40, while that of the enemy was 400. At the beginning of the Civil War he was chosen by the government to command the Western Flotilla. The equipment and organization of this flotilla taxed the energies of Flag-officer Foote to the utmost, and he always spoke of it as his greatest work. In the beginning of February, 1862, in connection with the land forces under Grant, he moved upon Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and upon the 6th, after a hotly contested engagement before the army came up, he carried the fort with his gunboats. His bravery and conduct were conspicuous; and this proved to be his most important achievement in the war. The same impetuosity marked the succeeding action on the 14th, in the combined assault upon Fort Donelson, where for an hour and a half he engaged the fort and contributed greatly to the demoralization of its garrison, but several of the boats having been disabled, the fleet was compelled to withdraw, and Foote himself was wounded. He then aided General Pope on the Mississippi, and, after a series of ineffectual attempts, Island No. 10 was surrendered to him on 7 April. His wound became so serious that he was obliged to give up his western command. On 16 June, 1862, he received a vote of thanks from Congress, and was made a rear-admiral, and on 22 June he was appointed chief of the bureau of equipment and recruiting. On 4 June, 1863, he was chosen to succeed Rear-Admiral Dupont in command of the fleet off Charleston, and while on his way to assume this command he died in New York. He was a man of a high type of Christian character, with most genial and lovable traits, but uncompromisingly firm in his principles, especially in regard to temperance reform in the U.S. Navy, where he was the means of abolishing the spirit-ration. Admiral Smith said of him: "Rear-Admiral Foote's character is well known in the navy. One of the strongest traits was great persistence in anything he undertook. He was a man who could neither be shaken off nor choked off from what he attempted to carry out, He was truly a pious man, severely an honest man, and a philanthropist of the first order. He was one of our foremost navy officers—none before him." The work he did for his country was mainly in being the first to break the Confederate line of defence, and in an hour of great depression, by a well-timed and brilliant— even if minor—action, to raise the hope and prestige of success. In a word, he was a courageous and successful officer, thoroughly devoted to his profession, and uniting the best characteristics of the old and new schools of the U. S. Navy. During a period of four years after 1852. when he remained at home, he wrote "Africa and the American Flag" (1854). His biography has been written by Professor James M. Hoppin (New York, 1874). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 496-497.
FORAKER, Joseph Benson, governor of Ohio, born near Rainsborough, Highland County, Ohio, 5 July, 1846. He worked on a farm in his boyhood, and when sixteen years of age enlisted in the 89th Ohio Regiment, and served in the Army of the Cumberland until the close of the war. He was made sergeant on 26 August, 1862,1st lieutenant, 14 March, 1864, and on 19 March, 1865, was brevetted captain "for efficient services during the campaigns in North Carolina and Georgia," When his regiment was mustered out he was aide-de-camp on General Henry W. Slocum's staff. After the war he spent two years at Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, and then entered Cornell, where he was graduated with the first class in 1869. He was admitted to the bar in the same year, and in 1879-'82 was judge of the Cincinnati Superior Court, resigning the office on account of his health. He was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the governorship of Ohio in 1883, but was again a candidate for the office in 1885, when he was elected. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 497.
FORBES, Abner, Vermont, general, soldier. Officer, Vermont auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Counsellor, 1835-38. (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 76)
FORBES, Edwin, artist, born in New York City in 1839. At eighteen years of age he began the study of art, and devoted himself to animal painting. In 1859 he became a pupil of A. F. Tait. At the beginning of the Civil War he joined the Army of the Potomac, and remained in the south as special artist for Frank Leslie, the publisher, till 1864. His sketches of his experiences during this period were preserved in a series of copper-plate etchings, which were exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. and awarded a medal. General William T. Sherman bought the first proofs for the United States government, and they are now in the War Department at Washington. "The Reliable Contraband," "Coming through the Lines," and the "Sanctuary," are the most effective of these sketches. Others are, "A Night March," " Returning from Picket Duty," and " The Reveille." His "Lull in the Fight," a scene in the battle of the Wilderness, was exhibited at the National Academy, New York and at the Boston athenaeum (1865). In 1877 he was elected an honorary member of the London Etching Club. His studio is in Brooklyn, and since 1878 he has devoted himself to landscape and cattle pictures. His later works are: "Early Morning in an Orange County Pasture " (1879); "On the Skirmish Line"; "Stormy March "; " Roughing " ; " On the Meadows " (1880); and " Evening in the Sheep Pasture " (1881). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 498.
FORCE, Manning Ferguson, soldier, born in Washington, D. C., 17 December 1824, was graduated at Harvard in 1845, and at the law-school in 1848. He was appointed major of the 20th Ohio Regiment in 1861, promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh. He was then made colonel, was with General Grant in his campaign in southwestern Tennessee and his expedition into northern Mississippi in 1862-'3, took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and on 11 August, 1863, was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He was with Sherman in his Atlanta Campaign and his march to the sea, was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and commanded a district in Mississippi till he was mustered out of service, 11 January, 1866. He was judge of the court of common pleas of Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1867-77, and judge of the superior court of Cincinnati from that year till 1887. He has published "From Fort Henry to Corinth," being vol. ii. of " Campaigns of the Civil War" (New York, 1881), and several pamphlets, mostly historical, including "Prehistoric Man," "Darwinism and Deity," " The Mound-Builders" (Cincinnati, 1873); "Some Early Notices of Ohio Indians"; "To What Race did "the Mound-Builders belong?" (1879); "Marching across Carolina" (1883); "Personal Recollections of the Vicksburg Campaign" (1885): "Letters of Amerigo Vespucci," an address delivered before the Ohio Historical and philosophical Society (1885); and "Sketch of the Life of Justice John McLean" (Cambridge, 1885). He has edited Walker's "Introduction to American Law" (Boston, 1878),and Harris's "Principles of Criminal Law " (Cincinnati, 1880). Son of historian Peter Force. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 499-500.
FORD, Edward Lloyd, publisher, born in Oswestry, Shropshire. England, 10 March, 1845; died in Morristown, New Jersey, 16 December, 1880. He came to New York in early youth, and studied for a few years under Professor J. H. Patton. He enlisted in the 99th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers in 1861, and within a year was promoted to a lieutenancy, and detailed on General Meade's staff. He was taken, prisoner at Chancellorsville, 2 May, 1863. and sent to Libby prison, Richmond, but was exchanged early in the September following, and returned to his post of duty. In 1863 he was discharged from the volunteer service, promoted to a captaincy on the staff of General Birney, and served in the 10th Army Corps. Broken health forced him to leave the army in December, 1864. In 1867 he became a partner in the newly established publishing-house of J. B. Ford & Company, and, by his business ability and fertility of invention, contributed largely to the success of the "Christian Union." He had a genius for mechanics, and made many improvements in printing, notably in devices for the rapid delivery of sheets from a printing-machine. He invented and patented folding combinations, folding and pasting apparatus, and devices for printing two sheets simultaneously, and for folding and. pasting one within the other. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 500.
