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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - Hab-Haz


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                      Bab-Blu         Cab-Clu
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M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R


S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha                                                                             Wad-Whe
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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – Hab-Haz

HABBERTON, John, author, born in Brooklyn, New York, 24 February, 1842. He lived in Illinois from his eighth till his seventeenth year, and was educated in the common school. He then went to New York, learned to set type in the establishment of Harper and Brothers, and subsequently entered their counting-room. He enlisted in the army as a private in 1862, rose to the rank of 1st lieutenant, and served through the war. He re-entered the employ of the Harpers in 1865, and remained there till 1872, when he went into business for himself, and in six months was bankrupt. He now became a contributor to periodicals, and was literary editor of the "Christian Union" from 1874 till 1877, since which time he has been on the editorial staff of the New York "Herald." His first literary work was a series of sketches of western life. His "Helen's Babies" (which one publishing-house rejected because it was too small for a book, another because it was too childish for adults to read, and a third on the ground that its moral tendency would be bad) was published in Boston in 1876, and has sold to the extent of more than 250,000 copies in the United States. Eleven different English editions of it have appeared, besides several in the British Colonies, and it has been translated into French, German, and Italian. "This book." says the author, "grew out of an attempt to keep for a single day a record of the doings of a brace of boys of whom the author is half owner."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 21

HACKETT, Alexander Wylly, naval officer, born in New York City, 24 March, 1826; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 26 March, 1883, entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1841, became passed midshipman in 1847, master, 14 September, 1855, and lieutenant on the following day. On 30 May, 1860, he resigned from the service and became a merchant in Japan, being the first to introduce Japanese tea into this country. He returned at the beginning of the Civil War, and was for six months a prisoner in Fort McHenry. After the war he engaged in business in Baltimore, which he pursued until his death. Besides numerous articles in periodicals he published " My Last Cruise," an account of the U. S. North Pacific Exploring Expedition (2d ed., Philadelphia, 1857).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 22

HACKLEY, Charles Elihu, physician, born in Unadilla, New York, 22 February, 1836. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1856, and at the medical school in I860. He was surgeon in the 2d U. S. Cavalry in 1861-'4, and was surgeon-in-chief of the 3d Cavalry Division. Army of the Potomac. He was appointed physician to the New York Hospital in 1867, was surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary in 1865-'75, and clinical professor of diseases of the eye and ear in the Women's Medical College, New York, in 1870-'6. He has translated Stellwag's " Diseases of the Eye" 1867); Niemeyer's "Practical Medicine" (1869); Billroth's "Surgical Pathology" (1871); and has written articles in Wood's "Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences," and other contributions to medical literature.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 23.

HACKLEMAN, Pleasant Adam, soldier, born in Franklin County, Indiana, 15 November, 1814; died near Corinth, Mississippi, 4 October, 1862. His father, Major John Hackleman, fought in the war of 1812. After engaging for a number of years in farming, the son studied law, and was admitted to the bar in May, 1837. He began practice in Rushville, rose rapidly to distinction in his profession, and in August, 1837, was elected judge of the probate court, of Rush County, which office he held till 1841, when he was elected to the state house of representatives. After serving for several years as clerk of Rush County, he was, in 1847 and 1858, a candidate for congress, but was defeated. In 1860 he was a member of the Republican National Convention at Chicago, and in 1861 of the peace conference at Washington. He entered the national service in May, 1861, as colonel of the 16th Indiana Regiment, and, after the first battle of Bull Run, served under General Banks in Virginia. He was made a brigadier-general, 28 April, 1862, and in June was ordered to report to General Grant in the southwest. He took an active part in the battle of Iuka and in that of Corinth, where he was killed on the second day of the fight.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 23.

HAGNER, Peter Valentine, soldier, born in Washington, D. C, 28 August, 1815, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836, and assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery. He served on topographical duty, took part in the Florida Campaign of 1836-'7 with a field battery, was assigned to frontier duty during the Canada border disturbances until July, 1838, and then transferred to the Ordnance Corps. On 22 May, 1840, he was promoted 1st lieutenant of ordnance. In the war with Mexico he was attached to the siege-train company of ordnance of General Scott's army, brevetted captain for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847, and major for Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847. He was wounded at the San Cosme Gate in the assault and capture of the City of Mexico the day following. Major Hagner made a visit to Europe under orders from the Secretary of War in 1848-'9, inspecting laboratories and manufactories of percussion-caps, and procuring information upon the systems of artillery and the armament and equipment of troops. He was promoted to captain of ordnance, 10 July, 1851, and major of ordnance, 3 August, and was in command of various arsenals and inspector of powder until the beginning of the Civil War. On 25 April, 1861, he was assigned to the duty of ordering, inspecting, and purchasing arms and ordnance stores, and in March, 1862, appointed assistant to the commission on ordnance contracts and claims. He was inspector of the factories making small arms for the government till 25 December, 1863, when he was assigned to the command of the Watervliet Arsenal; was made lieutenant-colonel of ordnance, 1 June, 1863, brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for  his services in the ordnance department, and advanced to the rank of colonel of ordnance, 7 March, 1867. He was placed on the retired list, 1 June, 1881, at his own request, having been in the service for more than forty years.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 25-26.

HAINES, Alanson Austin, clergyman, born in Hamburg, New Jersey, 18 March, 1830, was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and at the theological seminary there in 1858. He held pastorates in Berlin, Maryland, and Amgansett, Long Island, till 1862, when he was appointed chaplain of the 15th New Jersey Regiment. He served till the close of the war, accompanying his regiment in the thirty-six battles in which it was engaged, and since his discharge in 1865 has held a pastorate in his native place. In 1873 he was appointed engineer of the Palestine exploration Society, and in that capacity visited the Holy Land, Egypt, and Turkey, making maps, sketches of Oriental scenery, and transcripts of rock inscriptions. Mr. Haines is the author of a" History of the Fifteenth Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers" (New York, 1883), and is a contributor to various periodicals.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 28.

HAINES, Thomas Ryerson, lawyer, born in Hamburg, New Jersey, 15 March, 1838; died near Harrisonburg, Virginia, 6 June, 1862, was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and in 1860, having been admitted to the bar, entered on the practice of his profession in Newark, New Jersey. On 15 August, 1861, he became 1st lieutenant in the 1st New Jersey Cavalry Regiment, and in March, 1862, was commissioned captain after declining an appointment on a general's staff. He had already gained credit as adjutant and regimental judge-advocate. He became the victim of a rash movement on the part of the colonel of his regiment. Five miles in advance of its supports, that regiment was driven into the woods near Harrisonburg, and was surprised and cut in pieces by a vastly superior force. While he was bravely endeavoring to rally his troops, Captain Haines was mortally wounded.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 28

HAINES, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 26 October, 1827; died in Hartford, Connecticut, 14 August, 1883. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery, and served in Fortress Monroe, Virginia, after which he became assistant professor of mathematics at West Point. He took part in the Florida hostilities against the Seminole Indians, as acting assistant adjutant-general, and in the early part of the Civil War held the same post in the Department of Virginia. He was chief commissary of the Department of the Missouri in 1861-"2, and then served as chief purchasing and supervising commissary in the Departments of the Missouri, Tennessee, and the Northwest from 1862 till 1865, holding the rank of major. He also held this office for the territory between the Mississippi and New Mexico and Utah, and was in charge of affairs of the subsistence department in Illinois and the Department of the Mississippi to the southern boundary of Arkansas. He was brevetted brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services. He had general charge of the subsistence department throughout the western states and territories from 1865 till 1868, and served as chief of the commissariat department of the south from 1868 till 1873. He was then purchasing and depot commissary at Boston till 1875, when he was made assistant to the commissary-general in Washington,  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 28.

HALDERMAN, John Acoming, diplomatist, born in Missouri, 15 April, 1833. He spent his boyhood in Kentucky, and studied law there, but emigrated to Kansas in 1854. In his new home he opposed slavery, and was successively private secretary to the first governor, judge of the probate court, mayor of Leavenworth two terms, member of both houses of the legislature, and regent of the State University. He was major of the 1st Kansas Infantry during the Civil War, provost-marshal-general of the Western Army, on the staff of General Nathaniel Lyon, in 1861, and was mentioned in the official report for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at the battle of Springfield. After the war he travelled extensively. In 1880 he was appointed U. S. consul at Bangkok. Siam, and subsequently promoted to the post of consul-general by President Garfield. In 1882 he was further advanced to the station of minister-resident in Siam. In 1883 Highland University conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. For his endeavors in behalf of civilization in the far east he received the thanks of the Universal postal union. In August, 1885, he resigned his office and returned to the United States. In recognition of his "faithful observance of treaty relations," and of his efforts to suppress a nefarious traffic in spirits under cover of the American flag, his majesty, the king of Siam, honored him with the decoration of knight commander of the most exalted order of the white elephant. King Norodom tendered the investiture of commander of the royal order of Cambodia in appreciation of his efforts to introduce posts and telegraphs into Cambodia and Cochin China. He was honored by the friendship of General Grant, who felt great interest in his mission of peace and justice to Siam, and to the great soldier is ascribed the declaration that the "minister's career in southern Asia was one of the highest successes in American diplomacy."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 29.

HALL, George B., soldier, born in Brooklyn in 1826, died there, 24 May, 1864, entered the New York militia as a private, and rapidly rose through several grades. At the beginning of the Mexican War he was appointed lieutenant in the first Regiment of New York Volunteers, and served at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, and Churubusco. In 1850 he was commissioned major of the 13th Militia Regiment, and the following year lieutenant-colonel, he was a clerk in New York at the beginning of the Civil War, and engaged in raising troops. He was elected colonel of the 27th New York Regiment, and participated in many engagements, from that of the Stafford raid of 1862 to the battle of Fredericksburg.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 40.

HALL, James Frederick, soldier, born in New York City, 31 January, 1822; died in Tarrytown, New York, 9 January, 1884. With a younger brother, Thomas, he was a member of the firm of William Hall and Sons. In 1861 he assisted the commissary-general of ordnance of the state to equip twenty-eight regiments for the field. He then set to work to fit out a regiment for himself. Mr. Parrott, of the West Point Foundry, presented to Mr. Hall a full battery of field-guns, which was afterward permitted to act with the 1st Regiment of Engineers, organized by Mr. Hall and Colonel Serrell. Colonel Hall, at the head of these men, did good work at the taking of Port Royal. He constructed the works on Tybee Island, and was present at the capture of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, which followed. He received honorable mention for his gallantry on the field at Pocotaligo and Olustee, Florida He was present at the capture of Morris Island and at the two attacks on Fort Wagner, and co-operated with Sherman against Savannah and Charleston. For two years he acted as provost-marshal-general of the Department of the South. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 24 February, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 45.

HALL, William P., soldier, born about 1820; died in New York City, 20 October, 1865. He enlisted as a private in the regular army, and before he was of age was advanced to the rank of sergeant-major. He took part in the Mexican War, and it is said that he was the first to place the United States colors on the heights of Chapultepec. For this act he was commissioned captain in the regular army, which appointment he refused for private reasons. His claims were strongly urged by his comrades for the snuff-box that was left by Andrew Jackson as a legacy to the bravest soldier. The New York Common Council, who had the difficult task of awarding this gift, decided in favor of another on the ground that Lieutenant-Colonel Hall belonged to the regular army, which debarred him from the list of competitors. He served in the Civil War, was seriously wounded on several occasions, and was taken prisoner by the Confederates when major of the 9th New York, or Ira Harris Cavalry. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, 11 January, 1865. He contracted a disease in prison which caused his death. He contributed many articles to periodicals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 45.