FORD, Lewis de Saussure, physician, born in Morristown,, New Jersey, 30 December, 1801; died in Augusta, Georgia. 21 August, 1883, was graduated in medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1822. and in the same year moved to Hamburg, South Carolina He went to Augusta, Georgia, in 1827, and assisted in organizing there the Medical College, of Georgia, in which he afterward held the chairs of chemistry and practice of medicine. He was a surgeon in the Confederate Army from 1861 till the end of the Civil War, and had charge of hospitals in Richmond and elsewhere. He was twice mayor of Augusta. The University of Georgia gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1868. Dr. Ford contributed many valuable essays on paroxysmal fevers to the "Southern Medical and Surgical Journal" in 1836-'45. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 501.
FORD, William Henry, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 October. 1839. He was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1860, and in 1862 was appointed an acting medical cadet in the U. S. Army. He became assistant surgeon of the 44th Pennsylvania Regiment, in 1863, was soon afterward promoted to surgeon, and served until after the battle of Gettysburg. He studied in Europe in 1865-'8, was an editor of the Philadelphia " Medical Times" in 1870-'l, assistant demonstrator in the Philadelphia School of Anatomy in 1869-71, and compiler of vital statistics for the city in 1872-'5. He was chairman of the Centennial Medical Commission's Committee on sanitary science in 1876, and a member of the Philadelphia Board of Health in 1871-'87, serving as its secretary in 1875-'7 and as its president in 1877-9 and 1886-'7. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 501.
FORNEY, William Henry, soldier, born in Lincolnton, North Carolina, 9 November, 1823. He was graduated at the University of Alabama in 1844, and during the war with Mexico served as 1st lieutenant in the 1st Alabama Volunteers. He afterward studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and engaged in practice for twenty-five years. He was elected to the legislature in 1859, entered the Confederate Army as captain in 1861, and rose to the rank of brigadier-general. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox in 1865, and in 1865-'6 was a state senator. He was chosen to Congress as a Democrat in 1874, and has served by successive re-elections till the present time (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 503-504.
FORREST, French, naval officer, born in Maryland in 1796; died in Georgetown, D. C., 22 December, 1866. He became a midshipman, 9 June, 1811, and fought bravely in the war of 1812, distinguishing himself under Commodore Perry in the battles on Lake Erie, and in the action between the " Hornet" and the "Peacock" on 24 February, 1813. He was advanced to a lieutenancy, 5 March, 1817, made commander, 9 February, 1837, and captain, 30 March, 1844. During the war with Mexico he was adjutant-general of the land and naval forces, and superintended the transportation of troops into the interior of that country. At the beginning of the Civil War, when Virginia seceded, he joined the Confederates, and was given the command of the navy. He took charge at Norfolk Navy-yard, and afterward was appointed to the command of the James River Squadron. He then became acting assistant Secretary of the Navy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 505.
FORREST, Nathan Bedford, soldier, born in Bedford County, Tennessee, 13 July, 1821; died in Memphis, Tennessee, 29 October, 1877. While vet quite young he moved with his family to Mississippi, where his father soon afterward died, leaving Nathan mainly responsible for the support of the household. In 1842 he moved to Hernando. Mississippi, and established himself as a planter, remaining there till about 1852, when he went to Memphis, Tennessee, and became a real estate broker and dealer in slaves. When the Civil War broke out he had amassed a considerable fortune. In June, 1861, he joined the Tennessee Mounted Rifles, and in July following he raised and equipped, at the request of Governor Harris, a regiment of cavalry, and was made lieutenant-colonel. In October he moved with his men to Fort Donelson, where he remained until the approach of General Grant, and whence he was allowed to escape with his men before the flag of truce was sent. After a raiding excursion, during which he visited Nashville, Huntsville, and Iuka. He took part in the battle of Shiloh. He was assigned to the command of the cavalry at Chattanooga in the following June, participated in the attack on Murfreesboro on 13 July, 1862, and on 21 July was made brigadier-general. In September he was in command at Murfreesboro, and on 31 December was engaged at Parker's Cross-Roads. He fought at Chickamauga on 19 and 20 September, 1863, and in November was transferred to northern Mississippi. In the following month he was made major-general and assigned to the command of Forrest's cavalry department. He was in command of the Confederate forces that attacked Fort Pillow in April, 1864, and, while negotiations for the surrender of the fort were in progress under a flag of truce, moved troops into favorable positions that they could not have gained at any other time. Major Bradford, the commander of the fort, refused to surrender, whereupon the works were taken by assault, and the garrison, consisting mainly of colored troops, were given no quarter. The excuse given by Forrest's men was, that the flag of the fort had not been hauled down in token of surrender. During the operations of Hood and Thomas in Tennessee he proved a great source of annoyance to the National commanders, and in February, 1865, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. He was finally routed by General James H. Wilson on 2 April, 1865, and on 9 May he surrendered at Gainesville. After the war he was president of the Selma, Marion, and Memphis Railroad, but resigned in 1874. He was a delegate from Tennessee to the New York Democratic National Convention of 4 July, 1868. Some of General Forrest's official documents are very amusing for their peculiar orthography and phraseology. In his dispatch announcing the fall of Fort Pillow, the original of which is still preserved, he wrote: "We busted the fort at ninerclock and scatered the niggers. The men is still a cillanen in the woods." Accounting for prisoners, he wrote: “Them as was cotch with spoons and brestpins and sich was cilld and the rest of the lot was payrold and told to git." See " Campaigns of N. B. Forrest," by T. Jordan and J. B. Pryor (New York, 1868). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 505-506.
FORSHEY, Caleb Goldsmith, engineer, born in Somerset County, Pa,, 18 July, 1812; died in Carrollton, Louisiana, 25 July, 1881. He was educated at Kenyon College, Ohio, and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he entered in 1833, but was not graduated. He was professor of mathematics and civic engineering at Jefferson College, Mississippi, in 1836-'8, and was from that time engaged for many years in engineering works in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. He was in charge of the U. S. Survey of the Mississippi Delta in 1851-'3, was chief engineer of the Galveston, Houston, and Henderson Railway in 1853-"5, and designed the bridge across Galveston West Bay. In 1855 he established the Texas Military Institute and conducted it till 1861, when, though opposed to secession, he entered the Confederate service as a lieutenant-colonel of engineers. He was employed on the James River and as chief engineer on the staff of General Magruder, and planned the defences of the Texas frontier and the operations for the recapture of Galveston and the Texas Coast. Since the war he has been engaged in railway construction in Texas, on the improvements at the mouth of the Mississippi, and during 1874-'5 was in the U. S. Engineer Service on the Red River and Galveston Bay. He was the first vice-president and one of the founders of the New Orleans Academy of Sciences, and has contributed largely to the scientific journals of the south and southwest. He assisted in the preparation of " The Physics of the Mississippi River (Washington, 1861) Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 506
FORSYTH, James W., soldier, born in Ohio about 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and assigned to the infantry. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 15 March, 1861, was for two months assistant instructor to a brigade of Ohio volunteers, and on 24 October was made captain. He was on General McClellan's staff during the Peninsular and Maryland Campaigns, was brevetted major on 20 September, 1863, for gallantry at Chickamauga, and in 1864-'5 was assistant adjutant-general of volunteers and chief-of-staff to General Sheridan. He took part in the Richmond and Shenandoah Campaigns, and was lantry at Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Middletown, brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry, 19 October, 1864; colonel in the regular army, 1 April, 1865, for services at Five Forks, and brigadier-general on 9 April, for services during the war. He was given the full commission of brigadier-general of volunteers on 19 May, and in 1866-'7 was assistant inspector-general of the Department of the Gulf. He was aide to General Sheridan in 1869- 73, military secretary of the Division of the Missouri in 187&-'8, and was then assigned to frontier duty, taking part in the Bannock Campaign of 1878. In 1886 he became colonel of the 7th U.S. Cavalry. He has published "Report of an Expedition up the Yellowstone River in 1875 " (Washington, 1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 507.
FORT, Greenberry Lafayette, soldier and politician, born in French Grant, Scioto County, Ohio, 11 October, 1825; died in Lacon, Illinois. 13 January, 1883. In May. 1834, his parents left Ohio and settled in Marshall County, Illinois, where he was brought up on a farm and attended school. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began practice in Lacon, where he was elected sheriff in 1850, was clerk of the circuit court in 1852, and county judge in 1857-'61. In his first case Abraham Lincoln was the opposing counsel, and David Davis the presiding judge. On the first call for troops in 1861, he volunteered in the National Army, served in the Army of the Tennessee on both field and staff duty through all its campaigns, and was chief quartermaster of the 15th Army Corps on the march from Atlanta to the sea, and until the final surrender of Johnston's army. He was afterward ordered with Sheridan's command to Texas, where he was mustered out as colonel and brevet brigadier-general of volunteers at Galveston in 1866. He was elected to the state senate of Illinois in that year, and was afterward chosen to Congress as a Republican, serving from 1873 till 1879. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 507-508.
FOSTER, James P., naval officer, born in Bullitt County, Kentucky, 8 June, 1827; died in Indianapolis, Indiana, 2 June, 1869. He moved with his family, in childhood, to Bloomington, Indiana, and entered the U.S. Navy in 1846. He had reached the rank of lieutenant in 1861, and in July, 1862, was commissioned a lieutenant-commander, and in October of the same year was ordered to the Mississippi Squadron, commanded by Admiral Porter. He was placed in command of the "Neosho," from which he was soon transferred to the iron-clad ram "Chillicothe," and in March, 1863, distinguished himself by the valuable service performed by his vessel during the Yazoo Expedition. Later in the year he was placed in command of the gun-boat "Lafayette," and rendered valuable assistance during the bombardment and siege of Vicksburg. After the war he was ordered to the Naval Academy, and placed in charge of the training-ships. He was then promoted to commander, ordered to the "Osceola," and joined the Brazilian Squadron, where he contracted the disease from which he died. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 511.
FOSTER, John Gray, soldier, born in Whitefield, New Hampshire, 27 May, 1823; died in Nashua, N. H, 2 September, 1874. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1846, assigned to the Engineer Corps, and served in the Mexican War under General Scott, being engaged at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey, where he was severely wounded. He received the brevets of 1st lieutenant and captain for gallantry. He was assistant engineer in Maryland in 1848-'52, and on coast-survey duty in Washington, D. C, in 1852-'4, and after promotion to a 1st lieutenancy acted as assistant professor of engineering at West Point in 1855-'7. At the beginning of the Civil War he was stationed at Charleston, South Carolina, and safely removed the garrison of Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter during the night of 26-27 December, 1860. He was brevetted major for the distinguished part he took in this transfer, and was one of the defenders of the fort during its subsequent bombardment. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 23 October, 1861, commanded a brigade in Burnside's North Carolina Expedition, and received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for his services at Roanoke Island. While in command of the Department of North Carolina, with the rank of major-general of volunteers, in 1862-'3, he conducted several important expeditions. He had charge of the combined departments of Virginia and North Carolina from July till November, 1863, and afterward of the army and Department of the Ohio, which he relinquished in December, 1864, on account of severe injuries from the fall of his horse. After the termination of his sick leave he commanded the Department of the South, co-operating efficiently with General Sherman, and preparing to assist in the reduction of Charleston under Sherman's orders, when suffering caused by his old wound obliged him to transfer the command to General Quincy A. Gillmore. In 1865 he was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for gallant services in the capture of Savannah, Georgia, and major-general for services in the field during the rebellion. He was in command of the Department of Florida in 1865-"6, and on temporary duty in the engineer bureau of Washington in 1867. He afterward served as superintending engineer of various river and harbor improvements. His submarine engineering operations in Boston and Portsmouth Harbors were conducted with great ability and were eminently successful. He contributed articles to periodical literature on engineering topics, and published " Submarine Blasting in Boston Harbor" (New York, 1869). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 511-512.
FOSTER, John Watson, diplomatist, born in Pike County, Indiana, 2 March, 1836. He was graduated at the Indiana State University in 1855, and, after one year at Harvard law-school, was admitted to the bar and began practice in Evansville. He entered the National service in 1861 as major of the 25th Indiana Infantry. After the capture of Fort Donelson he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and subsequently was made colonel of the 65th Indiana Mounted Infantry. Later he was appointed colonel of the 130th Indiana Regiment. During his entire service he was connected with the western armies of Grant and Sherman. He was commander of the advance brigade of cavalry in Burnside's expedition to East Tennessee, and was the first to occupy Knoxville in 1863. After the war he became editor of the Evansville "Daily Journal," and in 1869 was appointed postmaster of that city. He was sent as U. S. minister to Mexico by President Grant in 1873, and reappointed by President Hayes in 1880. In March of that year he was transferred to Russia, and held that mission until November, 1881, when he resigned to attend to private business. On his return to this country, Colonel Foster established himself in practice in international cases in Washington, D. C., acting as counsel for foreign legations before courts of commissions, in arbitrations, etc. President Arthur appointed him minister to Spain, and he served from February, 1883, till March. 1885, when he resigned and returned to the United States, having negotiated an important commercial treaty with the Spanish government. This treaty elicited general discussion and was strongly opposed in the Senate. That body failed to confirm it, and it was afterward withdrawn by President Cleveland for reconsideration. Some weeks later General Foster was instructed to return to Spain to reopen negotiations for a modified treaty. This mission, however, was unsuccessful, and Mr. Foster remained abroad but a few months. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 512.