HALLECK, Henry Wager, soldier, born in Westernville, Oneida County, New York, 16 January, 1815: died in Louisville, Kentucky, 9 January, 1872. He received a common-school education at Hudson academy, New York, passed through a part of the course at Union, and was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, standing third in a class of thirty-one. Among his classmates were General James B. Ricketts, General Edward O. C. Ord, and General Edward R. S. Canby. He was made a 2d lieutenant of engineers in 1839. In 1845 he was on a tour of examination of public works in Europe, and during his absence was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. On his return to the United States, the committee of the Lowell Institute, Boston. Massachusetts, attracted by Halleck's able report on " Coast Defence " (published by congress), invited him to deliver twelve lectures on the science of war. These he published in a volume, with an introductory chapter on the justifiableness of war, under the title of "Elements of Military Art and Science" (New York, 1846; 2d ed., with the addition of much valuable matter, including notes on the Mexican and Crimean wars, 1861). This popular compendium, then the best in our language, was much used by students of the military profession, and during the Civil War became a manual for officers of the army, particularly for volunteers. At the beginning of the Mexican War Lieutenant Halleck was detailed as engineer for military operations on the Pacific Coast, and sailed with Captain Tompkins's artillery command in the transport" Lexington," which, after a seven months' voyage around Cape Horn, reached her destination at Monterey, California During this long and tedious passage he undertook a translation from the French of Baron Jomini's "Vie politique et Militaire de Napoleon," which, with the aid of a friend, he revised and published with an atlas (4 vols., 8vo, New York, 1864). After partially fortifying Monterey as a port of refuge for our Pacific fleet and a base for incursions into California, Lieutenant Halleck took an active part in affairs both civil and military. As Secretary of State under the military governments of General Richard B. Mason and General James W. Riley, he displayed great energy and high administrative qualities. As a military engineer he accompanied several expeditions, particularly that of Colonel Burton, into Lower California, and participated in several actions. Besides his engineer duties, he performed those of aide-de-camp to Commodore Shubrick during the naval and military operations on the Pacific Coast, including the capture of Mazatlan, of which for a time Halleck was lieutenant-governor. For these services he was brevetted captain, to date from 1 May, 1847. After the termination of hostilities and the acquisition of California by the United States, a substantial government became necessary. General Riley, in military command of the territory, called a convention to meet at Monterey, 1 September, 1849, to frame a state constitution. This convention, after six weeks' consideration, upon a constitution, which was adopted by the people; and by act of congress, 9 September, 1850, California was admitted to the Union. In all of these transactions Halleck was the central figure, on whose brow "deliberation sat and public care." As the real head of Riley's military government, he initiated the movement of state organization, pressed it with vigor, and was a member of the committee that drafted the constitution, of which instrument he was substantially the author, he remained as aide-de-camp on the staff of General Riley, and from 21 December, 1852, was inspector and engineer of light-houses, and from 11 April, 1853, a member of the board of engineers for fortifications on the Pacific Coast, being promoted captain of engineers, 1 July, 1853. All these places he held till his resignation from the military service, 1 August, 1854. After leaving the army, Halleck devoted himself to the practice of law in a firm of which for some time he had been a member, and continued as director-general of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, an office he had held since 1850. Notwithstanding all these duties, he found time for study and to prepare several works, including " A Collection of Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico " (1859); a translation of "De Fooz on the Law of Mines, with Introductory Remarks " (1860); and a treatise on "International Law, or Rules regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War" (1861). The last-named work he subsequently condensed to adapt it for the use of schools and colleges (Philadelphia, 1866). He was also, in 1855, president of the Pacific and Atlantic Railroad from San Francisco to San Jose, California, and major-general of California militia in 1860-'l. Union College gave him the degree of A. M. in 1843, and that of LL. D. in 1862. In 1848 he was appointed professor of engineering in the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard University, but declined the honor. At the beginning of the Civil War he was at the head of the most prominent law firm in San Francisco, with large interests and much valuable property in California, and living in affluence; but he at once tendered his services in defence of the Union. General Winfield Scott, knowing his worth, immediately and strongly urged upon President Lincoln his being commissioned with the highest grade in the regular army, and accordingly he was appointed a major-general, to date from 19 August, 1861. He went without delay to Washington, was ordered to St. Louis, and on 18 November, 1861, took command of the Department of the Missouri, embracing the states of Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, and western Kentucky. Around him was a chaos of insubordination, inefficiency, and peculation, requiring the prompt, energetic, and ceaseless exercise of his iron will, military knowledge, and administrative powers. The scattered forces of his command were a medley of almost every nationality. Missouri and Kentucky were practically but a border screen to cover the operations of the seceding south; and even his headquarters at St. Louis, fortified at exorbitant cost and in violation of all true engineering principles, neither protected the city from insurrection within nor from besiegers without. Hardly had Halleck assumed command when he began to crush out abuses. Fraudulent contracts were annulled: useless stipendiaries were dismissed; a colossal staff hierarchy, with more titles than brains, was disbanded; composite organizations were pruned to simple uniformity; the construction of fantastic fortifications was suspended: and in a few weeks order reigned in Missouri. With like vigor he dealt blow after blow upon all who, under the mask of citizens, abetted secession. But while from headquarters thus energetically dealing with the secessionists at home, he did not neglect those in arms, over whom, by his admirable strategic combinations, he quickly secured success after success, till, in less than six weeks, a clean sweep had been made of the entire country between the Missouri and Osage Rivers; and General Sterling Price, cut off from all supplies and recruits from northern Missouri, to which he had been moving, was in full retreat for Arkansas. Halleck now turned his attention to the opening of the Mississippi River. General Scott had intended unbarring it by a flotilla and an army descending it in force; but Halleck was satisfied that this plan would only scotch the serpent of secession. He held that the Confederacy must be rent in twain by an armed wedge driven in between this great stream and the mountains on the east. On 27 January, 1862, the president had ordered a general advance of all the land and naval forces of the United States to be made simultaneously against the insurgents on the 22d of the coming month. In anticipation of his part of the grand movement, early in February Halleck sent his chief of staff to Cairo to direct in his name, when necessary, all operations auxiliary to the armies about to take the field on the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers, which their respective commanders soon set in motion. The Confederate first line of defence was screened behind Kentucky's quasi neutrality, with its flanks strongly protected by the fortifications of Columbus and Bowling Green; but its centre was only feebly secured by Ports Henry and Donelson. The second line of defence followed the railroad from Memphis on the Mississippi to Chattanooga—a most important position in the mountains, threatening both South Carolina and Virginia by its railroad connections with Charleston and Richmond. Still a third line, with almost continuous communication by rail, extended from Vicksburg through Meridian, Selma, and Montgomery to Atlanta, with railroad branches reaching to the principal ports on the Gulf and the South Atlantic. In a little more than three months of Halleck's sway in the west, General Ulysses S. Grant, aided by Commodore Andrew H. Foote's "gunboats, captured Forts Henry and Donelson; the strategically turned flanks of the enemy's line, protected by the powerful works of Bowling Green and Columbus, were deserted; and Nashville, the objective of the Campaign, was in the possession of the National forces. In the meantime General Samuel R. Curtis had been sent to drive the Confederates out of Missouri, and early in March gained the decisive battle of Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, the enemy flying before him to the protection of White River; and General John Pope, despatched to New Madrid, after taking that place, confronted the fugitives from Columbus at Island No. 10, which, by the happy device of Hamilton's cut-off canal, was taken in reverse, and this strong barrier of the Mississippi moved by the joint action of the army and navy. By these operations the Confederate first line, from Kansas to the Alleghany mountains, being swept away, and the strongholds captured or evacuated, the National forces moved triumphantly southward, pressing back the insurgents to their second line of defence, which extended from Memphis to Chattanooga. On 11 March, 1862, to give greater unity to military operations in the west, the departments of Kansas and Ohio were merged into Halleck's command, the whole constituting the Department of the Mississippi, which included the vast territory between the Alleghany and Rocky mountains. General Don Carlos Buell, marching from Nashville, was directed, on the withdrawal of the enemy from Murfreesboro, to unite with General Grant, proceeding to Pittsburg Landing by the Tennessee, and their union secured the great victory of Shiloh. Then Halleck took the field, and, after reorganizing and recruiting his forces, moved on Corinth, where the enemy was strongly intrenched on the important strategic position at the junction of the railroads connecting the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River with the Atlantic ocean. By striking a vigorous blow here on the enemy's left centre, Halleck proposed to repeat the strategy that had so admirably accomplished its purpose against the Confederate first line; but success was indispensable, and hence he made every step of his progress so secure that no disaster should entail the loss of what he had already gained. With the National Army much shattered by the rude shock of Shiloh, he cautiously advanced upon his objective point through a hostile, rough, marshy, and densely wooded region, where all the roads and bridges were destroyed, and rain fell in torrents. On 30 May he was in possession of Corinth's fifteen miles of heavy intrenchments, strengthened by powerful batteries or redoubts at every assailable point, the whole being covered to the boggy stream in front by a dense abatis, through which no artillery or cavalry, nor even infantry skirmishers, could have passed under fire. When Halleck communicated this success to the war department, the secretary replied: "Your glorious despatch has just been received, and I have sent it into every state. The whole land will soon ring with applause at the achievement of your gallant army and its able and victorious commander." Immediately General Pope was sent in hot pursuit of the retreating enemy; soon afterward General Buell was despatched toward Chattanooga to restore the railroad connections; General Sherman was put in march for Memphis, but the navy had captured the place when he reached Grand Junction; without delay, batteries were constructed on the southern approaches of the place to guard against a sudden return of the enemy; and, with prodigious energy, the destroyed railroad to Columbus was rebuilt to maintain communications with the Mississippi and Ohio, in jeopardy by the sudden fall of the Tennessee, by which supplies had been received. It was now more than six months since Halleck assumed command at St. Louis, and from within the limits of his department the enemy had been driven from Missouri, the northern half of Arkansas, Kentucky, and most of Tennessee, while strong lodgments were made in Mississippi and Alabama. Secretary Stanton, always chary of praise, had said that Halleck's "energy and ability received the strongest commendations of the war department," and added, " You have my perfect confidence, and you may rely upon my utmost support in your undertakings." Such, in fact, was the very high appreciation of Halleck's merits by both the president and the Secretary of War that during the general's occupation of Corinth, while he was organizing for new movements against the enemy's third line of defence, two assistant secretaries of war and a senator were sent there to urge upon Halleck the acceptance of the post of general-in-chief; but he declined the honor, and did not go to Washington till positive orders compelled him to do so. Reluctantly leaving Corinth, to which he hoped to return and enter upon the great work of opening the Mississippi and crushing the Confederacy in the southwest, Halleck reached Washington, 23 July, 1862, and at once assumed command as general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. The first problem presented was, how safely to unite the two eastern armies in the field so as to cover the capital and make common head against the enemy, then interposed between them and ready to be thrown at will on either, and able generals held different opinions as to the best measures to be adopted to accomplish the desired end. The general-in-chief entered upon the duties of his high office with heart and soul devoted to the preservation of the Union. Often compelled to assume responsibilities that belonged to others,  constantly having to thwart the purposes of selfish schemers, and always constrained to be reticent upon public affairs, which many desired to have divulged, Halleck, like all men in high station in times of trial, became a target for the shafts of the envious, the disloyal, and the disappointed. Doubtless, with scant time for the most mature reflection, he made errors; but, says Turenne, the great marshal of an age of warriors, "Show me the commander who has never made mistakes, and you will show me one who has never made war." Congress, in recognition of General Grant's glorious campaigns of Vicksburg and Chattanooga, revived the grade of lieutenant-general. Though a desire was manifested in high places in some way to retain Halleck in the performance of his functions, he at once insisted that compliance should be made with the obvious intentions of the law, and that, being senior in rank, Grant must necessarily be the general-in-chief. Halleck, however, remained at Washington from 12 March, 1804, till 19 April, 1865, as chief-of-staff of the army, under the orders of the Secretary of War and the general-inchief, performing much of the same duties that had before devolved upon him; and from 22 April till 1 July, 1865, was in command of the Military Division of the James, with headquarters at Richmond. On the termination of hostilities, and the disbandment of the volunteer forces, Halleck was ordered to the Military Division of the Pacific, of which he took command 30 August, 1865, and on 16 March, 1869, was transferred to that of the south, which he retained while he lived. Since his death, when he can no longer defend himself, much unjust criticism has assailed his reputation. The chief charge was "Halleck's injustice to Grant," which (Jen. James B. Fry, by a forcible article in the " Magazine of American History," has proved to be nothing more than "misunderstandings" between these distinguished soldiers. A more serious charge, almost of treason, was made by General Lew Wallace, but has been triumphantly refuted by official documents. Halleck, with few advantages in early life, and hardly the rudiments of a classical education, overcame all obstacles by the power of mind and character. He took at once a prominent place at the United States Military Academy, was a conspicuous officer of engineers, became a youthful statesman in the creation of a state, rose to the direction of various public trusts, established an enviable reputation for authorship, and held command of great armies in the tremendous struggle for a nation's existence.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 48-51.

HALLOWELL, Edward Needles, 1837-1871, soldier, brother of abolitionist Richard Price Hallowell.  Superseded Colonel Robert Gould Shaw as the commander of the 54th Massachusetts (U.S. Colored Troops).  He was Brevetted Brigadier General at the end of the Civil War. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 52-53)

HALLOWELL, Edward Needles, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 3 November, 1837; died at West Medford, Massachusetts, 26 July, 1871, became aide-de-camp to General John C. Fremont soon after the beginning of the Civil War, and in January, 1862, was made 2d lieutenant in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was engaged in the principal battles of the Peninsular Campaign, and at Antietam served on the staff of General Napoleon J. T. Dana. In March, 1803, he was made captain in the 54th (Colored) Massachusetts Volunteers, major in April, and lieutenant-colonel in May. He was wounded at the assault on Fort Wagner, 18 July, 1868, and given command of his regiment, succeeding Colonel Robert G. Shaw, who was killed in that action. At the battle of Olustee, in February, 1864, he brought his regiment into action at the crisis, checked the advance of a victorious army, and made it possible for the National column to retire upon Jacksonville. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 27 July, 1865.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.52-53

HALPINE, Charles Graham, writer, born in Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland, 20 November, 1829; died in New York City, 3 August, 1868. His father, Reverend Nicholas J. Halpine, was for many years editor of the " Evening Mail," the chief Protestant paper of Dublin. The son was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1846. It was his original intention to study medicine, but he preferred the law, meanwhile writing for the press. The sudden death of his father and his own early marriage compelled him to adopt journalism as a profession, and his versatile talents soon gained for him a reputation even in England. In 1852 he came to New York City with his family, secured employment on the "Herald," and in a few months had established relations with several periodicals. His remarkable talents made it possible for him to undertake a great variety of literary work, most of which was entirely ephemeral. He had previously resided in Boston, where he was assistant editor of the " Post," and also established with Benjamin P. Shillaber (Mrs. Partington) a humorous journal called the "Carpet Bag," which was unsuccessful. Later he was associate editor of the " New York Times," of which he had been Washington correspondent, and the celebrated Nicaragua correspondence at the time of Walker's expedition was written by him for that journal. He also continued his relations with the Boston "Post," and in 1856 became principal editor and part proprietor of the New York "Leader," which under his management rapidly increased in circulation. He also contributed poetry to the New York "Tribune," including his lyric "Tear down the flaunting lie! Half-mast the starry flag!" which was attributed to Horace Greeley. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the 69th New York Infantry, in which he was soon elected a lieutenant and served faithfully during the three months for which he volunteered. When the regiment was ordered to return home, he was transferred to General David Hunter's staff as assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of major, and soon afterward accompanied that officer to Missouri to relieve General Fremont. Major Halpine received the commendation of officers that had been educated at the U. S. Military Academy as one of the best executive officers of his grade in the army. He accompanied General Hunter to Hilton Head, and while there wrote a series of burlesque poems in the assumed character of an Irish private. Several of these were contributed to the New York "Herald" over the pen-name of "Miles O'Reilly," and with additional articles were issued as "Life and Adventures, Songs, Services, and Speeches of Private Miles O'Reilly, 47th Regiment, New York Volunteers" (New York. 1864), and "Baked Meats of the Funeral: A Collection of Essays, Poems, Speeches, and Banquets, by Private Miles O'Reilly, late of the 47th Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, 10th Army Corps. Collected, Revised, and Edited, with the Requisite Corrections of Punctuation, Spelling, and Grammar, by an Ex-Colonel of the Adjutant-General's Department, with whom the Private formerly served as Lance Corporal of Orderlies " (1866). He was subsequently assistant adjutant-general on General Henry W. Halleck's staff, with the rank of colonel, and accompanied General Hunter on his expedition to the Shenandoah Valley in the spring of 1864. This proved unsuccessful, and he returned to Washington, but soon afterward resigned, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers. He then made New York his home, and, resuming his literary work, became editor and later proprietor of "The Citizen," a newspaper issued by the Citizens' association to advocate reforms in the civil administration of New York City. In 1867 he was elected register of the county by a coalition of Republicans and Democrats. Incessant labor brought on insomnia with the use of opiates, and his death was the result of an undiluted dose of chloroform. Besides the books mentioned above, he was the author of " Lyrics by the Letter H " (New York, 1854); and after his death Robert B. Roosevelt collected "The Poetical Works of Charles G. Halpine (Miles O'Reilly)," with a biographical sketch and explanatory notes (New York, 1869).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 53

HALSALL, William Formby, artist, born in Kirkdale, England, 20 March, 1844. He early settled in Boston, where he received his education. Subsequently he went to sea and for seven years followed the life of a sailor. In 1860 he began the study of fresco-painting with William E. Norton, in Boston, but at the beginning of the Civil War enlisted in the U. S. Navy, and served for two years. He then returned to fresco-work, but soon abandoned it for marine-painting, which he has since followed in Boston, studying for eight years in the Lowell Institute. Among his works are the "Chasing a Blockade-Runner in a Fog," "Rendezvous of the Fishermen," "The Mayflower," "Arrival of the Winthrop Colony," and "Niagara Falls." His "First Battle of the Iron-Clads" was purchased by the U. S. government in 1887, and is to be hung in the capitol at Washington.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.53.

HALSTED, Nathaniel Norris, merchant, born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, 13 August, 1816; died in Newark, New Jersey, 6 May, 1884. At a very early age he was adopted by his uncle, Caleb O. Halsted, a merchant of New York, who educated him in the schools of that city and in the Boys' Seminary at Woodbridge, New Jersey. Entering the dry-goods establishment of his uncle, he became at the age of twenty-nine years a partner in the house, and so continued until 1855, when he retired with a fortune. Soon afterward he moved to Newark, New Jersey, having purchased stock in the New Jersey Rubber Company, of which he became a director and finally president. In the early part of the Civil War he received an appointment on the staff of Governor Olden, of New Jersey, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and when recruiting camps were established at Trenton he was brevetted brigadier-general and placed in command. Princeton is indebted to him for the astronomical observatory which bears his name, and in the erection of which he expended $55,000. He had been a trustee of this institution for many years at the time of his death. He also gave largely for the establishment and successful conduct of the New Jersey State Agricultural Society, of which he was the first president. The New Jersey Historical Society, in its " Proceedings," makes mention of him not only as one of its benefactors, but as an earnest laborer in every worthy cause.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 54.

HAMBLIN, Joseph Eldridge, soldier, born in Yarmouth, Massachusetts, in 1828; died in New York City, 3 July, 1870. For many years prior to 1861 he was a member of the 7th Militia Regiment, and soon after the outbreak of the Civil War became adjutant of the 5th New York Regiment. In November, 1861, shortly after the formation of the 65th New York, he was transferred to that regiment. He rapidly rose to the command, and participated in Grant's campaign of 1864 from the Wilderness to Petersburg. In July, 1864, his regiment was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, to resist the demonstration of Breckinridge and Early against Washington and Maryland. Colonel Hamblin participated in each of Sheridan's brilliant successes in the valley, and was severely wounded at Cedar Creek. For gallantry in this action he was brevetted brigadier-general, and placed in command of the brigade. Upon the return of the Corps to Petersburg he was, in the spring of 1865, promoted to full rank, and participated in all the subsequent engagements of the Army of the Potomac to the surrender at Appomattox. For distinguished bravery at Sailor's Creek, 6 April, 1865, the last engagement between the Confederates and the Army of the Potomac, he was brevetted major-general, and was mustered out with that rank at Washington, 15 January, 1866. After the war he entered upon civil pursuits in New York.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 55

HAMER, Thomas L., soldier, born in Pennsylvania; died in Monterey, Mexico, 2 December, 1846. He emigrated to Ohio when quite young, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1821, and began practice at Georgetown in that state. He served for several years in the Ohio House of Representatives, where he was once speaker, and was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 2 December, 1833, to 3 March, 1839. While he was a representative in Congress he nominated Ulysses S. Grant, the son of a constituent, to be a cadet at the U. S. Military Academy. He served in the Mexican War, volunteering as a private, and receiving the next day, 1 July, 1846, the commission of brigadier-general. He distinguished himself at Monterey, and commanded his division after General William O. Butler was wounded. He died shortly afterward, and Congress, in recognition of his gallantry, presented a sword to his nearest male relative.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 55-56.

HAMILTON, Schuyler, soldier, son of John Church, born in New York City, 25 July, 1822, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, entered the 1st U.S. Infantry, and was on duty on the plains and as assistant instructor of tactics at West Point. He served with honor in the Mexican War, being brevetted for gallantry at Monterey, and again for his brave conduct in an affair at Mil Flores, where he was attacked by a superior force of Mexican lancers, and was severely wounded in a desperate hand-to-hand combat. From 1847 till 1854 he served as aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott. At the beginning of the Civil War he volunteered as a private in the 7th New York Regiment, and was attached to the staff of General Benjamin F. Butler, and then acted as military secretary to General Scott until the retirement of the latter. He next served as assistant chief of staff to General Henry W. Halleck, at St. Louis, Missouri, with the rank of colonel. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 November, 1861, and ordered to command the Department of St. Louis. He participated in the important operations of the armies of the Tennessee and of the Cumberland, was the first to suggest the cutting of a canal to turn the enemy's position at Island No. 10, and commanded a division in the operations against that island and New Madrid, for which he was made a major-general on 17 September, 1802. At the battle of Farmington he commanded the reserve. On 27 February, 1863, he was compelled by feeble health to resign. From 1871 till 1875 he filled the post of hydrographic engineer for the Department of Docks in New York City. He is the author of a "History of the National Flag of the United States" (New York, 1852), and on 14 June, 1877, the centennial anniversary of its adoption, delivered an address on " Our National Flag." 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

HAMILTON, Charles Smith, soldier, born in New York, 10 November, 1822, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and assigned to the infantry. He served with honor in the war with Mexico, was brevetted captain for gallantry in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. He was afterward on frontier duty till April, 1853, when he resigned and engaged in farming in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed, 11 May, 1861, colonel of the 3d Wisconsin Regiment, and was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers six days later. He served in Virginia during the siege of Yorktown in May, 1862, and on 19 September of that year was promoted to major-general of volunteers. After the siege of Yorktown he was transferred to the Army of the Mississippi, and commanded a division at Corinth, and won the battle of Iuka.  Afterward he was in command of the left wing of the Army of the Tennessee, and of the 10th Corps. He resigned his military commission in April, 1863, and engaged in manufacturing at Fond du Lac. Wisconsin, but subsequently moved to Milwaukee. He was president of the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin from 1866 till 1875, and United States Marshal for the District of Wisconsin from 1869 till 1877.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 63-63.