FOSTER, Robert Sandford, soldier, born in Vernon, Jennings County, Indiana, 27 January, 1834. He was educated at the Vernon Common-school. During the Civil War he fought with Indiana troops, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 June, 1863. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, resigning on 25 September, and being appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 27th regular infantry, but declined. Since the war he has resided in Indianapolis, was its treasurer from 1867 till 1872. He was U. S. Marshal for the District of Indiana from 1881 till 1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 514.
FOX, Gustavus Vasa, naval officer, born in Saugus, Massachusetts, 13 June, 1821; died in New York City, 29 October, 1883. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy, 12 January, 1838, and served on various stations, on the coast survey, in command of mail stations, and in the war with Mexico until 10 July, 1850, when, after a service of nineteen years, he resigned with the rank of lieutenant, his commission being dated the day previous to his resignation. After leaving the navy he accepted the position of agent of the Bay State Woollen Mills at Lawrence, Massachusetts. In February, 1861, he was sent for by General Scott, and consulted in reference to sending supplies and troops to Fort Sumter, but the expedition was forbidden by President Buchanan. When Mr. Lincoln became president, Fox was sent to Fort Sumter to communicate with Major Anderson, and on his return was directed to carry out the plan previously formed. The plan was virtually thwarted by the withdrawal of one of the ships (the" Powhatan''), which was to have taken part. The expedition had not reached Charleston when the Confederates, notified of its coming, opened fire on Fort Sumter, and the only thing accomplished was the bringing away of Major Anderson and his command after the surrender. After communications with Washington had been cut off, Fox applied to William H. Aspinwall and William B. Astor, who fitted out the steamer " Yankee," of which he was appointed acting captain, and in which he sailed for Chesapeake Bay. He was at this time appointed by President Lincoln to the post of assistant Secretary of the Navy, which he held until the end of the war. His services in this position were extremely valuable, and a member of Mr. Lincoln's cabinet once spoke of him as follows: "Fox was the really able man of the administration. He planned the capture of New Orleans, the opening of the Mississippi, and in general the operations of the navy. He had all the responsibility of removing the superannuated and inefficient men he found in charge, had the honor of selecting Farragut, and was often consulted by General Grant. He performed all his duties with an eye only to the requirements of the hour, and with no view to the advancement of any interest of his own." He was an able assistant to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, whose administration of the navy department owed to him much of its success. Soon after the close of the war Captain Fox was sent on a special mission to Russia to convey to the czar, Alexander II., the congratulations of the U. S. Congress on his escape from assassination. The voyage was made on the "Miantonomoh," the first monitor to cross the Atlantic. It is said that Captain Fox might have obtained from the U. S. government an admiral's commission had he not refused to ask for it. One result of his visit to Russia was the purchase of Alaska by the U. S. government. In the negotiations concerning this purchase Captain Fox took an active interest, he afterward became manager of the Middlesex Mills, and a partner with E. R. Mudge, Sawyer & County, where he remained several years. See Joseph F. Loubat's " Narrative of Fox's Mission to Russia in 1860 " (New York, 1873). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 519-520.
FRAILEY, James Madison, naval officer, born in Maryland, 6 May, 1809; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 26 September, 1877. He entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman, 1 May, 1826, became passed midshipman in 1836, lieutenant in 1839, commander in 1861, captain in 1866, and a commodore in 1872. He served in the naval battery before Vera Cruz, and commanded the steamer " Quaker City," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1862-'4. This vessel was struck by a shell and partially disabled in an attack by Confederate rams off Charleston, 31 January, 1863. He commanded the "Tuscarora" in both attacks on Fort Fisher, and the steam sloop " Saranac," of the North Pacific Squadron, in 1867-'8. He was appointed to the command of League Island Naval Station on 30 April, 1870, and was retired from the service, 6 May, 1871. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 521.
FRANKLIN, William Buel, soldier, born in York, Pa., 27 February, 1823. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843 at the head of his class, among the members of which were Ulysses S. Grant, Christopher C. Augur, and James A. Hardie. He served in the topographical engineers until the outbreak of the Civil War, the dates of his various commissions being as follows: 2d lieutenant, 21 September, 1846; 1st lieutenant, 3 March, 1853; and captain, 1 July, 1857. He was brevetted 1st lieutenant, 23 February,1847, for gallantry at the battle of Buena Vista. In the Mexican War he was attached to the staff of General Taylor as a Topographical Engineer, was engaged in making rcconnoissances, and carried Taylor's orders on the battlefield of Buena Vista. His other service prior to 1861 was such as ordinarily falls to an engineer officer. He was engaged in surveys on the western plains and mountains, as assistant professor at West Point, as engineer-secretary of the light-house board, and in charge of the construction of lighthouses and public buildings. At the beginning of the Civil War he was stationed in Washington in charge of the construction of the capitol, the treasury department, and the general post-office. He was appointed colonel of the 12th U.S. Infantry, 14 May, 1861, brigadier- general of volunteers, 17 May, 1861, and major-general of volunteers, 4 July, 1862. He received the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army, 30 June, 1862, for his gallant conduct in the battles before Richmond, and of major-general, 13 March, 1865, for services during the rebellion. His first active service was at Bull Run, where he commanded a brigade in Heintzleman's division, and was engaged in the heaviest part of the battle, around the Henry house. On the organization of the Army of the Potomac he received a division, and, when the 6th Army Corps was formed, he was placed in its command, retaining it throughout the year 1862. He was in most of the battles on the Peninsula—Yorktown, West Point, White Oak Bridge, Savage's Station, Malvern Hill, and Harrison's Landing. After his return to Maryland with the army, he was in command on the field of Crampton's Gap, South Mountain, 14 September, 1862, and was engaged in the battle of Antietam, 17 September, 1862. At the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862, he commanded the left grand division, consisting of his own corps, the 6th, under William F. Smith, and the 1st Corps, under John F. Reynolds. (See Burnside.) General Burnside complained to the committee on the conduct of the war that Franklin did not obey his orders in this battle, and the latter was sharply censured by the committee. He was also one of the generals removed by Burnside for insubordination, and the failure of the president to approve the order of removal led to Burnside's resignation of his command. After being on waiting orders for several months, General Franklin was returned to active service in July, 1863, and on 15 August, 1863, was assigned to the command of the 19th Army Corps. He took part in the Red River Expedition of 1864, and was wounded in the battle of Sabine Cross-Roads, 8 April, 1864. He was obliged to leave the army on account of illness, 29 April, 1864, and remained on leave of absence till 2 December, when he was assigned to duty on a retiring board at Wilmington, Delaware. During his leave he was captured by Confederate raiders while he was riding on the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, 11 July, 1864, but escaped from them on the following night. He resigned, 15 March, 1866, and since has been engaged as vice-president of the Colt's Fire-Arms Company at Hartford, Connecticut, and in various other manufacturing enterprises. He has had charge of the construction of the new state-house at Hartford, was state commissioner at the Centennial Exposition of 1876, Presidential elector in 1876, adjutant-general of Connecticut in 1877 and 1878, and president of the board of managers of the National Home for Disabled Soldiers in 1880-'7. He has contributed various articles to the "American Cyclopaedia" and to periodical literature on military subjects. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 535-536.
FRANKLIN, Samuel Rhoads, naval officer, born in York, Pennsylvania, 25 August, 1825, was appointed midshipman, 18 February, 1841, attached to the frigate " Cumberland," of the Pacific Squadron, in 1841-'3, and to the frigate "United States " and store-ship "Relief," in the Pacific, in 1845-'7. He was present at the demonstration on Monterey during the Mexican War, promoted to passed midshipman, 10 August, 1847, and assigned to duty on the "Independence," of the Mediterranean Squadron for 1849-'52, and to the coast survey, 1853-'5. He was commissioned master, 18 April, 1855, and lieutenant, 14 September following, served in the Naval Academy in 1855-"6, on the sloop "Falmouth," of the Brazil Squadron, in 1857-'9, on the " Macedonian " in 1859-60, and on the steam sloop "Dacotah," on the Atlantic Coast, in 1861-2. He was a volunteer on board the "Roanoke " in the action with the "Merrimac" in March, 1862, in which the "Congress" and the "Cumberland" were destroyed. He became executive officer of the " Roanoke," and engaged with the forts at Sewell's point, but the sloop grounded, and did not get fairly into action. He was commissioned lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, commanded the "Aroostook," of the James River Flotilla, in 1862, the "Aroostook," of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron, in 1863, and was on special duty in New Orleans in 1864. During the operations in Mobile Bay in the spring of 1865 he was on the staff of acting rear-admiral Thatcher, and was the naval representative in the demand for the surrender of the city of Mobile. He was made commander, 26 September, 1866, and given the steamer " Saginaw," of the north Pacific Squadron, in 1866-'7, on ordnance duty at Mare Island, California in 1868-'9, was advanced to the grade of captain. 13 August, 1872, and commanded the " Wabash 'and afterward the " Franklin " until transferred to duty as hydrographer to the Bureau of Navigation at Washington, D. C. He was promoted to commodore, 15 December, 1880, assigned to special duty in the bureau of equipment department, and became president of the board of examiners, 16 June, 1883. He received the appointment of rear-admiral, 24 January, 1885, was assigned to duty as superintendent of the Naval Observatory, and in 1886 became commandant of the European Station. In August, 1887, he will be of legal age to be retired. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 536.
FRÉMONT, John Charles, 1813-1890, California, Army officer, explorer. In 1856, was first candidate for President from the anti-slavery Republican Party. Lost to James Buchanan. Early in his career, he was opposed to slavery and its expansion into new territories and states. Third military governor of California, 1847. First U.S. Senator from the State of California, 1850-1851. He was elected as a Free Soil Democrat, and was defeated for reelection principally because of his adamant opposition to slavery. Frémont supported a free Kansas and was against the provisions of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law. On August 30, 1861, Frémont issued an unauthorized proclamation to free slaves owned by secessionists in his Department in Missouri. Lincoln revoked the proclamation and relieved Frémont of command. In March 1862, Frémont was given commands in Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky. (Blue, 2005, pp. 8, 10, 12-13, 58, 77, 78, 105, 131, 153, 173, 178, 206, 225, 239, 245, 252, 261-263, 268-269; Chaffin, 2002; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 89, 93, 94-95, 97-98, 138, 139, 145, 149, 159, 161, 172, 215, 219-225, 228-230, 243; Nevins, 1939; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 59, 65, 140, 242-243, 275, 369, 385, 687; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 545-548; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, p. 19; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 8, p. 459; Chaffin, Tom, Pathfinder: John Charles Frémont and the Course of American Empire, New York: Hill and Wang, 2002; Eyre, Alice, The Famous Fremonts and Their America, Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1948; Nevins, Allan, Fremont: Pathmaker of the West, Volume 1: Fremont the Explorer; Volume 2: Fremont in the Civil War, 1939, rev ed. 1955)
FRÉMONT, John Charles, explorer, born in Savannah, Georgia, 21 January, 1813; died in New York City, 13 July, 1890. His father, who was a Frenchman, had settled in Norfolk, Virginia, early married Anne Beverley Whiting, a Virginian lady, and supported himself by teaching his native language. After his death, which took place in 1818, his widow moved with her three infant children to Charleston, South Carolina. John Charles entered the junior class of Charleston College in 1828, and for some time stood high, especially in mathematics; but his inattention and frequent absences at length caused his expulsion. He then employed himself as a private teacher of mathematics, and at the same time taught an evening school. He became teacher of mathematics on the sloop-of-war “Natchez” in 1833, and after a cruise of two years returned, and was given his degree by the college that had expelled him. He then passed a rigorous examination at Baltimore for a professorship in the U. S. Navy, and was appointed to the frigate “Independence,” but declined, and became an assistant engineer under Captain William G. Williams, of the U. S. Topographical Corps, on surveys for a projected railroad between Charleston and Cincinnati, aiding particularly in the exploration of the mountain passes between North Carolina and Tennessee. This work was suspended in 1837, and Frémont accompanied Captain Williams in a military reconnaissance of the mountainous Cherokee country in Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, made rapidly, in the depth of winter, in anticipation of hostilities with the Indians. On 7 July, 1838, while engaged with Jean Nicolas Nicollet in exploring, under government authority, the country between the Missouri and the northern frontier, he was commissioned by President Van Buren as 2d lieutenant of topographical engineers. He went to Washington in 1840 to prepare his report, and while there met Jessie, daughter of Thomas H. Benton, then senator from Missouri. An engagement was formed, but, as the lady was only fifteen years of age, her parents objected to the match; and suddenly, probably through the influence of Colonel Benton, the young officer received from the war department an order to make an examination of the River Des Moines on the western frontier. The survey was made rapidly, and shortly after his return from this duty the lovers were secretly married, 19 October, 1841. In 1842, Frémont was instructed by the War Department to take charge of an expedition for the exploration of the Rocky mountains, particularly the South pass. He left Washington on 2 May, and in four months had carefully examined the South pass and explored the Wind River mountains, ascending their highest point, since known as Frémont's peak (13,570 ft.). His report of the expedition was laid before Congress in the winter of 1842-'3, and attracted much attention both at home and abroad. Immediately afterward, Frémont determined to explore the unknown region between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific, and set out in May, 1843, with thirty-nine men. On 6 September, after travelling over 1,700 miles, he came in sight of Great Salt lake. His investigations corrected many vague and erroneous ideas about this region, of which no accurate account had ever been given, and had great influence in promoting the settlement