HAMILTON, Frank Hastings, surgeon, born in Wilmington, Vermont, 10 September, 1813; died in New York City, 11 August, 1886. He was graduated at Union in 1830, after which he entered the office of Dr. John G. Morgan, and in 1831 attended a full course of lectures in the Western College of physicians and surgeons in Fairfield, New York. In 1833 he was licensed to practise by the Cayuga County medical censors, and two years later received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Soon afterward he began to give a course of lectures in anatomy and surgery in his office in Auburn, which he continued until 1838. In 1839 he was appointed professor of surgery in the Western College of Physicians and Surgeons, and a year later was called to the Medical College of Geneva. During 1843-'4 he visited Europe and contributed a record of his experiences to the " Buffalo Medical Journal." In 1846 he became professor of surgery in the Buffalo Medical College, subsequently becoming dean, and also surgeon to the Buffalo Charity Hospital. Two years later he left his chair in Geneva and moved to Buffalo, in order to attend to his practice, which was rapidly increasing. On the organization of the Long Island College Hospital in 1859 he was called to fill the chair of principles and practice of surgery, and was also chosen surgeon-in-chief of the hospital. In May, 1861, he was appointed professor of military surgery, a chair which at that time existed in no other college in the United States. At the beginning of the Civil War he accompanied the 31st New York Regiment to the front, and had charge of the general field hospital in Centreville during the first battle of Bull Run. In July, 1861, he was made brigade surgeon, and later medical director, and in 1862 organized the U. S. General Hospital in Central park, New York. In February, 1863, he was appointed a medical inspector in the U. S. Army, ranking as lieutenant-colonel, but resigned in September and returned to his duties in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where in 1861 he had been appointed professor of military surgery and attending surgeon to the hospital. In 1868-'75 he was professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the college, and remained surgeon to the hospital until his death. He was also consulting surgeon to other hospitals and to various city dispensaries, and in that capacity Dr. Hamilton had few equals. On the assassination of President Garfield he was called in consultation, and remained associated with the case until the death of the president. His notable operations were many, and his descriptions of improved processes are numerous. He invented a bone-drill and an apparatus for broken jaw, and invented or modified appliances for nearly every fracture of long bones, with various instruments in military and general surgery. He was the first to introduce the use of gutta-percha as a splint where irregular joint surfaces require support, and the closing of old ulcers by the transplanting of new skin has been repeatedly attributed to him by French and German physicians. He was a member of various medical associations, and was president of the New York state Medical Society in 1855, of the New York pathological Society in 1866, of the New York medicolegal Society in 1875-'6, of the American academy of medicine in 1878, and of the New York Society of Medical jurisprudence in 1878 and 1885. In 1869 he received the degree of LL. D. from Union College. Dr. Hamilton was a large contributor to medical journals, and many of his special memoirs are accepted as authorities. His works in book form include "Treatise on Strabismus" (Buffalo, 1844); "Treatise on Fractures and Dislocations" (Philadelphia, 1860; 7th ed., 1884, French and German translations); "Practical Treatise on Military Surgery" (New York, 1861); and "The Principles and Practice of Surgery " (1872; 2d ed., 1873). He edited a translation of Amussat on the "Use of Water in Surgery" (1861), and "The Surgical Memoirs of the War of the Rebellion," published under the direction of the United States Sanitary Commission (Washington, 1871).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 63.

HAMLIN, Hannibal, 1809-1891. Vice President of the United States, 1861-1865, under President Abraham Lincoln.  Congressman from Maine, 1843-1847.  U.S. Senator from Maine, 1848-1857, 1857-1861, and 1869-1881.  Governor of Maine, January-February 1857.  In February 1857, he resigned as Governor of Maine to return to the U.S. Senate.  In 1861, he was elected U.S. Vice President.  Was an adamant opponent of the extension of slavery into the new territories.  Supported the Wilmot Proviso and spoke against the Compromise laws of 1850.  Strongly opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  Early founding member of the Republican Party.  Supported Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and creation of Black Regiments for the Union Army. (Harry Draper Hunt (1969). Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, Lincoln's first Vice-President. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2142-3. OCLC 24587.   Charles Eugene Hamlin (1899). The Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin. Syracuse University Press. OCLC 1559174; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 65-66; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, p. 196)

HAMLIN, Hannibal, statesman, born in Paris, Oxford County, Maine, 27 August, 1809. He was prepared for a collegiate education, but was compelled by the death of his father to take charge of the home farm until he was of age. He learned printing, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and practised in Hampden, Penobscot County, until 1848. He was a member of the legislature from 1836 till 1840, and again in 1847, and was speaker of the lower branch in 1837-9 and 1840. In 1840 he received the Democratic nomination for member of Congress, and, during the exciting Harrison campaign, held joint discussions with his competitor, being the first to introduce that practice into Maine. In 1842 he was elected as a Democrat to Congress, and reelected in 1844. He was chosen to the U. S. Senate for four years in 1848, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of John Fairfield, and was re-elected in 1851, but resigned in 1857 to be inaugurated governor, having been elected to that office as a Republican. Less than a month afterward, on 20 February, he resigned the governorship, as he had again been chosen U. S. Senator for the full term of six years. He served until January, 1861, when he resigned, having been elected vice-president on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln. He presided over the Senate from 4 March, 1861, till 3 March, 1865. In the latter year he was appointed collector of the Port of Boston, but resigned in 1866. From 1861 till 1865 he had also acted as regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and was reappointed in 1870, continuing to act for the following twelve years, during which time he became dean of the board. He was again elected and re-elected to the U. S. Senate, serving from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 1881. In June of that year he was named minister to Spain, but gave up the office the year following and returned to this country. He received the degree of LL. D. from Colby University, then Waterville College, of which institution he was trustee for over twenty years. Senator Hamlin, although a Democrat, was an original anti-slavery man, and so strong were his convictions that they finally led to his separation from that party. Among the significant incidents of his long career of nearly fifty years may be mentioned the fact that, in the temporary and involuntary absence of David Wilmot from the House of Representatives, during the session of the 29th Congress, at the critical moment when the measure, since known as " the Wilmot Proviso," had to be presented or the opportunity irrevocably lost, Mr. Hamlin, while his anti-slavery friends were in the greatest confusion and perplexity, seeing that only a second's delay would be fatal, offered the bill and secured its passage by a vote of 115 to 106. In common, however, with Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Hamlin strove simply to prevent the extension of slavery into new territory, and did not seek to secure its abolition. In a speech in the U. S. Senate, 12 June, 1856, in which he gave his reasons for changing his party allegiance, he thus referred to the Democratic Convention then recently held at Cincinnati: "The convention has actually incorporated into the platform of the Democratic party that doctrine which, only a few years ago, met with nothing but ridicule and contempt here and elsewhere, namely, that the flag of the Federal Union, under the Constitution of the United States, carries slavery wherever it floats. If this baleful principle be true, then that national ode, which inspires us always as on a battle-field, should be re-written by Drake, and should read: 'Forever float that standard sheet! Where breathes the foe but falls before us, With slavery's soil beneath our feet, And slavery's banner streaming o'er us.'" When he had been elected vice-president on the ticket with Mr. Lincoln, he accepted an invitation to meet the latter at Chicago, and, calling on the president-elect, found him in a room alone. Mr. Lincoln arose, and, coming toward his guest, said abruptly: "Have we ever been introduced to each other, Mr. Hamlin" "No, sir, I think not," was the reply. "That also is my impression," continued Mr. Lincoln; "but I remember distinctly while I was in Congress to have heard you make a speech in the Senate. I was very much struck with that speech, senator—particularly struck with it— and for the reason that it was filled, chock up, with the very best kind of anti-slavery doctrine." "Well, now," replied Hamlin, laughing, " that is very singular, for my one and first recollection of yourself is of having heard you make a speech in the house— a speech that was so full of good humor and sharp points that I, together with others of your auditors, was convulsed with laughter." The acquaintance, thus cordially begun, ripened into a close friendship, and it is affirmed that during all the years of trial, war, and bloodshed that followed, Abraham Lincoln continued to repose the utmost confidence in his friend and official associate. Hannibal's son, Charles, lawyer, born in Hampden, Maine, 13 September, 1837, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1857, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. He became major of the 18th Maine Regiment in August, 1862, was appointed assistant adjutant-general of volunteers, 26 April, 1863, and served in the field with the Army of the Potomac from Chancellorsville through the Gettysburg Campaign to that of the Wilderness, after which he was put on duty as inspector of artillery, and also served at Harper's Ferry in 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. General Hamlin was city solicitor of Bangor in 1867, has been register in bankruptcy since that year, and was a member of the legislature in 1883 and 1885, serving in the latter year as speaker. He has published " The Insolvent Laws of Maine " (Portland, Maine, 1878).—Another son. Cyrus, soldier, born in Hampden, Maine, 26 April, 1839; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 28 August, 1867, was educated at Hampden Academy and Waterville College (now Colby University), but was not graduated, he entered the army as captain and aide-de-camp in 1862, and served on the staff of General Fremont, whose favorable notice he attracted by his conduct at Cross Keys. He afterward became colonel of the 80th Regiment of Colored troops, serving in the Department of the Gulf, and on 8 December, 1864, was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the Military District of Port Hudson in 1864-'5, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major-general of volunteers. General Hamlin was among the first to advocate raising colored troops and the first that was appointed from Maine to command a colored regiment. After the war he practised law in New Orleans, where he took an active part in the movements of the reconstruction period. His death was caused by disease contracted in the army.— Hannibal's nephew, Augustus Choate, physician, born in Columbia, Maine, 28 August, 1828, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1851, and studied medicine in Paris and at Harvard, where he received his degree in 1854. He was surgeon in the army in 1861—'5, became medical director of the 11th Corps, and was medical inspector during the campaign at Fort Wagner, at Nashville, and elsewhere. In 1865 he moved to Bangor, Maine, and engaged in general practice. He has contributed articles on "Alimentation," '' Transfusion," " Transmission of Diseases," " Tetanus," and other subjects to the medical journals, and is the author of "History of Andersonville " (Boston, 1806); " The Tourmaline " (1873); and "Leisure Hours Among the Gems " (1884).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 65-66.

HAMMOND, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, soldier, born in Newberry District, South Carolina, 12 December, 1814; died in Beech Island, Aiken County, South Carolina, 23 January, 1876, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Infantry, he was made 1st lieutenant, 7 November, 1839, and resigned, 31 December, 1842, on account of severe illness. From 1842 till 1846 he was a planter in Georgia, but at the beginning of the Mexican War he was appointed additional paymaster, and served until 15 April, 1847, when he was again compelled to resign on account of impaired health. He then retired to a plantation at Hamburg, South Carolina, whence he moved to Athens, Georgia, in 1860, and to Beech Island, South Carolina, in 1863. He held various commissions in the state militia between 1849 and 1853, and was a member of the state House of Representatives in 1856-'7. He is the author of various essays on agricultural, political, and military subjects published between 1843 and 1849, and of " A Critical History of the Mexican War," which appeared in the " Southern Quarterly Review" between 1849 and 1853. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 68.

HAMMOND, John Fox, physician, born in Columbia, South Carolina, 7 December, 1821; died in Poughkeepsie, New York, 29 September, 1886, was graduated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College at Augusta, Georgia, and in 1841 at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. He was appointed assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, 16 February, 1847; major and surgeon, 26 February, 1861: brevet lieutenant-colonel, 13 March, 1865, "for faithful and meritorious service during the war; and lieutenant-colonel, 26 June, 1876. In 1849 he had medical charge of troops infected with cholera on the western frontier, and served in Florida from November, 1852, till October, 1853, during an epidemic of yellow fever. In 1862 he was medical director of the 2d Army Corps of the Potomac, and was present at the siege of Yorktown and the principal battles of the Peninsula. After the close of the war he served on various medical boards.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 68.

HAMMOND, William Alexander, physician, born in Annapolis, Maryland, 28 August, 1828. He was graduated at the medical department of the University of the City of New York, and entered the U. S. Army in 1849 as assistant surgeon, with the rank of 1st lieutenant. In October, I860, he resigned to accept the professorship of anatomy and physiology in the University of Maryland, but at the beginning of the Civil War he again entered the U.S. Army and was assigned to the organization of general hospitals in Hagerstown, Frederick, and Baltimore. Afterward the U. S. Sanitary Commission urged his appointment as surgeon-general of the army, and in April, 1862, he received this commission with the rank of brigadier-general. He instituted radical changes in the management of his office, established the Army Medical Museum by special order, and suggested the plan of the "Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion." Charges of irregularities in the award of liquor contracts were made against him, and he was tried by court-martial, and dismissed from the army in August, 1864. He at once moved to New York, where he settled in the practice of his profession, and made a specialty of diseases of the nervous system. In 1867-'73 he was professor of diseases of the mind and nervous system in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, and then was elected to a similar chair in the medical department of the University of the City of New York. He remained there until 1882. when he became one of the founders of the New York post-graduate medical school, and has since delivered lectures on his specialty in that institution. Dr. Hammond has also delivered lectures in the medical department of the University of Vermont, and in 1870 became physician at the New York state Hospital for diseases of the nervous system. In 1878 a bill was submitted to Congress authorizing the president to review the proceedings of the court-martial, and, if justice demanded, to reinstate Dr. Hammond. This measure was passed by the House unanimously, and by the Senate with but one dissenting vote. In August. 1879, it was approved by the president, and Dr. Hammond was restored to his place on the rolls of the army as surgeon-general and brigadier-general on the retired list. Besides contributing to current medical literature, he founded and edited the "Maryland and Virginia Medical Journal," was one of the originators of the " New York Medical Journal," and established the " Quarterly Journal of Psychological Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence,'' becoming its editor. His medical works in book form include "Physiological Memoirs" (Philadelphia. 1863); "A Treatise on Hygiene, with Special Reference to the Military Service " (1863); "Lectures on Venereal Diseases (1864); "On Wakefulness, with an Introductory Chapter on the Physiology of Sleep " (1865); "On Sleep and its Derangements" (1869); "Insanity and its Medico Legal Relations" (New York, 1866); "Physics and Physiology of Spiritualism" (1870); "Diseases of the Nervous System," which has been translated into French and Italian (1871); "Insanity in its Relation to Crime" (1873); "Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System," edited by T. M. B. Cross (1874); "Spiritualism and Allied Causes and Conditions of Nervous Derangement " (1876; reissued as "Certain Forms of Nervous Derangement," 1880); "Treatise on Insanity in its Medical Relations"(1883); and "On Sexual Impotence in the Male " (1883). He has also edited "Military. Medical, and Surgical Essays," prepared for the U. S. Sanitary Commission (Philadelphia, 1864), and translated from the German, Meyer's "Electricity in its Relations to Practical Medicine" (New York, 1869; new ed.. 1874). Dr. Hammond is the author of various novels, including " Robert Severne; his Friend and Enemies" (Philadelphia, 1867); "Lai" (New York, 1884); "Dr. Grattan" (1884); "Mr. Oldmixon " (1885); "A Strong-Minded Woman, or Two Years After" (1886); and " On the Susquehanna" (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 69.

HAMPTON, Wade, born 21 April, 1791; died on a plantation near Mississippi River, 10 February, 1858, became lieutenant of dragoons in 1813, and was acting inspector-general and aide to General Jackson at New Orleans in January, 1815. He succeeded to his father's estates; his home at Columbia, South Carolina, was famous for its beauty and elegance, and the grounds were improved at a cost of $60,000, a large sum for that time. His sisters married General John S. Preston and Governor Richard Manning.— Wade, son of the second Wade, born in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1818, was graduated at the University of South Carolina, and afterward studied law, but without the intention of practising. Under his father's training he became a good horseman, a famous hunter, and an accomplished fisherman. He served in the legislature of South Carolina but his political views were those of a Democrat of a national, rather than a secession, tendency, and were not popular in his state. His speech against the reopening of the slave-trade was called by the New York "Tribune " "a master-piece of logic, directed by the noblest sentiments of the Christian and patriot." His earlier life was, however, devoted to his plantation interests in South Carolina and Mississippi, and to the pursuits of a man of fortune. When the Civil War began, Hampton first enlisted as a private, but soon raised a command of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, which was known as "Hampton's Legion," and won distinction in the war. At Bull Run 600 of his infantry held for some time the Warrenton Road against Keyes's Corps, and were sustaining Bee when Jackson came to their aid. In the Peninsular Campaign they were again distinguished, and at Seven Pines lost half their number, and Hampton himself received a painful wound in the foot. Soon afterward he was made brigadier-general of cavalry, and assigned to General J. E. B. Stuart's command. He was frequently selected for detached service, in which he was uncommonly successful. In the Maryland and Pennsylvania Campaigns of 1863 Hampton was actively engaged, and he distinguished himself at Gettysburg, receiving three wounds. It is said that twenty-one out of twenty-three field-officers and more than half the men in Hampton's command wore killed or wounded in this battle. Hampton was made a major-general, with rank from 3 August, 1863. In 1864, after several days' fighting, he gave Sheridan a check at Trevillian's Station, which broke up a plan of campaign that included a junction with Hunter and the capture of Lynchburg. In twenty-three days he captured over 3,000 prisoners and much material of war, with a loss of 719 men. He was made commander of Lee's cavalry in August, with the rank of lieutenant-general, and in September struck the rear of the National Army at City Point, bringing away 400 prisoners and 2,486 beeves. Soon afterward, in another action, he captured 500 prisoners. In one of these attacks he lost his son in  battle, Hampton was then detached to take command of General Joseph E. Johnston's cavalry, and did what he could to arrest the advance of Sherman's army northward from Savannah in the spring of 1865. After the unfortunate burning of Columbia, South Carolina, on its evacuation by the Confederates, a sharp discussion arose between General Hampton and General Sherman, each charging the other with the willful destruction of the city. After the war he at once engaged in cotton-planting, but was not successful. He accepted from the first all the legitimate consequences of defeat, an entire submission to the law, and the civil and political equality of the Negro; but he has steadily defended the motives and conduct of his people and their leaders. In 1866, speaking of the Negro, he said: "As a slave, he was faithful to us; as a free man, let us treat him as a friend. Deal with him frankly, justly, kindly." During the reconstruction period Hampton's conciliatory policy found little favor for some time, but in 1876 he was nominated for governor against Daniel H. Chamberlain. Each claimed to be elected, and two governments were organized, but Mr. Chamberlain finally yielded his claims. (See Chamberlain, Daniel H.) In 1878 he met with an accident by which he lost a leg: but, while his life was despaired of, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, where he is still serving (1887). In the Senate his course has been that of a conservative Democrat. He has advocated a sound currency, resisting all inflation, and has generally acted in concert with Thomas A. Bayard, whose aspirations for the presidency he has supported. General Hampton married in early life Margaret Preston, youngest daughter of General Francis Preston. His second wife was the daughter of Senator George McDuffie, of South Carolina.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 69-70.