of Utah and the Pacific states. It was his report of this expedition that gave to the Mormons their first idea of Utah as a place of residence. After leaving Great Salt Lake, he explored the upper tributaries of the Columbia, descended the valley of that River to Fort Vancouver, near its mouth, and on 10 November set out on his return. His route lay through an almost unknown region leading from the Lower Columbia to the Upper Colorado, and was crossed by high and rugged mountain-chains. Deep snow soon forced him to descend into the great basin, and he presently found himself, in the depth of winter, in a desert, with the prospect of death to his whole party from cold and hunger. By astronomical observation he found that he was in the latitude of the Bay of San Francisco; but between him and the valleys of California was a snow-clad range of mountains, which the Indians declared no man could cross, and over which no reward could induce them to attempt to guide him. Frémont undertook the passage without a guide, and accomplished it in forty days, reaching Sutter's Fort, on the Sacramento, early in March, with his men reduced almost to skeletons, and with only thirty-three out of sixty-seven horses and mules remaining. Resuming his journey on 24 March, he crossed the Sierra Nevada through a gap, and after another visit to Great Salt lake returned to Kansas through the South pass in July, 1844, having been absent fourteen months. The reports of this expedition occupied in their preparation the remainder of 1844. Frémont was given the double brevet of 1st lieutenant and captain in January, 1845, at the instance of General Scott, and in the spring of that year he set out on a third expedition to explore the great basin and the maritime region of Oregon and California. After spending the summer in exploring the watershed between the Pacific and the Mississippi, he encamped in October on the shore of the Great Salt Lake, and after crossing the Sierra Nevada with a few men, in the dead of winter, to obtain supplies, left his party in the valley of the San Joaquin while he went to Monterey, then the capital of California, to obtain from the Mexican authorities permission to proceed with his exploration. This was granted, but was almost immediately revoked, and Frémont was ordered to leave the country without delay. Compliance with this demand was impossible, on account of the exhaustion of Frémont's men and his lack of supplies, and it was therefore refused. The Mexican commander, General José Castro, then mustered the forces of the province and prepared to attack the Americans, who numbered only sixty-two. Frémont took up a strong position on the Hawk's peak, a mountain thirty miles from Monterey, built a rude fort of felled trees, hoisted the American flag, and, having plenty of ammunition, resolved to defend himself. The Mexican general, with a large force, encamped in the plain immediately below the Americans, whom he hourly threatened to attack. On the evening of the fourth day of the siege Frémont withdrew with his party and proceeded toward the San Joaquin. The fires were still burning in his deserted camp when a messenger arrived from General Castro to propose a cessation of hostilities. Frémont now made his way northward through the Sacramento valley into Oregon without further trouble, and near Klamath Lake, on 9 May, 1846, met a party in search of him with despatches from Washington, directing him to watch over the interests of the United States in California, there being reason to apprehend that the province would be transferred to Great Britain, and also that General Castro intended to destroy the American settlements on the Sacramento. He promptly returned to California, where he found that Castro was already marching against the settlements. The settlers flocked to Frémont's camp, and in less than a month he had freed northern California from Mexican authority. He received a lieutenant-colonel's commission on 27 May, and was elected governor of California by the American settlers on 4 July. On 10 July, learning that Commodore Sloat, commander of the United States Squadron on that coast, had seized Monterey, he marched to join him, and reached that place on 19 July, with 160 mounted riflemen. About this time Commodore Stockton arrived at Monterey with the frigate “Congress” and took command of the squadron, with authority from Washington to conquer California. At his request Frémont organized a force of mounted men, known as the “California battalion,” of which he was appointed major. He was also appointed by Commodore Stockton military commandant and civil governor of the territory, the project of making California independent having been relinquished on receipt of intelligence that war had begun between the United States and Mexico. On 13 January, 1847, Frémont concluded with the Mexicans articles of capitulation, which terminated the war in California and left that country permanently in the possession of the United States. Meantime General Stephen W. Kearny, with a small force of dragoons, had arrived in California. A quarrel soon broke out between him and Commodore Stockton as to who should command. Each had instructions from Washington to conquer and organize a government in the country. Frémont had accepted a commission from Commodore Stockton as commander of the battalion of volunteers, and had been appointed governor of the territory. General Kearny, as Frémont's superior officer in the regular army, required him to obey his orders, which conflicted with those of Commodore Stockton. In this dilemma Frémont concluded to obey Stockton's orders, considering that he had already fully recognized that officer as commander-in-chief, and that General Kearny had also for some time admitted his authority. In the spring of 1847 despatches from Washington assigned the command to Gen Kearny, and in June that officer set out overland for the United States, accompanied by Frémont, whom he treated with deliberate disrespect throughout the journey. On the arrival of the party at Fort Leavenworth, on 22 August, Frémont was put under arrest and ordered to report to the adjutant-general at Washington, where he arrived on 16 September, and demanded a speedy trial. Accordingly a court-martial was held, beginning 2 November, 1847, and ending 31 January, 1848, which found him guilty of “mutiny,” “disobedience of the lawful command of a superior officer,” and “conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline,” and sentenced him to be dismissed from the service. A majority of the members of the court recommended him to the clemency of President Polk. The president refused to confirm the verdict of mutiny, but approved the rest of the verdict and the sentence, of which, however, he remitted the penalty. Notwithstanding this, Frémont at once resigned his commission, and on 14 October, 1848, set out on a fourth expedition across the continent, at his own expense, with the object of finding a practicable passage to California by way of the upper waters of the Rio Grande. With thirty-three men and 120 mules he made his way through the country of the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and other Indian tribes then at war with the United States. In attempting to cross the great Sierra, covered with snow, his guide lost his way, and Frémont's party encountered horrible suffering from cold and hunger, a portion of them being driven to cannibalism. All of his animals and one third of his men perished, and he was forced to retrace his steps to Santa Fé. Undaunted by this disaster, he gathered another band of thirty men, and after a