HANCOCK, Winfield Scott, soldier, born in Montgomery Square, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 14 February, 1824; died on Governor's Island, New York harbor, 9 February, 1886. His grandfather, Richard Hancock, of Scottish birth, was one of the impressed American seamen of the war of 1812 who were incarcerated in Dartmoor Prison in England. His father. Benjamin Franklin Hancock, was born in Philadelphia, and when quite a young man was thrown upon his own resources, having displeased his guardian by not marrying in the Society of Friends. He supported himself and wife by teaching while studying law, was admitted to the bar in 1828. and moved to Norristown, where he practised his profession forty years, earning the reputation of a well read, judicious, and successful lawyer. Winfield S. Hancock had the combined advantages of home instruction and a course in the Norristown academy and the public high-school. He early evinced a taste for military exercises, and at the age of sixteen entered the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated, 1 July, 1844. He was at once brevetted 2d lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Infantry, and assigned to duty at Fort Towson, Indian territory. He received his commission as 2d lieutenant while his regiment was stationed on the frontier of Mexico, where the difficulties that resulted in the Mexican War had already begun. He was ordered to active service in the summer of 1847, joined the army of General Scott in its advance upon the Mexican capital, participated in the four principal battles of the campaign, and was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct in those of Contreras and Churubusco. From 1848 till 1855 he served as regimental quartermaster and adjutant, being most of the time stationed at St. Louis. On 7 November, 1855, he was appointed assistant quartermaster with the rank of captain, and ordered to Fort Myers, Florida, where General William S. Harney was in command of the military forces operating against the Seminoles. He served under this officer during the troubles in Kansas in 1857-'8, and afterward accompanied his expedition to Utah, where serious complications had arisen between the Gentiles and the Mormons. From 1859 till 1861 Captain Hancock was chief quartermaster of the Southern District of California. At the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 he asked to be relieved from duty on the Pacific Coast, and was transferred to more active service at the seat of war. In a letter to a friend at this time he said: "My politics are of a practical kind—the integrity of the country, the supremacy of the Federal government, an honorable peace, or none at all." He was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers by President Lincoln, 23 September, 1861, and at once bent all his energies to aid in the organization of the Army of the Potomac. During the Peninsular Campaign under General McClellan he was especially conspicuous at the battles of Williamsburg and Frazier's Farm. He took an active part in the subsequent campaign in Maryland, at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and was assigned to the command of the 1st Division of the 2d Army Corps, on the battlefield, during the second day's fight at Antietam, 17 September, 1862. He was soon afterward made a major-general of volunteers, and commanded the same division in the attempt to storm Marye's Heights, at the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862. In this assault General Hancock led his men through such a fire as has rarely been encountered in warfare. He commanded 5,006 men, and left 2,013 of them on the field. In the three days' fight at Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, Hancock's division took a prominent part. While on the march through western Maryland in pursuit of the invading army of General Lee, on 25 June, he was ordered by the president to assume command of the 2d Army Corps. On the 27th General Hooker asked to be relieved from the command of the Army of the Potomac; and orders from the War Department reached his headquarters near Frederick, Maryland, assigning Major-General George G. Meade  to its command. On 1 July the report reached General Meade, who was fifteen miles distant, that there was fighting at Gettysburg, and that General Reynolds had been killed. General Meade, who knew nothing of Gettysburg, sent General Hancock with orders to take immediate command of the forces and report what should be done; whether to give the enemy battle there, or fall back to another proposed line. Hancock reported that he considered Gettysburg the place to fight the coming battle, and continued in command until the arrival of Meade. In the decisive action of 3 July he commanded on the left centre, which was the main point assailed by the Confederates, and was shot from his horse. Though dangerously wounded, he remained on the field till he saw that the enemy's assault was broken, when he despatched his aide-de-camp, Major W. G. Mitchell, with the following message: "Tell General Meade that the troops under my command have repulsed the enemy's assault, and that we have gained a great victory. The enemy is now flying in all directions in my front." General Meade returned this reply: "Say to General Hancock that I regret exceedingly that he is wounded, and that I thank him in the name of the country and for myself for the service he has rendered to-day." In a report to General Meade, after he had been carried from the field, he says that, when he left the line of battle, " not a rebel is in sight upright, and if the 5th and 6th Corps are pressed up, the enemy will be destroyed." Out of fewer than 10,000 men the 2d Corps lost at Gettysburg about 4,000 killed or wounded. It captured 4,500 prisoners and about thirty colors. General Hancock at first received but slight credit for the part he took in this battle, his name not being mentioned in the joint resolution passed by Congress, 28 January, 1804, which thanked Meade, Hooker, Howard, and the officers and soldiers of the Army of the Potomac generally. But justice was only delayed, as, on 21 April, 1866, Congress passed a resolution thanking him for his services in the campaign of 1863. Disabled by his wound, he was not again employed on active duty until March, 1864, being meanwhile engaged in recruiting the 2d Army Corps, of which he resumed command at the opening of the spring campaign of that year, and bore a prominent part in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, where the fighting was almost continuous from the 5th to the 26th of May. In the engagement at Spottsylvania Court-House, General Hancock, on the night of the 11th, moved to a position within 1,200 yards of General Lee's right centre, where it formed a sharp salient since known as "the bloody angle," and early on the morning of the 12th he gave the order to advance. His heavy column overran the Confederate pickets without firing a shot, burst through the abatis, and after a short hand-to-hand conflict inside the intrenchments, captured "nearly 4,000 prisoners, twenty pieces of artillery, with horses, caissons, and material complete, several thousand stand of small arms, and upward of thirty colors." The fighting at this point was as fierce as any during the war, the battle raging furiously and incessantly along the whole line throughout the day and late into the night. General Lee made five separate assaults to retake the works, but without success, in the subsequent operations of the army, at the crossing of the North Anna, the second battle of Cold Harbor, and the assault on the lines in front of Petersburg. General Hancock was active and indefatigable till 17 June, when his Gettysburg wound, breaking out afresh, became so dangerous that he was compelled to go on sick-leave, but resumed his command  again in ten days. He was appointed a brigadier-general in the regular army, 12 August, 1864, "for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Cold Harbor, and in all the operations of the army in Virginia under Lieutenant-General Grant." On 21 August the 2d Corps was brought to Petersburg by a long night march, and on the 25th occurred the only notable disaster in Hancock's career. While he was intrenched at Ream's Station on the Weldon Railroad, which the Corps had torn up, his lines were carried by a powerful force of the enemy, and many of his men captured. The troops forming the remnants of his corps refused to bestir themselves, and even the few veterans left seemed disheartened by the slaughter they had seen and the fatigues they had undergone. General Morgan's account of the battle describes the commander, covered with dust, begrimed with powder and smoke, laying his hand upon a staff-officer's shoulder and saying: "Colonel, I do not care to die, but I pray to God 1 may never leave this field." In the movement against the South Side Railroad, which began 26 October, General Hancock took a leading part, and, although the expedition failed, his share in it was brilliant and successful. This was his last action. On 26 November he was called to Washington to organize a veteran corps of 50,000 men, and continued in the discharge of that duty till 26 February, 1865, when he was assigned to the command of the Middle Military Division, and ordered to Winchester, Virginia, to relieve General Sheridan from the command of the Army of the Shenandoah. The latter set out the next morning with a large force of cavalry on his expedition down the Shenandoah valley. General Hancock now devoted himself to organizing and equipping a force as powerful as possible from the mass at his command; and his success was acknowledged in a despatch from the Secretary of War. After the assassination of President Lincoln, General Hancock's headquarters were transferred to Washington, and he was placed in command of the defences of the capital. On 26 July, 1866, he was appointed a major-general in the regular army, and on the 10th of the following month he was assigned to the command of the Department of the Missouri, where he conducted a successful warfare against the Indians on the plains, until relieved by General Sheridan. He was transferred to the command of the 5th Military District, comprising Texas and Louisiana, 26 August, 1867, with headquarters at New Orleans. At this time he issued his " General Order No. 40," which made it plain that his opinion as to the duties of a military commander in time of peace, and as to the rights of the southern states, were not consistent with the reconstruction policy determined upon by Congress. He was therefore relieved at his own request, 28 March, 1868, and given the command of the Division of the Atlantic, with headquarters in New York City. After the accession of General Grant to the presidency, he was sent, 5 March, 1869, to the Department of Dakota; but on the death of General Meade, 6 November, 1872, he was again assigned to the Division of the Atlantic. General Hancock s name was favorably mentioned in 1868 and 1872 as a candidate for presidential honors, and he was nominated the candidate of the Democratic Party in the Cincinnati Convention, 24 June, 1880. On the first ballot he received 171 votes, in a convention containing 738 members, and Senator Bayard, of Delaware, 153. The remainder of the votes were scattered among twelve candidates. On the second ballot General Hancock received 320 votes, Senator Thomas F. Bayard, 111, Illinois, and Speaker Samuel J. Randall, of the House of Representatives, advanced from 6 to 128 votes. On the next ballot General Hancock received 705 votes, and the nomination was made unanimous. The election in November resulted in the following popular vote: James A. Garfield, Republican, 4,454,416; Winfield S. Hancock, Democrat, 4,444,952: James B. Weaver, Greenback, 308,578; Neal Dow, Prohibition, 10,305. After the conclusion of the canvass General Hancock continued in the discharge of official duty. His last notable appearance in public was at General Grant s funeral, all the arrangements for which were carried out under his supervision. The esteem in which he was held as a citizen and a soldier was perhaps never greater than at the time of his death. He had outlived the political slanders to which his candidacy had given rise, and his achievements in the field during the Civil War had become historic. His place as a general is doubtless foremost among those who never fought an independent campaign. He was not only brave himself, but he had the ability to inspire masses of men with courage. He was quick to perceive opportunities amid the dust and smoke of battle, and was equally quick to seize them; and although impulsive, he was at the same time tenacious. He had the bravery that goes forward rapidly, and the bravery that gives way slowly. General Grant says: "Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the general officers who did not exercise a separate command. He commanded a corps longer than any other one, and his name was never mentioned as having committed in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. He was a man of very conspicuous personal appearance. Tall, well-formed, and, at the time of which I now write, young and fresh-looking, he presented an appearance that would attract the attention of an army as he passed. His genial disposition made him friends, and his personal courage and his presence with his command in the thickest of the fight won him the confidence of troops serving under him." To a reporter in search of adverse criticism during the presidential canvass of 1880, General Sherman said: "If you will sit down and write the best thing that can be put in language about General Hancock as an officer and a gentleman, I will sign it without hesitation." See " Life of General W. S. Hancock." by Junkin and Norton (New York, 1880); "Addresses at a Meeting of the Military Service Institution in Memory of Hancock " (1886); Francis A. Walkers " History of the Second Corps" (1887); and "In Memoriam: Military Order of the Loyal Legion" (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 72-74.

HAND, Daniel Whilldin, surgeon, born in Cape May Court-House, New Jersey, 18 August, 1834. He received an academic education, took a partial course at the University of Lewisburg. Pennsylvania, and then studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1856. In 1857 he began practice in his profession at St. Paul, Minnesota. In July, 1861, he was appointed assistant surgeon of the 1st Minnesota Volunteers, and in the next month was commissioned brigade-surgeon with the rank of major. He accompanied the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular Campaign; was slightly wounded at Fair Oaks; in August, 1862, was placed in charge of the General Hospital at Newport News; and in October made medical director of U. S. forces at Suffolk, Virginia While on duty near Suffolk, he was taken prisoner in May, 1863, confined in Libby Prison, and after his release, in July, 1863, was made medical director of North Carolina. In February, 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and in the next month to colonel. He was mustered out of service in November, 1865, and resumed practice in St. Paul. Since 1872 he has been president of the Minnesota Board of Health, in 1883 was appointed professor of surgery in the University of Minnesota, and is one of the founders of the State Medical Society. He has written largely for medical journals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 74.


HANSON, John Wesley, author, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 12 May, 1823. After attending the Lowell High-School, he entered a counting-room in that city, where he remained seven years, still continuing his studies. He was ordained to the ministry of the Universalist Church in Wentworth, New Hampshire, in 1845, held pastorates in Danvers, Massachusetts, in 1846-'8, and Gardiner, Maine, in 1850-4, and in 1848 edited the " Massachusetts Era," the first Republican paper in Lowell. He edited the " Gospel Banner" in Augusta, Maine, in 1854-'60, and was pastor in Haverhill, Massachusetts, till 1865, serving also in 1863-'4 as chaplain of the 6th Massachusetts Regiment and army correspondent of the Boston "Journal " and the New York "Tribune."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 76.

HARDEE, William J., soldier, born in Savannah, Georgia, about 1817; died in Wytheville, Virginia, 6 November, 1873. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838, and after serving in the Florida War, in the 2d Dragoons, he was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy, 3 December 1839, and sent by the Secretary of War to the celebrated Military school of St. Maur, France. While there he was attached to the cavalry department of the French Army, he was stationed for a time on the western frontier, appointed captain of dragoons, 18 September, 1844, and accompanied General Taylor in 1846 across the Rio Grande. His company was the first to engage the enemy at Curricitos, where he was overwhelmed by superior numbers and made prisoner. He was exchanged in time to take part in the siege of Monterey, and was promoted to major for gallantry on 25 March, 1847. At the end of the war he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and a little later was appointed major in the 2d U.S. Cavalry, of which Albert Sidney Johnston was colonel and Robert E. Lee lieutenant-colonel. About this time he received instructions from the War Department to prepare a system of tactics for the use of infantry. On the completion of this work, in 1856, he was ordered to West Point as commandant of cadets, with the local rank of lieutenant-colonel; and there he remained, with the exception of one year, during which he was absent in Europe, until the end of January, 1861. He then joined the Confederate Army with the rank of colonel, and was assigned to duty at Fort Morgan, Mobile. In June, 1861, he was made brigadier-general, and sent to Arkansas under General Polk. He was soon afterward transferred to Kentucky, where he gained a victory over a small National force at Mumfordsville, 17 December, 1861. Events were now shaping for more vigorous work in the southwest. At Shiloh, Hardee's Corps, the 3d, formed the first Confederate line, and made the first attack. He was promoted to major-general, and Beauregard, in his report, praised Hardee's skill and general ability. He commanded the left wing at Perryville, 8 October, 1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the movements at Murfreesboro. For his conduct at Perryville and throughout the campaign he was appointed lieutenant-general, ranking after Longstreet. After the fall of Vicksburg, Hardee had charge of a camp of paroled prisoners in Alabama. Later in the year he was put in command of the 2d Corps under Bragg, and, after the battle of Chattanooga, was temporarily appointed his successor. In May, General Joseph E. Johnston assumed the command, and Hardee resumed his subordinate position. Hardee was relieved at his own request in September, 1864, and appointed to the command of the Department of South Carolina. He finally surrendered at Durham Station, North Carolina, 26 April, 1865. At the close of the war General Hardee retired to his plantation in Alabama. Hardee's Tactics, or the "U. S. Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics," the work already referred to (New York, 1856), is eclectic rather than original, and is drawn mainly from French sources.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 77.

HARDIE, James Allen, soldier, born in New York City, 5 May, 1823; died in Washington, D. C, 5 May, 1876. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and entered the artillery service. He was an assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics at West Point in 1844-'6, and served as company officer in garrison, frontier, and Indian service till 1861. During the Mexican War he commanded a New York regiment of volunteers, with the rank of major, and in 1857 he was appointed captain in the 3d U.S. Artillery. He was transferred to the 5th U.S. Artillery in 1861, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and aide-de-camp, and served on General McClellan's staff during the Peninsular and Maryland Campaigns, and on that of General Burnside in the battles around Fredericksburg. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, assistant adjutant-general in 1863, assigned to special duty in the War Department, and was assistant secretary to Secretary Edwin M. Stanton while he held office. General Hardie was appointed inspector-general in 1864, and in 1865 was brevetted brigadier and major-general, U. S. Army, for his services during the war. In 1866 he was senior member of the commission to inspect ordnance and ordnance stores in forts and arsenals, and commissioner to audit the military claims of Kansas, Montana, Dakota, California, and Oregon. He edited numerous military reports.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 78.

HARDING, Abner Clark, soldier, born in East Hampton, Middlesex County, Connecticut, 10 February, 1807; died in Monmouth, Warren County. Illinois, 19 July, 1874. He was educated chiefly at Hamilton, N. Y., Academy, and after practising law in Oneida County for some time moved to Illinois. In that state he continued to practise law for fifteen years, and to manage farms for twenty-five years. In 1848 he was a member of the convention that framed the constitution under which Illinois was governed from 1848 till 1870. He also served in the legislature in 1848-'9 and 1850. During the ten years preceding the Civil War he was engaged in railway enterprises. In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the 83d Illinois Infantry, and rose to the rank of colonel. For bravery at Fort Donelson he was promoted to brigadier-general, and in 1863 had command at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. In 1864 he was elected a representative in Congress, and was reelected in 1866, serving from 4 December, 1865, till 3 March, 1869. General Harding early entered with zeal into the construction of railroads in central Illinois, and was one of the projectors and builders of the Peoria and Oquawka Railroad, now a part of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. He left a fortune of about $2,000,000, no small part of which he had amassed in railroad enterprises. Several years before his death he endowed a professorship in Monmouth College.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 79.

HARGIS, Thomas F., jurist, born in Breathitt County, Kentucky, 24 June, 1842. He moved with his parents to Rowan County in 1856, and received a scanty education. In 1861 he entered the Confederate service as a private in the 5th Kentucky Infantry. He was promoted captain in 1863, and in November, 1864, was captured in Luray valley and held a prisoner until the termination of the war. Returning home penniless at the age of twenty-three, he devoted himself to the study and mastery of the English branches, and to the law. He was licensed to practise in 1866, and in 1868 moved to Carlisle, Kentucky The year following he was elected judge of Nicholas County, and he was re-elected in 1870. He was chosen to the state senate in 1871, elected judge of the criminal court in 1878, and raised to the appellate bench of Kentucky in 1879. After serving as chief justice during the vacancy caused by the death of an associate judge, he served two years longer by his own succession. Declining a re-election, he retired from the supreme bench in 1884, and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where he is now (1887) engaged in practice.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARKER, Charles G.. soldier, born in Swedesborough, New Jersey, 2 December 1837: killed at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, 27 June, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1858, entered the 2d U.S. Infantry, and became 1st lieutenant of the 15th U.S. Infantry, 14 May, 1861. He was promoted captain, 24 October, 1861, became lieutenant-colonel of the 60th Ohio Volunteers, and colonel on 11 November, 1861. He was engaged in the battle of Shiloh and the siege of Corinth and the battle of Stone River, and was recommended for promotion, but did not receive it until he had still further distinguished himself at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 20 September. 1863, commanded a brigade under General Howard in the campaign in Georgia, and held the peak of Rocky Face Ridge, 7 May, 1864, against determined efforts of the enemy to dislodge him.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 82.

HARKNESS, William, astronomer, born in Ecclefechan, Scotland, 17 December, 1837, studied at Lafayette College, and was graduated in 1858 at Rochester University, where he also received the degree of LL. D. in 1874. He was graduated in medicine in 1862, was appointed aide at the U. S. Naval Observatory in August of that year, and also served as surgeon in the U. S. Army at the second battle of Bull Run, and during the attack on Washington in July, 1864. He was commissioned professor of mathematics in the U. S. Navy, with the relative rank of lieutenant-commander, in August, 1863, and stationed at the Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C. In 1865-'6, during a cruise on the " Monadnock." he made an extensive series of observations on terrestrial magnetism at the principal ports in South America. His results were published by the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1872). On his return he was attached to the U. S. Hydrographic Office during 1867, and from 1868 till 1874 to the Naval Observatory.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARLAN, John Marshall, lawyer, born in Boyle County, Kentucky, 1 June, 1833, was graduated at Centre College in 1850, and at the law department of Transylvania University in 1853. In 1851 he was adjutant-general of Kentucky, and in 1858 became judge of Franklin County, Kentucky. He was afterward an unsuccessful Whig candidate for Congress, and at the beginning of the Civil War entered the Union Army as colonel of the 10th Kentucky Infantry. He was Attorney-General of Kentucky in 1863-'7, and was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for governor of the state in 1871 and 1875. He was a member of the Louisiana Commission that was appointed by President Hayes, I and on 29 November, 1877, became associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, as successor of David Davis.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARLAN, George Cuvier, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 January, 1835, was educated at Delaware College and in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1858. He was appointed resident physician of Wills eye Hospital in 1857, of St. Joseph's Hospital in 1858, and of the Pennsylvania Hospital in 1859. For some time during the Civil War he served as medical officer on the gun-boat "Union," and for three years was surgeon of the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry. He is now (1887) professor of diseases of the eye in the Philadelphia polyclinic, and has published numerous papers on his specialty. He is the author of "Diseases of the Orbit" in Wood's "Reference Hand-Book," and has revised parts of the American edition of Holmes's "System of Surgery."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 84.

HARMONY, David B., naval officer. born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 3 September, 1832. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman on 7 April, 1847, passed that grade in 1853, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1866, captain in 1875, and commodore in 1885. He served on the "Iroquois" at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, and at the capture of New Orleans, and took part in many severe engagements with the batteries at Vicksburg and Grand Gulf. He was executive officer of the iron-clad "Nahant" in the first attack on Fort Sumter, 7 April, 1863, and in the engagement with the ram " Atlanta" on 17 June, and in all the attacks on defences at Charleston, from 4 July till 7 September. He held a command in the Eastern Gulf Squadron in 1863, and commanded the "Saratoga in the Western Gulf Squadron in 1864-'5, taking part in the capture of Mobile and its defences. He commanded a division of eight vessels in an expedition to Montgomery, Alabama, in April, 1865, and in 1867 commanded the "Frolic" in Europe, one of the vessels of Admiral Farragut's Squadron. He was honorably mentioned in the reports of Commodore De Camp, Commodore Palmer, and Commodore Downes. He made his last cruise in 1881, was a member of the examining and retiring boards in 1883-'5, and is now (1887) serving as chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, having held this office since 1885.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 84.

HARNEY, William Selby, soldier, born near Haysboro, Davidson County, Tennessee, 27 August, 1800, was appointed from Louisiana 2d lieutenant in the 19th U. S. Infantry, 13 February, 1818, and promoted to be 1st lieutenant, 7 January, 1819. He was commissioned captain, 14 May, 1825; major and paymaster, 1 May, 1833; lieutenant-colonel, 2d Dragoons, 15 August, 1836; colonel, 30 June, 1846; and brigadier-general, 14 June, 1858. He took part in the Black Hawk War in 1833, and also in the Florida War, distinguishing himself in action at Fort Mellon and in the defence of a trading-house at Carloosahatchie, 23 July, 1839. He commanded several expeditions into the Everglades, and in December, 1840, was brevetted colonel "for gallant and meritorious conduct." He was also mentioned for his bravery at Medellin, Mexico, 25 March, 1847, and was brevetted brigadier-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo. On 3 September, 1855, he completely defeated the Sioux Indians at Sand Hills, on the north fork of the Platte River. In June, 1858, he was placed in command of the Department of Oregon, and on 9 July, 1859, took possession of the island of San Juan, near Vancouver, which was claimed by the English government to be included within the boundaries of British Columbia. A dispute with Great Britain and the recall of Harney followed. He was subsequently assigned to the command of the Department of the West, and in April, 1861, while on his way from St. Louis to Washington, was arrested by the Confederates at Harper's Ferry and taken to Richmond, Virginia. Here he met with many old acquaintances, who urged him to join the south. On meeting General Lee, Harney said to him: "I am sorry to meet you in this way." Lee replied : " General Harney, I had no idea of taking any part in this matter; I wanted to stay at Arlington and raise potatoes for my family; but my friends forced me into it." General Harney also met General Joseph E. Johnston, who told him that he was opposed to the war, but that he would be execrated by his relatives, all of whom lived in Virginia, if he did not side with the south. Harney was speedily released, and departed for Washington. On his return to St. Louis he issued several proclamations warning the people of Missouri of the danger of secession, and the evil effects that would follow from a dissolution of the Union. On 21 May he entered into an agreement with General Sterling Price, commanding the Missouri militia, to make no military movement so long as peace was maintained by the state authorities. He was soon afterward relieved of his command, and was placed on the retired list, 1 August, 1863. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general "for long and faithful service." General Harney now (1887) resides in St. Louis. See "The Life and Military Services of General William Selby Harney, by L. U. Reavis " (St, Louis, 1887).  into exile, where he died.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 86.

HARRIMAN, Walter, governor of New Hampshire, born in Warner, New Hampshire, 8 April, 1817; died in Concord, New Hampshire, 25 July, 1884. He received an academical education and began teaching, but became a Universalist clergyman, and in 1841 took charge of a Society at Harvard, Massachusetts After a few years he became pastor of a new Universalist Church in his native town. In 1851, having meantime engaged in trade, he decided, against the earnest solicitation of friends, to abandon the ministry. In 1849, and again in 1850, he had already been chosen representative of his town to the general court, and in 1853 and 1854 was elected state treasurer. In August, 1855, he was appointed to a clerkship in the Pension-Office at Washington, but resigned the following January to take part in the political canvass of that winter, which resulted in "no choice" by the people. In the spring of 1856 he was appointed by President Pierce on a commission to classify and appraise the Indian lands of Kansas, he was again in the legislature in 1858, and in 1859 and 1860 was elected to the state senate, his Republican opponent being on each occasion his own brother. He made speeches to sustain the Know-Nothing movement in 1855-'6, canvassed Michigan for Buchanan in company with General Lewis Cass, and was an earnest supporter of Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. In May, 1861, Mr. Harriman became editor of the " Union Democrat," published at Manchester, New Hampshire, in which he advocated forcible and immediate action against the seceding states. He became colonel of the 11th New Hampshire Regiment, was taken prisoner at the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, 1864, sent to Macon, Georgia, and moved thence to Charleston, where he was placed, with forty-nine other northern officers, under the fire of the National batteries on Morris Island. There he was for fifty-two days, until General Foster, in retaliation, placed fifty Confederate officers of the same rank under fire of the guns on Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie. This led to an exchange on 4 August, 1864. After returning home and engaging actively in the campaign of that year in favor of Lincoln and Johnson, Colonel Harriman rejoined his regiment, and commanded a brigade at Petersburg. In March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general. He was elected Secretary of State of New Hampshire in 1865 and 1860, and governor in 1867 and 1868. In the last year he made a tour in the middle and western states, advocating the election of General Grant. As a political speaker he had few superiors. He was naval officer at the Port of Boston throughout Grant's entire administration, moved to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1872, and in 1881 was again chosen to the legislature. Governor Harriman published a " History of Warner, New Hampshire" (1879), and "In the Orient," a record of a tour through Europe and the east in 1882 (Boston, 1883).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 89.

HARRIS, David Bullock, soldier, born at Frederick's Hall, Louisa County, Virginia, 28 September, 1814; died near Petersburg, Virginia, 10 October, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1833, entered the 1st U.S. Artillery, and, after serving a year, became assistant professor of engineering at West Point. He resigned from the army in 1835, and during several years thereafter was employed as a civil engineer on the James River and Kanawha Canal and other important works, but subsequently was a large exporter of tobacco and flour. When Virginia seceded from the Union in April, 1861, he became a captain of engineers in the state forces. He was the first to reconnoiter the line of Bull Run, and when the position at Manassas Junction was occupied in force toward the end of May, 1861, he planned and constructed the works for its defence. He was attached to the staff of General Philip St. George Cooke at the battle of Bull Run, accompanied Beauregard to the west early in 1862, and there planned and constructed the works at Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow, and the river-defences at Vicksburg. In October, 1862, he was transferred to Charleston, and took charge of the defensive engineering operations at that place. In 1864, as colonel of engineers, he went with General Beauregard to Virginia, and was employed on the defences of Petersburg. A short time before his death he was commissioned a brigadier-general.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 90-91.

HARRIS, Elisha, physician, born in Westminster, Vermont, 4 March, 1824: died in Albany, New York, 31 January, 1884. He was graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1849, and entered on the practice of his profession in that city. In 1855 he was appointed superintendent and physician-in-chief of the quarantine hospital on Staten Island, and at that time constructed a floating hospital for the lower quarantine station. During the Civil War he was instrumental in the organization of the U. S. Sanitary Commission in New York City, and was actively concerned in its work. On the organization of the Metropolitan Board of Health in 1866 he was made registrar of vital statistics, and also corresponding secretary, and in 1868 he was appointed sanitary superintendent of New York City. While holding this office he made a systematic inspection of tenement-houses, and so vigorously enforced the law providing for their ventilation and lighting that he secured, among other reforms, the putting in of nearly 40,000 windows and about 2,000 roof-ventilators during the year 1869. He also organized the first free public vaccination service, and the system of house-to-house visitation. In 1873 he was again made registrar of vital statistics, and held that office until the reorganization of this bureau in 1876. When the New York state board of health was created in 1880, Dr. Harris was appointed one of its members, and then became its secretary, which place he continued to hold until his death. The railway ambulance that has been adopted and used by the Prussian Army was invented by him. Dr. Harris was connected with many medical and sanitary associations in the United States, was a delegate in 1876 to the International Medical Congress of the American Public Health Association, and in 1878 was elected president of that association. He was the author of numerous articles on sanitary topics, and edited several valuable reports on these subjects.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.91

HARRIS, Isham Green, senator, born near Tullahoma, Tennessee, 10 February, 1818. His father, of the same name, was the owner of a sterile farm and ten or twelve Negroes, and his family grew up without discipline. At fourteen years of age Isham went to Paris, Tennessee, and took employment as a shop-boy. In the following year he went to school, and before he was nineteen years old moved to Tippah County. Mississippi, where he became a successful merchant. He studied law for two years at night, attending to his business during the day, and had accumulated about $7,000 and also established a home for his father near Paris, Tennessee, when, through the failure of a bank, he was left penniless. He resumed his business at Paris with a rich partner, and in two years had repaired his losses. His nights meanwhile had been given to the study of the law, and he was admitted to the bar in 1841. His legislative district had a small Democratic majority. Two obstinate Democrats insisted on running, and the leaders in caucus nominated Harris as a ruse to effect the withdrawal of one or the other. Neither would yield. He defeated them, and his Whig competitor also. Harris was elected to Congress in 1848, and served two terms. He refused a renomination in 1853, and settled in Memphis as a lawyer. In 1856 he canvassed the state as presidential elector, and the success of his ticket was largely attributed to him. He was elected governor of Tennessee in 1857, re-elected in 1859, and again in 1861, after the Civil War had actually begun. Until he was driven from the state by the success of the National arms, Governor Harris exhibited ability and resource. He acted as volunteer aide on the staff of General Albert Sidney Johnston, and was with him when mortally wounded at Shiloh. He continued at the headquarters of the Army of the West during the remainder of the war, shared its hardships, and took part in all its important battles except Perryville. When the war began he was worth $150,000; when it closed he had nothing. He evaded capture on parole, went into exile in Mexico, where he lived eighteen months, and thence to England, where he remained a year. In 1867 he returned, and resumed the practice of law in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1870 he announced himself as a candidate for the U. S. Senate, and canvassed the state, challenging all comers to meet him in public discussion. He was successful, took his seat, 5 March, 1877, and was re-elected for the term ending in 1889. In the Senate he has been an advocate of an honest and economical administration of the government, and an opponent of all class legislation. He was a member of the Committee on Claims, of the select committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River, and chairman of the committee on the District of Columbia, while his party was in power in the Senate.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 92.

HARRIS, Thomas Cadwalader, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, 18 November, 1825; died there, 24 January, 1875. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1841, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1860, and captain in 1872. During the Civil War he commanded the "Chippewa" and the "Yantic." With the "Chippewa he participated in several attacks on Fort Wagner, Morris Island, in July, 1863, and in December, 1864, and January, 1865, attacked Fort Fisher. In 1865 he was recommended for promotion by Admiral Porter "in consideration of his cool performance of duty in these actions."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 94.

HARRIS, Thomas Mealey, soldier, born in Wood County, Virginia, 17 June, 1817. He studied medicine, and practised at Harrisville and Glenville, Virginia In May, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the 10th West Virginia Infantry. He was promoted brigadier-general on 29 March, 1865, sent out the detachment that silenced the last Confederate guns at Appomattox, and was mustered out on 30 April, 1866. He applied himself after the war to scientific farming, served a term in the legislature of West Virginia in 1867, was adjutant-general of the state in 1809-'70, and was pension-agent at Wheeling in 1871—'7. He is the author of medical essays and of a tract entitled "Calvinism Vindicated."
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 94

HARRISON, Benjamin, son of John Scott, senator, born in North Bend, Ohio, 20 August, 1833, was graduated at Miami University, Ohio, in 1852, studied law in Cincinnati, and in 1854 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he has since resided. He was elected reporter of the state supreme court in 1860, and in 1862 entered the army as a 2d lieutenant of Indiana volunteers. After a short service he organized a company of the 70th Indiana Regiment, was commissioned colonel on the completion of the regiment, and served through the war, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers on 23 January. 1865. He then returned to Indianapolis, and resumed his office of supreme court reporter, to which he had been re-elected during his absence in 1864. In 1876 he was the republican candidate for governor of Indiana, but was defeated by a small plurality. He was a member of the Mississippi River commission in 1879, and in 1880 he was elected U. S. Senator, taking his seat on 4 March, 1881. (See Supplement.) Appleton’s 1892 p.99.