long search discovered a secure route by which he reached the Sacramento in the spring of 1849. He now determined to settle in California, where, in 1847, he had bought the Mariposa estate, a large tract of land containing rich gold-mines. His title to this estate was contested, but after a long litigation it was decided in his favor in 1855 by the Supreme Court of the United States. He received from President Taylor in 1849 the appointment of commissioner to run the boundary-line between the United States and Mexico, but, having been elected by the legislature of California, in December of that year, to represent the new state in the U. S. Senate, he resigned his commissionership and departed for Washington by way of the isthmus. He took his seat in the Senate, 10 September, 1850, the day after the admission of California as a state. In drawing lots for the terms of the respective senators, Frémont drew the short term, ending 4 March, 1851. The Senate remained in session but three weeks after the admission of California, and during that period Frémont devoted himself almost exclusively to measures relating to the interests of the state he represented. For this purpose he introduced and advocated a comprehensive series of bills, embracing almost every object of legislation demanded by the peculiar circumstances of California. In the state election of 1851 in California the Anti-slavery Party, of which Frémont was one of the leaders, was defeated, and he consequently failed of re-election to the Senate, after 142 ballotings. After devoting two years to his private affairs, he visited Europe in 1852, and spent a year there, being received with distinction by many eminent men of letters and of science. He had already, in 1850, received a gold medal from the king of Prussia for his discoveries, had been awarded the “founder's medal” of the Royal geographical Society of London, and had been elected an honorary member of the Geographical Society of Berlin. His explorations had gained for him at home the name of the “Pathfinder.” While in Europe he learned that Congress had made an appropriation for the survey of three routes from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific, and immediately returned to the United States for the purpose of fitting out a fifth expedition on his own account to complete the survey of the route he had taken on his fourth expedition. He left Paris in June, 1853, and in September was on his march across the continent. He found passes through the mountains on the line of latitudes 38 and 39, and reached California in safety, after enduring great hardships. For fifty days his party lived on horse-flesh, and for forty-eight hours at a time were without food of any kind. In the spring of 1855 Frémont with his family took up his residence in New York, for the purpose of preparing for publication the narrative of his last expedition. He now began to be mentioned as an anti-slavery candidate for the presidency. In the first National Republican Convention, which met in Philadelphia on 17 June, 1856, he received 359 votes to 196 for John McLean, on an informal ballot, and on the first formal ballot Frémont was unanimously nominated. In his letter of acceptance, dated 8 July, 1856, he expressed himself strongly against the extension of slavery and in favor of free labor. A few days after the Philadelphia Convention adjourned, a National American Convention at New York also nominated him for the presidency. He accepted their support in a letter dated 30 June, in which he referred them for an exposition of his views to his forthcoming letter accepting the Republican nomination. After a spirited and exciting contest, the presidential election resulted in the choice of Mr. Buchanan by 174 electoral votes from nineteen states, while Frémont received 114 votes from eleven states, including the six New England states, New York, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, and Wisconsin. Maryland gave her eight electoral votes for Mr. Fillmore. The popular vote for Frémont was 1,341,000; for Buchanan, 1,838,000; for Fillmore, 874,000. In 1858 Frémont went to California, where he resided for some time. In 1860 he visited Europe. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he was made a major-general of the regular army and assigned to the command of the newly created Western Department. After purchasing arms for the U. S. government, in Europe, he returned; he arrived in St. Louis on 26 July, 1861, and made his headquarters there, fortifying the city, and placing Cairo in security by a demonstration with 4,000 troops. After the battle of Wilson's Creek, on 10 August, where General Nathaniel Lyon was slain, Frémont proclaimed martial law, arrested active secessionists, and suspended the publication of papers charged with disloyalty. On 31 August he issued a proclamation assuming the government of the state, and announcing that he would emancipate the slaves of those in arms against the United States. President Lincoln wrote to him, approving all of the proclamation except the emancipation clause, which he considered premature. He asked Frémont to withdraw it, which he declined, and the president annulled it himself in a public order. In the autumn Frémont moved his army from the Missouri River in pursuit of the enemy. Meanwhile many complaints had been made of his administration, it being alleged that it was inefficient, though arbitrary and extravagant, and after an investigation by the Secretary of War he was, on 2 November, 1861, relieved from his command just as he had overtaken the Confederates at Springfield. It is claimed by Frémont's friends that this was the result of a political intrigue against him. On leaving his army, he went to St. Louis, where he was enthusiastically received by the citizens. In March, 1862, he was given the command of the newly created “mountain district” of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. In the early part of June his army engaged a superior force under General Jackson for eight days, with constant sharp skirmishing, the enemy retreating slowly and destroying culverts and bridges to cause delay. The pursuit was terminated with a severe engagement on the evening of 6 June, in which Jackson's chief of cavalry, General Ashby, was killed, and by the battle of Cross-Keys on 8 June. It is claimed by General Frémont that if McDowell's force had joined him, as promised by the president, Jackson's retreat would have been cut off; as it was, the latter made good his escape, having accomplished his purpose of delaying re-enforcements to McClellan. On 26 June the president issued an order creating the “Army of Virginia,” to include Frémont's corps, and giving the command of it to General Pope. Thereupon Frémont asked to be relieved, on the ground that he could not serve under General Pope, for sufficient personal reasons. His request having been granted, he went to New York to await further orders, but received no other command during the war, though, as he says, one was constantly promised him. On 31 May, 1864, a convention of Republicans, dissatisfied with Mr. Lincoln, met at Cleveland and tendered to General Frémont a nomination for president, which, he accepted. In the following September a committee of Republicans representing the administration waited on him and urged his withdrawal, as “vital to the success of the party.” After considering the matter for a week, he acceded to their request, saying in his letter of withdrawal that he did so “not to aid in the triumph of Mr. Lincoln, but to do my part toward preventing the election of the Democratic candidate.”