HARRISON, Napoleon Bonaparte, naval officer, born in Virginia, 19 February, 1823; died in Key West, Florida. 27 October. 1870. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman on 26 September, 1838, served in the Pacific Squadron in 1847-8, and was in California during the Mexican war, serving as a volunteer in the expedition that rescued General Kearny's command. In 1850 he was in the observatory in Washington, D. C, and in 1851-'2 was engaged in the Coast Survey. He was made lieutenant, 6 January, 1853, and appointed to the East Indian Squadron. In 1862 he commanded the "Cayuga, the flag-ship of Captain Bailey, of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron, and led the fleet in the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, for which action he was commended in the official reports. He became commander on 16 July, 1862, and had charge of the "Mahaska," of the James River Flotilla, during the operations of General McClellan before Richmond, and his retreat to Harrison's landing. In 1862-'3 he held command of the flag-ship "Minnesota," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and subsequently was attached to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, taking part in the attacks on the South Carolina Coast until the fall of Charleston. From 1866 till 1868 he was stationed in the U.S. Navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was made captain on 28 April, 1868, and in 1868-'9 was commandant of cadets in the U. S. Naval Academy. At the time of his death he commanded the "Congress," of the North Atlantic Fleet.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 100.

HARROW, William, soldier, born in Indiana about 1820. He was engaged, as colonel of the 14th Indiana Infantry, at the battle of Antietam, where more than half of his regiment were killed or wounded. He was commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862, and resigned on 20 April, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 101.

HARTRANFT, John Frederick, soldier, born in New Hanover, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 16 December, 1830. He was educated at Marshall and Union Colleges, and was graduated at the latter in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, and commanded it during the three months of its enlistment, which expired the day before the first battle of Bull Run. As his regiment had been ordered to Harrisburg to be mustered out, he asked and obtained leave to serve as a volunteer on General William B. Franklin's staff in that battle. He then organized the 51st Pennsylvania Regiment, was commissioned its colonel, 27 July, 1861, and with it accompanied General Burnside in his expedition to North Carolina in March, 1862. He took part in all the engagements of the 9th Corps, led the charge that carried the stone bridge at Antietam, and commanded his regiment at Fredericksburg. He was then ordered to Kentucky, and was engaged in the battle of Campbell's Station and the successful defence of Knoxville. He was with the 9th Corps in June, 1863, as covering army to the troops besieging Vicksburg, and after the fall of that place with General William T. Sherman in his advance to Jackson, Mississippi. He commanded a brigade in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 May, 1864, and took part in all the movements before Petersburg. He was assigned to the command of a division in August, 1864, and brevetted major-general for his services in re-capturing Fort Steadman on 25 March, 1865. He was elected auditor-general of Pennsylvania in October, 1865, and on 29 August, 1866, the president offered him a colonelcy in the regular army, which he declined. General Hartranft was re-elected auditor-general in 1868, and in 1872-'8 was governor of Pennsylvania. The militia of Pennsylvania was entirely reorganized on a military basis during his two terms as governor. The plan of municipal reform that was suggested by him in 1876 was adopted in 1885, the mayor of Philadelphia being elected under its provisions in 1887. Immediately after the close of his second term as governor he moved to Philadelphia. He was appointed postmaster of that city in June, 1879, and collector of the port in August, 1880. He is now (1887) major-general commanding the National Guard of Pennsylvania, which post he has held by appointment since 1879. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 105.

HARTSUFP, George Lucas, soldier, born in Tyre, Seneca County, New York, 28 May, 1830; died in New York City, 10 May, 1874. When he was a child his parents moved to Michigan and he entered the U. S. Military Academy from that state, being graduated in 1853, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery, he served in Texas and in Florida, where he was wounded, and was then appointed instructor in artillery and infantry tactics at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856. He became assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, on 22 March, 1861, and major, 17 July, 1862. He served at Fort Pickens, Florida, from" April till 16 July, 1861; then in West Virginia under General Rosecrans, and became a brigadier-general of volunteers, 15 April. 1862, soon afterward taking charge of Abercrombie's brigade, which he commanded at Cedar Mountain and Antietam, where he was severely wounded. He was appointed major-general of volunteers. 29 November, 1862, served as a member of the board to revise rules and articles of war and to prepare a code for the government of the armies in the field, and on 27 April, 1863, was ordered to Kentucky, where he was assigned to command the 23d Corps. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, U. S. Army, 1 June, 1864, was in command of works in the siege of Petersburg in March and April, 1865, and was brevet ted brigadier-general and major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. After the war he was adjutant-general of the 5th Military Division, comprising Louisiana and Texas, in 1867-'8, and of the Division of the Missouri from 1869 till 29 June, 1871, when he was retired for disability from wounds received in battle.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 106.

HARVEY, James Madison, governor of Kansas, born in Monroe County, Virginia, 21 September, 1833. He was educated in the public schools of Indiana, Iowa, and Illinois, and practised surveying and civil engineering until he moved to Kansas in 1859, when he became a farmer. He was captain in the 4th and 10th Regiments of Kansas Infantry from 1861 till 1864, a member of the lower house of the legislature in 1865-'6, and of the state senate in 1867-8. In 1869-71 he was governor of Kansas, and in 1874-'7 was a U. S. Senator, having been chosen as a Republican to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Alexander Caldwell.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 107.

HARWOOD, Andrew Allen, naval officer, born in Settle, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1802; died in Marion, Massachusetts, 28 August, 1884, was appointed midshipman, 1 January, 1818, and from 1819 till 1821 served in the sloop-of-war " Hornet" in the suppression of the African slave-trade. He was commissioned lieutenant in 1827, and in the following year was appointed to the receiving-ship " Philadelphia." He was detached as special messenger to bring home the ratified treaty with Naples, and from 1835 till 1837 served in the Mediterranean Squadron. He was assistant inspector of ordnance in 1843-'52, member of a commission to visit dock-yards and foundries in England and France in 1844, and in 1848 was promoted to commander. In 1851 he became member of a board appointed to prepare ordnance instructions for the U.S. Navy, and to make investigations and experiments. He commanded the frigate "Cumberland," of the Mediterranean Squadron, from 1853 till 1855, when he was appointed captain. He was inspector of ordnance from 1858 till 1861, and in the latter year was commissioned chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. In the following year he became commodore, and was appointed commandant of the U.S. Navy-yard at Washington, and of the Potomac Flotilla. He was retired in 1864, but served as secretary of the Light-house Board, and a member of the examining board from 1864 till 1869, when he was made rear-admiral on the retired list. During the Civil War he prepared a work on " Summary Courts-Martial," and published the "Law and Practice of U. S. Navy Courts-Martial" (1867).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 109.

HASCALL, Milo Smith, soldier, born in Le Roy, Genesee County, New York, 5 August, 1829. He spent the early years of his life on his father's farm, and in 1846 went to Goshen, Indiana. He was appointed from Indiana to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1852, and assigned to the artillery. He served in garrison at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, from 1852 till 1853, when he resigned. He was a contractor for the Indiana and Michigan Southern Railroad in 1854, and practised law in Goshen, Indiana, from 1855 till 1861, serving as prosecuting attorney of Elkhart and Lagrange counties from 1856 till 1858, and school-examiner and clerk of courts from 1859 till 1861, when he enlisted as a private in an Indiana regiment. He was subsequently appointed captain and aide-de-camp on General Thomas A. Morris's staff, and organized and drilled six regiments in Camp Morton. He became colonel of the 17th Indiana Regiment on 21 June, which was engaged in the West Virginia Campaign, and at Philippi made the first capture of a Confederate flag. In December, 1861, he was ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, and placed in command of a brigade consisting of the 17th Indiana, 6th Ohio, 43d Ohio, and 15th Indiana Regiments, assigned to the division commanded by General William Nelson. He was transferred to a brigade in General Thomas J. Wood's division, serving during the capture of Nashville and in the advance on Shiloh. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 25 April, 1862, and commanded a brigade in the Tennessee Campaign from October, 1862, till March, 1863. At the battle of Stone River he commanded a division, and was wounded. He was then sent to Indianapolis to return deserters from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, was transferred to the Army of the Ohio and placed in command of the District of Indiana. He also took part in the battles of Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, and was active in the defence of Knoxville. He was in command of the 2d Division of the 23d Corps. Army of the Ohio, in the invasion of Georgia in 1864, being engaged in numerous actions on the advance to Atlanta and taking an active part in the siege of that city. He resigned his commission on 27 October, 1864, and became a proprietor of Salem's Bank, in Goshen, Indiana, in which he is now (1887) engaged. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 109

HASKELL, Llewellyn Frost, soldier, born 8 October, 1842, went to Heidelberg, Germany, to study, but returned in 1861 to join the National Army. He enlisted in the 14th New York Regiment, rose to the rank of captain, served on the staff of General Alexander S. Asboth at Pea Ridge and on that of General Henry Prince at Cedar Mountain, where he was severely wounded, and was the only officer on General Prince's staff that was not killed or mortally wounded. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Colored Troops in October, 1863, served in South Carolina and Virginia, and became colonel in November, 1864. At the close of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He then became associated with his father in the development of Llewellyn Park, but in 1877 moved to San Francisco, California, where he has since engaged in business.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 110.

HASKIN, Joseph A., soldier, born in New York in 1817; died in Oswego, New York, 3 August, 1874. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, and entered the 1st U.S. Artillery. He was on duty in Maine during the "disputed frontier" controversy, from 1840 till 1845, afterward in Florida and Louisiana, and during the Mexican war took part in all the battles under General Scott, losing an arm at the storming of Chapultepec. He was subsequently in garrison and fortress duty on the frontiers and elsewhere, becoming captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery in 1851, was compelled to surrender Baton Rouge Arsenal to a vastly superior force of Confederates in the winter of 1861, served during the Civil War in Washington, at Key West, in command of the northern defences of Washington in 1862-'4, and as chief of artillery in the Department of Washington till 1866. He was promoted to be major in 1862, lieutenant-colonel of staff the same year, lieutenant-colonel, 1st U.S. Artillery, in 1866, and brevet colonel and brevet brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865. He was retired from active service in 1872.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 110.

HASTINGS, Russell, soldier, born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, 30 May, 1835. While he was a boy his parents moved to Ohio, and settled in Willoughby, Lake County, where he was educated in the common schools. Early in the Civil War he enlisted as a private, and was soon promoted to be a lieutenant in the 23d Ohio Regiment. During Sheridan's campaigns he acted as adjutant-general, was severely wounded at the battle of Opequan, and was subsequently promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 28th Ohio Regiment, after a charge in which he had displayed great courage. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. General Hastings was elected a member of the Ohio legislature in 1865, and while there was appointed U.S. Marshal for the Northern District of Ohio. Owing to failing health, he resigned in 1874.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 112.

HATCH, Edward, soldier, born in Bangor, Maine, 22 December. 1832. In April, 1861, he was a member of the District of Columbia Volunteers who were enlisted to defend the national capital, and subsequently had charge of the camp of instruction at Davenport, Iowa. He was commissioned captain in the 2d Iowa Cavalry, 12 August, 1861, major, 5 September, and lieutenant-colonel, 11 December, the same year. He commanded his regiment at New Madrid, Island No. 10, the battle of Corinth, the raid on Booneville, and the battle of Iuka. He was promoted colonel, 13 June, 1862, and commanded a brigade of cavalry in General Grant's Mississippi Campaign. He was afterward placed at the head of the cavalry division of the Army of the Tennessee, and was present at the various engagements in which it took part. He was disabled by wounds in December. 1863, and on 27 April, 1864, was made brigadier-general. Under General A. J. Smith, and still in command of a cavalry division, he was engaged in the battles of Franklin (for bravery in which he was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular service) and Nashville, and in the pursuit of Hood's Confederate Army. For gallantry at Nashville he was, in 1864, brevetted major-general of volunteers, and three years later promoted to the same rank by brevet in the U. S. Army. On 15 January, 1866, he was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service, and on 6 July following he was promoted colonel of the 9th U. S. Cavalry, which commission he still holds. Since the war he has seen service in Colorado, Indian and Wyoming territories, and Nebraska.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 113.

HATCH, John Porter, soldier, born in Oswego, New York, 9 January, 1822. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1845, and assigned to the 3d U.S. Infantry. Subsequently he was transferred  to the mounted rifles, and promoted 2d lieutenant, 18 April, 1847. He saw service during the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and took part in all the principal battles of the Mexican War, being brevetted 1st lieutenant, 20 August, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and captain on 13 September, for gallantry at Chapultepec. After the conclusion of the Mexican war, he was chiefly engaged in frontier duty and on various expeditions against the Indians until 1861, when he was acting as chief of commissariat in the Department of New Mexico, after receiving a captain s commission on 13 October, 1860. On 28 September, 1861, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and in December following was placed in command of a brigade of cavalry at Annapolis, Maryland, under General King. He distinguished himself by several daring reconnoissances about Gordonsville, the Rapidan, and the Rappahannock, and afterward commanded the cavalry of the 5th Army Corps, taking part in the battles of Winchester, Groveton, and Manassas, Virginia, where he was wounded and made brevet major for "gallant and meritorious services." He was again severely wounded at the battle of South Mountain, Maryland, 14 September, 1862, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel. Disabled by his injuries and unable to report for duty until 18 February, 1863, he was then employed on courts-martial, assigned to command the draft rendezvous at Philadelphia, and given charge of the Cavalry Depot at St. Louis until 27 October, 1863, when he was made major of the 4th U.S. Cavalry. During the remainder of the war he was assigned to various commands in the Department of the South, being in charge of John's Island and Honey Hill, South Carolina, during the attacks on those places. He was also under General Sherman's orders, co-operating with him while the latter was moving up the coast, and participating in several skirmishes. From 26 February to 26 August, 1865, he was in command of the Charleston District. Department of South Carolina. On 13 March of the latter year he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for his services during the Civil War, and major-general of volunteers for the same cause. From the close of the war until 1881 he was on duty principally in Texas, the Indian Territory, Montana, and Washington territory, and was promoted colonel, 2d U.S. Cavalry, 26 June, 1881. Colonel Hatch remained in command of his regiment until 9 January, 1886, when he was retired by operation of law.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 113-114.

HATHEWAY, Samuel Gilbert, soldier, born in Freetown, Massachusetts, 18 January, 1810; died in Solon, New York, 16 April, 1864, was graduated at Union College in 1831, studied law, and in 1833 moved to Elmira, New York, and began practice. He served in the legislature in 1842-'3, declined a renomination in 1844, and resumed practice. He was a defeated candidate for Congress in 1856 and in 1862, and the next year entered the army as colonel of the 14th New York Regiment. He afterward commanded Abercrombie's division, as acting brigadier-general, but in 1863, the exposures of camp-life having produced disease of the heart, he was compelled to resign, and died a few months afterward. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 114.

HATTON, Frank, journalist, born in Cambridge, Ohio, 28 April, 1846. His father, Richard, moved to Cadiz, Ohio, where he published the "Republican." At the age of eleven the son entered the office of this paper, where he became foreman, and then local editor. When the Civil War began he enlisted in the 98th Ohio Infantry, and in 1864 was commissioned 1st lieutenant. His service was with the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he went to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, edited the "Journal" there in 1869-'74, and then moved to Burlington. Iowa, where he purchased a controlling interest in the " Hawkeye." He was postmaster in Burlington for a few years prior to 1881. In that year President Arthur appointed him Assistant Postmaster General, and he served from October, 1881, till October, 1884, when the retirement of Judge Gresham from the office of Postmaster General, led to Mr. Hatton's promotion to fill the vacancy. He served until the close of President Arthur's administration, and was the youngest cabinet officer that ever served the government, Alexander Hamilton alone excepted. From October, 1882, till the summer of 1884 Mr. Hatton was connected with the "National Republican" in Washington. In July of the latter year he moved to Chicago, and assisted in reorganizing the " Mail," of which he is now (1887) the editor-in-chief.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 115.

HATTON, Robert, soldier, born in Sumner County, Tennessee, in 1827; killed at the battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia, 31 May, 1862. He was educated at Harvard, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1849. He was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1856, and in 1858 was elected to Congress from that state, serving one term. He then entered the Confederate Army, was appointed brigadier-general, 23 May, 1862, and was assigned to the command of the 5th brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps. Army of Virginia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 115

HAUPT, Herman, engineer, born in Philadelphia, 26 March, 1817. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and entered the 2d U.S. Infantry, but resigned on 30 September following, and was assistant engineer on the public works of Pennsylvania until 1839. He was appointed in 1844 professor of civil engineering and mathematics in Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, and filled that chair until 1847, when he became principal engineer of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, of which he was made superintendent in 1849. From 1856 till June, 1861, he was chief engineer of the Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts. During the Civil War he was aide to General Irwin McDowell, with the rank of colonel, and chief of the Bureau of U. S. Military Railways, in charge of construction and operation. In September, 1862, he declined the appointment of brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1875 he acted as general manager of the Piedmont Air-line Railway from Richmond, Virginia, to Atlanta, Georgia. Since 1875 he has been chief engineer of the Tide-Water Pipe Line Company, and he has demonstrated the feasibility of transporting oil in pipes for long distances. He was also for several years general manager of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Colonel Haupt invented a drilling-engine, which took the highest Prize of the Royal Polytechnic Society of Great Britain. He is the author of "Hints on Bridge Building " (1840); "General Theory of Bridge-Construction " (New York, 1852); "Plan for Improvement of the Ohio River" (1855); and "Military Bridges" (New York, 1864).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 116.