Since 1864 General Frémont has taken little part in public affairs, but has been active in railway matters. He procured from the Texas legislature a grant of state land in the interest of the Memphis and El Paso Railway, which was to be part of a proposed trans-continental road from Norfolk to San Diego and San Francisco. The French agents employed to place the land-grant bonds of this road on the market made the false declaration that they were guaranteed by the United States. In 1869 the Senate passed a bill giving Frémont's road the right of way through the territories, an attempt to defeat it by fixing on him the onus of the misstatement in Paris having been unsuccessful. In 1873 he was prosecuted by the French government for fraud in connection with this misstatement. He did not appear in person, and was sentenced by default to fine and imprisonment, no judgment being given on the merits of the case. In 1878-'81 General Frémont was governor of Arizona. He has published “Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1842, and to Oregon and North California in 1843-'4” (Washington, 1845; New York, 1846; London, 1849); “Colonel J. C. Frémont's Explorations,” an account of all five of his expeditions (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1859); and “Memoirs of my Life” (New York, 1880). See also the campaign biographies by John Bigelow (New York, 1856), and Charles W. Upham (Boston, 1856). His wife, Jessie Benton, born in Virginia in 1824, has published “Story of the Guard; a Chronicle of the War,” with a German translation (Boston, 1863); a sketch of her father, Thomas H. Benton, prefixed to her husband's memoirs (1880); and “Souvenirs of my Time” (Boston, 1887). [Appleton’s 1900]
FRENCH, William Henry, soldier, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 13 January, 1815; died there, 20 May, 1881. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1837, and entered the army as 2d lieutenant of artillery. He served in the Seminole War in Florida and on the Canada border in 1837-'8. During the Mexican War he was aide-de-camp to General Franklin Pierce, and on the staff of General Patterson, was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, in the battles of Churubusco and Contreras, and brevetted major for gallantry at the capture of the city of Mexico. Between 1850 and 1852 he again served against the Seminole Indians in Florida, and was on garrison and frontier duty till 1861, when he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and served in the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular Campaign. He was engaged at the battles of Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Oakgrove, Gaines's Mill, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Glendale, and Malvern Hill. In the Maryland Campaign he commanded a division of Sumner's corps at the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg, September, 1862, and in the next month was appointed major-general of volunteers. He served in the Rappahannock Campaign, in the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, commanded the 3d Army Corps in its operations at Mine Run, from November, 1863, till May, 1864, when he was mustered out of volunteer service. He commanded the 2d U.S. Artillery on the Pacific Coast from 1865 till 1872, and in 1875, having passed through the successive military grades, was appointed lieutenant-colonel, in command at Fort McHenry, Baltimore. In July, 1880. at his own request, being over sixty- two years of age, he was retired. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 549.
FRY, Cary Harrison, soldier, born in Garrard County, Kentucky, 20 August, 1813; died in San Francisco, California, 5 March, 1873. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1834, and served in the 3d U.S. Infantry at Fort Towson, Indian Territory, but resigned on 31 October, 1836, studied medicine, and practised in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1845-'6. In the Mexican War he served as major in the 2d Kentucky Volunteers, commanding the regiment after the fall of its colonel and lieutenant-colonel in the battle of Buena Vista, where he distinguished himself. He practised medicine in Danville and Louisville, Kentucky, in 1847-53, and on 7 February of the latter year re-entered the regular army as paymaster, with the staff rank of major. During the Civil War he served at Washington, being acting pay-master-general in 1862, and becoming deputy pay-master-general in 1866. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, on 15 October, 1867, and from 1869 till his death was chief paymaster of various military divisions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 557.
FRY, Speed Smith, soldier, born in Mercer (now Boyle) county, Kentucky, 9 September, 1817, after studying at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, completed his education at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. He organized a company of the 2d Kentucky Volunteer Infantry in 1846, commanded it during the Mexican War, and after his return was county judge of Boyle County, 1857-'61. At the beginning of the Civil War he organized the 4th Kentucky Regiment in the National Army, and served as its colonel till 21 March, 1862, when he was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers. He was mustered out of service on 24 August, 1865, and in 1869-'72 was a supervisor of internal revenue in his native state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 557.
FRY, James Barnet, soldier, born in Carrollton, Greene County, Illinois, 22 February, 1827. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and assigned to the 3d U.S. Artillery . After serving for a short time as assistant instructor of artillery at West Point, he joined his regiment at the city of Mexico, where he remained in 1847-'8. After doing frontier and garrison duty at various posts, he was again instructor at West Point in 1853-'4, and adjutant of the academy in 1854-'9. He was made assistant adjutant-general on 16 March, 1861, was chief of staff to General Irwin McDowell in that year, and to General Don Carlos Buell in 1861—'2, taking part in the battles of Bull Run. Shiloh, and Corinth, the movement to Louisville, Kentucky, and the pursuit of General Bragg through the southeastern part of that state. He was made provost-marshal-general of the United States, with headquarters at Washington, on 17 March, 1863, and given the staff rank of brigadier-general, 21 April, 1864. Both these commissions expired on the abolition of the office of provost-marshal-general on 30 August, 1866: during that time General Fry put in the army 1,120,621 men, arrested 76,502 deserters, collected $26,306,316.78, and made an exact enrolment of the National forces. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, for " faithful, meritorious, and distinguished services." He was adjutant-general, with the rank of colonel, of the Division of the Pacific in 1866-'9, the South in 1869-'71, the Missouri in 1871-3, and the Atlantic from 1873 till 1 June, 1881, when he was retired from active service at his own request. He is now (1887) a resident of New York City. General Fry's "Final Report of the Operations of the Bureau of the Provost-Marshal-General in 1863-'6" was issued as a Congressional document (2 parts, Washington, 1866). He has also published "Sketch of the Adjutant-General's Department, U. S. Army, from 1775 to 1875 " (New York, 1875); "History and Legal Effects of Brevets in the Armies of Great Britain and the United States, from their Origin, in 1692, to the Present Time" (1877); "Army Sacrifices," illustrating army life on the frontier (1879); "McDowell and Tyler in the Campaign of Bull Run" (1884); "Operations of the Army under Buell" (1884); and "New York and Conscription " (1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 557
FRY, Joseph, naval officer, born in Louisiana about 1828; died in Santiago de Cuba, 7 November, 1873. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1841, and became passed midshipman, 10 August, 1847. In that year he fought a duel with Midshipman Brown, of Mississippi, near Washington, in which, after drawing his antagonist's fire, he refused to return it. He was promoted to master, 14 September, 1855, to lieutenant on the following day, and resigned, 1 February, 1861, after the secession of his native state. He was unable to secure a commission in the Confederate Navy owing to its limited size, and was given a command in the army. After serving in the southwest through the war, he moved to Albany, New York He accepted the command of the filibustering steamer " Virginius" in 1873, and with thirty-six of his crew was shot as a pirate by the authorities in Cuba, after the capture of his vessel by a Spanish man-of-war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 557.
FULLER, John Wallace, soldier, born in Cambridge, England, 28 July, 1827. He came to New York in 1833 with his father, a Baptist clergyman, and became a bookseller, first in Utica, New York, and then in Toledo, Ohio. He was treasurer of the former city in 1852-'4, and in May, 1861, was appointed assistant adjutant-general of Ohio. He became colonel of the 27th Ohio Regiment in August of that year, served under Pope at New Madrid and Island Number Ten, and commanded the "Ohio brigade" at Iuka and at Corinth in October, 1862, where he distinguished himself. He was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers on 5 January, 1864, captured Decatur, Alabama, in March, and commanded a brigade in the Atlanta Campaign, doing brilliant service at the Chattahoochee River on 21 July. His division opened the battle of Atlanta, and won the approbation of General McPherson. He fought Hood at Snake Creek Gap in October, commanded the 1st Division of the 17th Corps in Sherman's march to the sea, and was present at Johnston's surrender. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. and resigned on 15 August General Fuller was appointed collector of the port of Toledo, Ohio, by President Grant in 1874, and reappointed in 1878. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 560.