HAWKINS, Rush Christopher, soldier. born in Pomfret, Vermont, 14September, 1831, left home at an early age and enlisted in the 2d U. S. dragoons, but after a brief term of service in Mexico was discharged for disability contracted in the field. He settled in New York in 1851, studied law, and in 1856 began the practice of his profession. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 9th Regiment of New York Volunteers and the Hawkins Zouaves, of which he was elected colonel. He commanded a successful expedition against Winston, North Carolina, on 16 February, and on 19 April his brigade took part in the action at South Mills, where he was wounded. He served with his regiment in Virginia and elsewhere, and with it was mustered out of the service on 30 May, 1863. Since the war he has been active in movements for political reform. His collection of books from the first 15th century presses was the most comprehensive in the country, and was sold at auction in New York in 1887. Colonel Hawkins has contributed to periodical literature and has published "The First Books and Printers of the 15th Century" (New York, 1884).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 120

HAWKINS, John P., soldier, born in Indiana about 1830. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1852, assigned to the infantry, and promoted 1st lieutenant, 12 October, 1857. At the beginning of the Civil War he was brigade quartermaster in the defences of Washington, D. C. He was appointed commissary of subsistence with the staff rank of captain, 3 August, 1861, and filled several posts as chief and assistant commissary of subsistence in southwest Missouri and west Tennessee, until 13 April, 1863, when he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and from 17 August of that year till 7 February, 1864, was in command of a brigade of colored troops in northeastern Louisiana. He was then promoted to the command of a division, and stationed at Vicksburg, Mississippi, from March, 1864, till February, 1865. He afterward took part in the Mobile Campaign, and for gallant and meritorious services at the capture of that city was brevetted major. For his services in the war he was successively given the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the U. S. Army, and also major-general of volunteers. On 23 June, 1874, he was made major and commissary of subsistence, and in 1887 was in charge of the subsistence department at Omaha, Nebraska.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 121.

HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, 1826-1905, statesman, clergyman, lawyer, editor, opponent of slavery, Union officer.  Member of the Free Soil Party.  Co-founder of the Republican Party.  Chairman of Connecticut Free Soil State Committee.  He opposed pro-slavery Know-Nothing Party and aided in anti-slavery organizing.  Helped organize and found the Republican Party in 1856.  In 1857, became editor of the Republican newspaper, Evening Press in Hartford.  Enlisted in the Union Army, rising to the rank of Brigadier General, commanding both a division and a brigade.  (Appletons, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 123-124; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 421; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 351)

HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, statesman, born in Stewartsville, North Carolina, 31 October, 1826. He is of English-Scotch ancestry. His father, Reverend Francis Hawley (descended from Samuel, who settled in Stratford, Connecticut, in 1639), was born in Farmington, Connecticut He went south early and engaged in business, but afterward entered the Baptist ministry. He married Mary McLeod, a native of North Carolina, of Scotch parentage, and the family went to Connecticut in 1837, where the father was an active anti-slavery man. The son prepared for college at the Hartford grammar-school and the seminary in Cazenovia, New York, whither the family moved about 1842. He was graduated at Hamilton in 1847, with a high reputation as a speaker and debater. He taught in the winters, studied law at Cazenovia and Hartford, and began practice in 1850. He immediately became chairman of the Free-Soil state committee, wrote for the Free-Soil press, and spoke in every canvass. He stoutly opposed the Know-Nothings, and devoted his energies to the union of all opponents of slavery. The first meeting for the organization of the Republican Party in Connecticut was held in his office, at his call, 4 February, 1856. Among those present were Gideon Welles and John M. Niles. Mr. Hawley gave three months to speaking in the Fremont canvass of 1856. In February, 1857, he abandoned law practice, and became editor of the Hartford "Evening Press," the new distinctively Republican paper. His partner was William Faxon, afterward assistant Secretary of the Navy. He responded to the first call for troops in 1861 by drawing up a form of enlistment, and, assisted by Drake, afterward colonel of the 10th Regiment, raising rifle company A, 1st Connecticut Volunteers, which was organized and accepted in twenty-four hours, Hawley having personally engaged rifles at Sharp's Factory. He became the captain, and is said to have been the first volunteer in the state. He received special praise for good conduct at Bull Run from General Erastus D. Keyes, brigade commander. He directly united with Colonel Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Connecticut Volunteers, a three years' regiment, of which he was lieutenant-colonel. It went south in the Port Royal Expedition, and on the capture of the forts was the first sent ashore as a garrison. It was engaged four months in the siege of Fort Pulaski, and upon the surrender was selected as the garrison. Hawley succeeded Terry, and commanded the regiment in the battles of James Island and Pocotaligo, and in Brannan's expedition to Florida. He went with his regiment to Florida, in January, 1863, and commanded the post of Fernandina, whence in April he undertook an unsuccessful expedition against Charleston. He also commanded a brigade on Morris Island in the siege of Charleston and the capture of Fort Wagner. In February, 1864, he had a brigade under General Truman Seymour in the battle of Olustee, Florida, where the whole National force lost 38 per cent. His regiment was one of the few that were armed with the Spencer breech loading rifle. This weapon, which he procured in the autumn of 1863, proved very effective in the hands of his men. He went to Virginia in April, 1864, having a brigade in Terry's division, 10th Corps, Army of the James, and was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown Road, and various affairs near Bermuda Hundred and Deep Bottom. He commanded a division in the fight on the Newmarket road, and engaged in the siege of Petersburg. In September, 1864, he was made a brigadier-general, having been repeatedly recommended by his immediate superiors. In November, 1864, he commanded a picked brigade sent to New York City to keep the peace during the week of the presidential election. He succeeded to Terry's division when Terry was sent to Port Fisher in January, 1865, afterward rejoining him as chief of staff, 10th Corps, and on the capture of Wilmington was detached by General Schofield to establish a base of supplies there for Sherman's army, and command southeastern North Carolina. In June he rejoined Terry as chief of staff for the Department of Virginia. In October he went home, was brevetted major-general, and was mustered out, 15 January, 1866. In April, 1866, he was elected governor of Connecticut, but he was defeated in 1867, and then, having united the "Press" and the "Courant," he resumed editorial life, and more vigorously than ever entered the political contests following the war. He was always in demand as a speaker throughout the country. He was president of the National Republican Convention in 1868, secretary of the committee on resolutions in 1872, and chairman of that committee in 1876. He earnestly opposed paper money theories. In November, 1872, he was elected to fill a vacancy in Congress caused by the death of Julius L. Strong. He was re-elected to the 43d Congress, defeated for the 44th and 45th, and re-elected to the 46th (1879-'81). He was elected senator in January, 1881, by the unanimous vote of his party, and re-elected in like manner in January, 1887, for the term ending 4 March, 1893. In the house he served on the committees on Claims, Banking and Currency, Military Affairs, and appropriations; in the senate, on the committees on Coast Defences, Railroads, Printing, and Military Affairs. He is chairman of the committee on Civil Service, and vigorously promoted the enactment of civil-service-reform legislation. He was also chairman of a Select Committee on Ordnance and War-Ships, and submitted a long and valuable report, the result of careful investigation into steel production and heavy gun-making in England and the United States. In the National Convention of 1884 the Connecticut Delegation unanimously voted for him for president in every ballot. He was president of the U. S. Centennial Commission from its organization in 1872 until the close of its labors in 1877, gave two years exclusively to the work, was ex-officio member of its committees, and appointed all save the executive. He received the degree of LL. D. from Hamilton in 1875, and from Yale in 1886. Of the former institution he is a trustee. Ecclesiastically he is a Congregationalist.  General Hawley is an ardent Republican, one of the most acceptable extemporary orators in the republic, a believer in universal suffrage, the American people and the "American way," is a "hard-money" man, would adjust the tariff so as to benefit native industries, urges the reconstruction of our naval and coast defences, demands a free ballot and a fair count everywhere, opposes the tendency to federal centralization, and is a strict constructionist of the constitution in favor of the rights and dignity of the individual states.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 123-124.

HAY, John, author, born in Salem, Indiana, 8 October, 1838. His ancestor, John, was a son of a Scottish soldier who left his own country in the beginning of the last century and took service in the army of the Elector Palatine. The son, with his family, emigrated to this country, and two grandsons served with distinction in the war of independence. John Hay took, while in college, high rank as a writer, and after graduation at Brown in 1858, studied law at Springfield, Ill. He was admitted to practice in the supreme court in Illinois in 1861, but immediately afterward went to Washington as assistant secretary to President Lincoln, remaining with him, both as a secretary and a trusted friend, almost constantly till his death. He acted also as his adjutant and aide-de-camp, and served for several months under General Hunter and General Gillmore, with the rank of major and assistant adjutant-general. He was also brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel. He was first secretary of legation at Paris, and several times in charge in 1865-'7, and chargé de affaires at Vienna in 1867-'8, when he resigned and came home, but was soon afterward secretary of legation at Madrid, where he remained more than a year. Leaving that post in 1870, he came to New York and became an editorial writer on the “Tribune,” where he remained about five years. He was afterward editor-in-chief of that paper for seven months, during the absence of Whitelaw Reid in Europe. He moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1875, and took an active part in the presidential canvasses of 1876, 1880, and 1884. Under the administration of President Hayes he was first assistant secretary of state in 1879-'81. In the latter year he represented the United States at the International sanitary Congress of Washington, of which body he was elected president. He has published “Pike County Ballads,” one of the best known of which is “Jim Bludso” (Boston, 1871), “Castilian Days” studies of Spanish life and character (1871), and has been engaged many years in writing, in collaboration with John G. Nicolay, a “History of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln,” which is now (1887) in course of serial publication in “The Century.” Colonel Hay is also the translator of Emilio Castelar's treatise on the Republican movement in Europe (New York, 1874-'5). Appleton’s 1900 pp. 130-131.

HAYDEN, Ferdinand Vandeveer, geologist, born in Westfield, Massachusetts, 7 September, 1829. He early settled in Ohio, and, after his graduation at Oberlin in 1850, received his medical degree at the Albany Medical College in 1853. During the same year he explored the "Bad Lands" of Dakota for James Hall, state geologist of New York, and returned with a large and valuable collection of fossil vertebrates. In 1854 he again went west, spent two years in exploring the basin of the upper Missouri, and returned with a large number of fossils, part of which he deposited in the St. Louis academy of science, and the remainder in the Philadelphia academy of natural sciences. These collections attracted the attention of the authorities of the Smithsonian institution, and he was appointed geologist on the staff of Lieutenant Gouverneur K. Warren, of the topographical engineers, who was then making a reconnaissance of the northwest, after which, in May, 1859, he was appointed naturalist and surgeon to the expedition sent out for the exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers under Captain William F. Raynolds. He continued in this capacity until May, 1862, when he entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon of volunteers, and was assigned to duty in the Satterlee Hospital in Philadelphia, becoming full surgeon on 19 February, 1863, when he was sent to Beaufort, South Carolina, as chief medical officer. In February, 1864, he became assistant medical inspector of the Department of Washington, and in September, 1864, he was sent to Winchester, Virginia, as chief medical officer of the Army of the Shenandoah. This office he held until May, 1865, when he resigned and was given the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed professor of mineralogy and geology in 1865 in the University of Pennsylvania, and held that chair until 1872, when the increased duties of the survey caused his resignation. During the summer of 1866 he again visited the valley of the upper Missouri for the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and gathered valuable vertebrate fossils. In 1867 Congress provided for the geological survey of Nebraska. Dr. Hayden was directed to perform the work, and continued so occupied until 1 April, 1869, when it was organized under the title of the Geological Survey of the Territories of the United States. From 1869 till 1872 Dr. Hayden conducted a series of geological explorations in Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, the scope of investigation including, besides geology, the natural history, climatology, resources, and ethnology of the region. It was largely in consequence of his explorations and reports that Congress was led to set apart the Yellowstone National Park as a perpetual reservation. In 1873 geography was added, and the name of the organization then became the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Dr. Hayden continued the direction of this survey until 1879, when the then existing national surveys were consolidated into the U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr. Hayden was made geologist-m-charge of the Montana Division. He held this office until 31 December, 1886, when failing health led to his resignation. Dr. Hayden is a member of scientific societies both in the United States and in Europe, and in 1873 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1887 the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the University of Pennsylvania. He has written numerous scientific papers, and his government publications have been very large. The latter include annual reports of his work performed from 1867 till 1879; also a series of "Miscellaneous Publications" on special subjects written by authorities in the specialties of which they treat, and a series of quarto volumes entitled " Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.131.

HAYES, Joseph, soldier, born in South Berwick, Maine, 14 September, 1835. He was graduated at Harvard in 1855, appointed major of the 18th Massachusetts Regiment, 26 July, 1861, lieutenant-colonel, 25 August, 1802, colonel, 30 November. 1862, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 12 May, 1864. He was taken prisoner by the Confederates, and was for several months confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and mustered out of service on 24 August In January, 1865, he was appointed U. S. commissioner of supplies in the seceded states. In 1877 he introduced the American system of hydraulic mining into the United States of Colombia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 133.

HAYES, Philip Cornelius, soldier, born in Granby, Connecticut, 3 February, 1833. He moved in infancy to La Salle County. Illinois., and spent many of his early years on a farm. He was graduated at Oberlin in 1860, and at the Theological seminary in 1863. He entered the army as captain in the 103d Ohio Infantry, and served with this regiment from 16 July, 1802, till 22 June, 1865, its entire period of service, being promoted successively lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers at the close of the war. He served in Kentucky, in West Tennessee in 1863, including the siege of Knoxville, was in the Hundred Days' Campaign to Atlanta, and was in the battles of Resaca and Atlanta. He took part in the engagements of Franklin and Nashville, and was with the army in its march from Fort Fisher to Raleigh. North Carolina, in the capture of Wilmington, and at Johnston's surrender. During his last year's service he was on the staff of General John M. Schofield. He was then elected a representative in Congress as a Republican, and served from 4 March, 1877, till 4 March, 1881. He has published a “History of the 103d Ohio Regiment” (1872).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 133-134.

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893, Delaware, Ohio,, 19th President of the United States, 1877-1881.  Governor of Ohio, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1865-1867, abolitionist, lawyer, soldier.  Defended fugitive slaves in pre-Civil War court cases.  His wife, Lucy, Webb, was also an abolitionist.  Early member of the Republican Party.  Served with distinction as an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War.  (Scribner’s Dictionary of American Biography; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 134-143)

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, nineteenth president of the United States, born in Delaware, Ohio, 4 October, 1822. His father had died in July, 1822, leaving his mother in modest but easy circumstances. The boy received his first education in the common schools, and began early the study of Latin and Greek with Judge Sherman Finch, of Delaware. Then he was sent to an academy at Norwalk, Ohio, and in 1837 to Isaac Webb's school, at Middletown, Connecticut, to prepare for college. In the autumn of 1838 he entered Kenyon College, at Gambier, Ohio. He excelled in logic, mental and moral philosophy, and mathematics, and also made his mark as a debater in the literary societies. On his graduation in August, 1842, he was awarded the valedictory oration, with which he won much praise. Soon afterward he began to study law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, at Columbus, Ohio, and then attended a course of law lectures at Harvard University, entering the law-school on 22 August, 1843, and finishing his studies there in January, 1845. As a law student he had the advantage of friendly intercourse with Judge Story and Prof. Greenleaf, and he also attended the lectures of Longfellow on literature and of Agassiz on natural science, prosecuting at the same time the study of French and German. On 10 May, 1845, after due examination, he was admitted to practice in the courts of Ohio as an attorney and counsellor at law. He established himself first at Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), where, in April, 1846, he formed a law partnership with Ralph P. Buckland (q. v.), then a member of Congress. In November, 1848, having suffered from bleeding in the throat, Mr. Hayes went to spend the winter in the milder climate of Texas, where his health was completely restored. Encouraged by the good opinion and advice of professional friends to seek a larger field of activity, he established himself, in the winter of 1849-’50, in Cincinnati. His practice at first being light, he earnestly and systematically continued his studies in law and literature, also enlarging the circle of his acquaintance by becoming a member of various societies, among others the literary club of Cincinnati, in the social and literary entertainments of which at that time such men as Salmon P. Chase, Thomas Ewing, Thomas Corwin, Stanley Matthews, Moncure D. Conway, Manning F. Force, and others of note, were active participants. He won the respect of the profession, and attracted the attention of the public as attorney in several criminal cases which gained some celebrity, and gradually increased his practice.

On 30 December, 1852, he married Miss Lucy W. Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, a physician of high standing in Chillicothe, Ohio. In January, 1854, he formed a law partnership with H. W. Corwine and William K. Rogers. In 1856 he was nominated for the office of common pleas judge, but declined. In 1858 he was elected city solicitor by the city council of Cincinnati, to fill a vacancy caused by death, and in the following year he was elected to the same office at a popular election by a majority of over 2,500 votes. Although he performed his duties to the general satisfaction of the public, he was, in April, 1861, defeated for re-election as solicitor, together with the whole ticket. Mr. Hayes, ever since he was a voter, had acted with the Whig Party, voting for Henry Clay in 1844, for General Taylor in 1848, and for General Scott in 1852. Having from his youth always cherished anti-slavery feelings, he joined the Republican Party as soon as it was organized, and earnestly advocated the election of Frémont in 1856, and of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. At a great mass-meeting, held in Cincinnati immediately after the arrival of the news that the flag of the United States had been fired upon at Fort Sumter, he was made chairman of a committee on resolutions to give voice to the feelings of the loyal people. His literary club formed a military company, of which he was elected captain, and this club subsequently furnished to the National Army more than forty officers, of whom several became generals. On 7 June, 1861, the governor of Ohio appointed Mr. Hayes a major of the 23d Regiment of Ohio volunteer Infantry, and in July the regiment was ordered into West Virginia. On 19 September, 1861, Major Hayes was appointed by General Rosecrans judge advocate of the Department of Ohio, the duties of which office he performed for about two months. On 24 October, 1861, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. On 14 September, 1862, in the battle of South Mountain, he distinguished himself by gallant conduct in leading a charge and in holding his position at the head of his men, after being severely wounded in his left arm, until he was carried from the field. His regiment lost nearly half its effective force in the action. On 24 October, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the same regiment. He spent some time at his home while under medical treatment, and returned to the field as soon as his wound was healed. In July, 1863, while taking part in the operations of the National Army in southwestern Virginia, Colonel Hayes caused an expedition of two regiments and a section of artillery, under his own command, to be despatched to Ohio for the purpose of checking the raid of the Confederate General John Morgan, and he aided materially in preventing the raiders from recrossing the Ohio River and in compelling Morgan to surrender. In the spring of 1864 Colonel Hayes commanded a brigade in General Crook's expedition to cut the principal lines of communication between Richmond and the southwest. He again distinguished himself by conspicuous bravery at the head of his brigade in storming a fortified position on the crest of Cloyd mountain. In the first battle of Winchester, 24 July, 1864, commanding a brigade in General Crook's division, Colonel Hayes was ordered, together with Colonel James Mulligan, to charge what proved to be a greatly superior force. Colonel Mulligan fell, and Colonel Hayes, flanked and pressed in front by overwhelming numbers, conducted the retreat of his brigade with great intrepidity and skill, checking the pursuit as soon as he had gained a tenable position. He took a creditable part in the engagement at Berryville and at the second battle of Winchester, 19 September, 1864, where he performed a feat of extraordinary bravery. Leading an assault upon a battery on an eminence, he found in his way a morass over fifty yards wide. Being at the head of his brigade, he plunged in first, and, his horse becoming mired at once, he dismounted and waded across alone under the enemy's fire. Waving his cap, he signaled to his men to come over, and, when about forty had joined him, he rushed upon the battery and took it after a hand-to-hand fight with the gunners, the enemy having deemed the battery so secure that no infantry supports had been placed near it. At Fisher's Hill, in pursuing General Early, on 22 September, 1864, Colonel Hayes, then in command of a division, executed a brilliant flank movement over mountains and through woods difficult of access, took many pieces of artillery, and routed the enemy. At the battle of Cedar Creek, 19 October, 1864, the conduct of Colonel Hayes attracted so much attention that his commander, General Crook, on the battle-field took him by the hand, saying: “Colonel, from this day you will be a brigadier-general.” The commission arrived a few days afterward, and on 13 March, 1865, he received the rank of brevet major-general “for gallant and distinguished services during the campaign of 1864 in West Virginia, and particularly at the battles of Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia” Of his military services General Grant, in the second volume of his memoirs, says: “On more than one occasion in these engagements General R. B. Hayes, who succeeded me as president of the United States, bore a very honorable part. His conduct on the field was marked by conspicuous gallantry, as well as the display of qualities of a higher order than mere personal daring. Having entered the army as a major of volunteers at the beginning of the war, General Hayes attained, by his meritorious service, the rank of brevet major-general before its close.” While General Hayes was in the field, in August, 1864, he was nominated by a Republican District Convention at Cincinnati, in the second District of Ohio, as a candidate for Congress. When a friend suggested to him that he should take leave of absence from the army in the field for the purpose of canvassing the district, he answered: “Your suggestion about getting a furlough to take the stump was certainly made without reflection. An officer fit for duty, who at this crisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress, ought to be scalped.” He was elected by a majority of 2,400. The Ohio soldiers in the field nominated him also for the governorship of his state. The accompanying illustration is a view of his home in Fremont.

After the war General Hayes returned to civil life, and took his seat in Congress on 4 December, 1865. He was appointed chairman of the committee on the library. On questions connected with the reconstruction of the states lately in rebellion he voted with his party. He earnestly supported a resolution declaring the sacredness of the public debt and denouncing repudiation in any form; also a resolution commending President Johnson for declining to accept presents, and condemning the practice as demoralizing in its tendencies. He opposed a resolution favoring an increase of the pay of members. He also introduced in the Republican caucus a set of resolutions declaring that the only mode of obtaining from the states lately in rebellion irreversible guarantees was by constitutional amendment, and that an amendment basing representation upon voters, instead of population, ought to be acted upon without delay. These resolutions marked the line of action of the Republicans. In August, 1866, General Hayes was renominated for Congress by acclamation, and, after an active canvass, was re-elected by the same majority as before. He supported the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. In the House of Representatives he won the reputation, not of an orator, but of a working legislator and a man of calm, sound judgment. In June, 1867, the Republican Convention of Ohio nominated him for the governorship. The Democrats had nominated Judge Allen G. Thurman. The question of Negro suffrage was boldly pushed to the foreground by General Hayes in an animated canvass, which ended in his election, and that of his associates on the Republican ticket. But the Negro-suffrage amendment to the state constitution was defeated at the same time by 50,000 majority, and the Democrats carried the legislature, which elected Judge Thurman to the United States Senate. In his inaugural address, Governor Hayes laid especial stress upon the desirability of taxation in proportion to the actual value of property, the evils of too much legislation, the obligation to establish equal rights without regard to color, and the necessity of ratifying the 14th amendment to the constitution of the United States. In his message to the legislature, delivered in November, 1868, he recommended amendments to the election laws, providing for the representation of minorities in the boards of the judges and clerks of election, and for the registration of all the lawful voters prior to an election. He also recommended a comprehensive geological survey of the state, which was promptly begun. In his second annual message he warmly urged such changes in the penal laws, as well as in prison discipline, as would tend to promote the moral reformation of the culprit together with the punishment due to his crime.

In June, 1869, Governor Hayes was again nominated by the Republican state Convention for the governorship, there being no competitor for the nomination. The Democratic candidate was George H. Pendleton. The platform adopted by the Democratic state Convention advocated the repudiation of the interest on the U. S. bonds unless they be subjected to taxation, and the payment of the national debt in greenbacks. In the discussions preceding the election, Governor Hayes pronounced himself unequivocally in favor of honestly paying the national debt and an honest money system. He was elected by a majority of 7,500. In his second inaugural address, delivered on 10 January, 1870, he expressed himself earnestly against the use of public offices as party spoils, and suggested that the constitution of the state be so amended as to secure the introduction of a system making qualification, and not political services and influence, the chief test in determining appointments, and giving subordinates in the civil service the same permanence of place that is enjoyed by officers of the army and navy. He also advocated the appointment of judges, by the executive, for long terms, with adequate salaries, as best calculated to “afford to the citizen the amplest possible security that impartial justice will be administered by an independent judiciary.” In his correspondence with members of Congress, he urged a monthly reduction of the national debt as more important than a reduction of taxation, the abolition of the franking privilege, and the passage of a civil-service-reform law. In his message addressed to the legislature on 3 January, 1871, he recommended that the policy embodied in that provision of the state constitution which prohibited the state from creating any debt, save in a few exceptional cases, be extended to the creation of public debts by county, city, and other local authorities, and further that for the remuneration of public officers a system of fixed salaries, without fees and prerequisites, be adopted. Complaint having been made by the state commissioner of railroads and telegraphs that many “clear and palpable violations of law” had been committed by railroad companies, Governor Hayes asked, in his message of 1872, that a commission of five citizens be organized, with ample power to investigate the management of railroad companies, and to report the information acquired with a recommendation of such measures as they might deem expedient. He also, believing that “publicity is a great corrector of official abuses,” recommended that it be made the duty of the governor, on satisfactory information that the public good required an investigation of the affairs of any public office or the conduct of any public officer, whether state or local, to appoint one or more citizens, who should have ample powers to make such investigation. Governor Hayes's administration of the executive office of his state won general approval, without distinction of party. At the expiration of his term, when a senator of the United States was to be elected, and several Republican members of the legislature were disinclined to vote for John Sherman, who controlled a majority of the Republican votes, Governor Hayes was approached with the assurance that he could be elected senator by the anti-Sherman Republicans with the aid of the Democratic members of the legislature; but he positively declined.

In July, 1872, Governor Hayes was strongly urged by many Republicans in Cincinnati to accept a nomination for congress. Wishing to retire permanently from political life, he declined; but when he was nominated in spite of his protests, he finally yielded his consent. In his speeches during the canvass he put forward as the principal issues an honest financial policy and civil-service reform. Several sentences on civil-service reform that he pronounced in a speech at Glendale, on 4 September, 1872, were to appear again in his letter accepting the nomination for the presidency four years later. In 1872 the current of public sentiment in Cincinnati ran against the Republican Party, and Governor Hayes was defeated in the election by a majority of 1,500. President Grant offered him the office of assistant treasurer of the United States at Cincinnati, which he declined. In 1873 he established his home at Fremont, in the northern part of Ohio, with the firm intention of final retirement from public life. In 1874 he came into possession of a considerable estate as the heir of his uncle, Sardis Birchard. In 1875 the Republican state Convention again nominated him for the governorship. He not only had not desired that nomination, but whenever spoken or written to about it, uniformly replied that his retirement was absolute, and that neither his interests nor his tastes permitted him to accept. But the circumstances were such as to overcome his reluctance. In 1873 the Democratic candidate, William Allen (q. v.), was elected governor of Ohio. His administration was honest and economical, and he was personally popular, and his renomination by the Democratic Party in 1875 seemed to be a foregone conclusion. It was equally certain that the Democratic Convention would declare itself in favor of a circulation of irredeemable paper money, and against the resumption of specie payments. Under such circumstances the Republicans felt themselves compelled to put into the field against him the strongest available candidate they had, and a large majority of them turned at once to Governor Hayes. But he had declared himself in favor of Judge Taft, of Cincinnati, and urged the delegates from his county to vote for that gentleman, which they did. Notwithstanding this, the convention nominated Hayes on the first ballot by an overwhelming majority. When he, at Fremont, received the telegraphic announcement of his nomination, he at once wrote a letter declining the honor; but upon the further information that Judge Taft's son, withdrawing the name of his father, had moved in the convention to make the nomination unanimous, he accepted. Thus he became the leader of the advocates of a sound and stable currency in that memorable state canvass, the public discussions in which did so much to mold the sentiments of the people, especially in the western states, with regard to that important subject. The Democratic Convention adopted a platform declaring that the volume of the currency (meaning the irredeemable paper currency of the United States) should be made and kept equal to the wants of trade; that the national bank currency should be retired, and greenbacks issued in its stead; and that at least half of the customs duties should be made payable in the government paper money. The Republicans were by no means as united in favor of honest money as might have been desired, and Governor Hayes was appealed to by many of his party friends not to oppose an increase of the paper currency; but he resolutely declared his opinions in favor of honest money in a series of speeches, appealing to honor and sober judgment of the people with that warmth of patriotic feeling and that good sense in the statement of political issues which, uttered in language always temperate and kindly, gave him the ear of opponents as well as friends. The canvass, on account of the national questions involved in it, attracted attention in all parts of the country, and Governor Hayes was well supported by speakers from other states. Another subject had been thrust upon the people of Ohio by a legislative attempt to divide the school fund between Catholics and Protestants, and Hayes vigorously advocated the cause of secular education. After an ardent struggle, he carried the election by a majority of 5,500. He had thus not only won the distinction of being elected three times governor of his state, but, as the successful leader in a campaign for an honest money system, he was advanced to a very prominent position among the public men of the country, and his name appeared at once among those of possible candidates for the presidency.

While thus spoken of and written to, he earnestly insisted upon the maintenance by his party of an uncompromising position concerning the money question. To James A. Garfield he wrote in March, 1876: “The previous question will again be irredeemable paper as a permanent policy, or a policy which seeks a return to coin. My opinion is decidedly against yielding a hair-breadth.” On 29 March, 1876, the Republican state Convention of Ohio passed a resolution to present Rutherford B. Hayes to the National Republican Convention for the nomination for president, and instructing the state delegation to support him. The National Republican Convention met at Cincinnati on 14 June, 1876. The principal candidates before it were James G. Blaine, Oliver P. Morton, Benjamin H. Bristow, Roscoe Conkling, Governor Hayes, and John F. Hartranft. The name of Hayes was presented to the convention by General Noyes in an exceedingly judicious and well-tempered speech, dwelling not only upon his high personal character, but upon the fact that he had no enemies and possessed peculiarly the qualities “calculated best to compromise all difficulties and to soften all antagonisms.” Hayes had sixty-one votes on the first ballot, 378 being necessary to a choice, and his support slowly but steadily grew until on the seventh ballot the opposition to Mr. Blaine, who had been the leading candidate, concentrated upon Hayes, and gave him the nomination, which, on motion of William P. Frye, of Maine, was made unanimous. In his letter of acceptance, dated 8 July, 1876, Mr. Hayes laid especial stress upon three points, civil-service reform, the currency, and the pacification of the south. As to the civil service, he denounced the use of public offices for the purpose of rewarding party services, and especially for services rendered to party leaders, as destroying the independence of the separate departments of the government, as leading directly to extravagance and official incapacity, and as a temptation to dishonesty. He declared that a reform, “thorough, radical, and complete,” should lead us back to the principles and practices of the founders of the government, who “neither expected nor desired from the public officer any partisan service,” who meant “that public officers should owe their whole service to the government and to the people,” and that “the officer should be secure in his tenure as long as his personal character remained untarnished, and the performance of his duties satisfactory.” As to the currency, he regarded “all the laws of the United States relating to the payment of the public indebtedness, the legal-tender notes included, as constituting a pledge and moral obligation of the government, which must in good faith be kept.” He therefore insisted upon as early as possible a resumption of specie payments, pledging himself to “approve every appropriate measure to accomplish the desired end,” and to “oppose any step backward.” As to the pacification of the south, he pointed out, as the first necessity, “an intelligent and honest administration of the government, which will protect all classes of citizens in all their political and private rights.” He deprecated “a division of political parties resting merely upon distinctions of race, or upon sectional lines,” as always unfortunate and apt to become disastrous. He expressed the hope that with “a hearty and generous recognition of the rights of all by all,” it would be “practicable to promote, by the influence of all legitimate agencies of the general government, the efforts of the people of those states to obtain for themselves the blessings of honest and capable local government.” He also declared his “inflexible purpose,” if elected, not to be a candidate for election to a second term.

The Democrats nominated for the presidency Samuel J. Tilden, who, having, as governor of New York, won the reputation of a reformer, attracted the support of many Republicans who were dissatisfied with their party. The result of the election became the subject of acrimonious dispute. Both parties claimed to have carried the states of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. Each charged fraud upon the other, the Republicans affirming that Republican voters, especially colored men, all over the south had been deprived of their rights by intimidation or actual force, and that ballot-boxes had been foully dealt with, and the Democrats insisting that their candidates in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina had received a majority of the votes actually cast, and that the Republican canvassing boards were preparing to falsify the result in making up the returns. The friends of both the candidates for the presidency sent prominent men into the states in dispute, for the purpose of watching the proceedings of the canvassing boards. The attitude maintained by Mr. Hayes personally was illustrated by a letter addressed to John Sherman at New Orleans, which was brought to light by a subsequent congressional investigation. It was dated at Columbus, Ohio, 27 November, 1876, and said: “I am greatly obliged for your letter of the 23d. You feel, I am sure, as I do about this whole business. A fair election would have given us about forty electoral votes at the south — at least that many. But we are not to allow our friends to defeat one outrage and fraud by another. There must be nothing crooked on our part. Let Mr. Tilden have the place by violence, intimidation, and fraud, rather than undertake to prevent it by means that will not bear the severest scrutiny.” The canvassing boards of the states in question declared the Republican electors chosen, which gave Mr. Hayes a majority of one vote in the electoral college, and the certificates of these results were sent to Washington by the governors of the states. But the Democrats persisted in charging fraud; and other sets of certificates, certifying the Democratic electors to have been elected, arrived at Washington. To avoid a deadlock, which might have happened if the canvass of the electoral votes had been left to the two houses of Congress (the Senate having a Republican and the House of Representatives a Democratic majority), an act, advocated by members of both parties, was passed to refer all contested cases to a commission composed of five senators, five representatives, and five judges of the supreme court; the decision of this commission to be final, unless set aside by a concurrent vote of the two houses of Congress. The commission, refusing to go behind the certificates of the governors, decided in each contested case by a vote of eight to seven in favor of the Republican electors, beginning with Florida on 7 February, and Rutherford B. Hayes was at last, on 2 March, declared duly elected president of the United States. Thus ended the long and painful suspense. The decision was generally acquiesced in, and the popular excitement subsided quickly.

President Hayes was inaugurated on 5 March, 1877. In his inaugural address he substantially restated the principles and views of policy set forth in his letter of acceptance, adding that, while the president of necessity owes his election to the suffrage and zealous labors of a party, he should be always mindful that “he serves his party best who serves his country best,” and declaring also, referring to the contested election, that the general acceptance of the settlement by the two great parties of a dispute, “in regard to which good men differ as to the facts and the law, no less than as to the proper course to be pursued in solving the question in controversy,” was an “occasion for general rejoicing.” The cabinet that he appointed consisted of William M. Evarts, Secretary of State; John Sherman, secretary of the treasury; George W. McCrary, Secretary of War; Richard W. Thompson, Secretary of the Navy; David M. Key, postmaster-general; Charles Devens, Attorney-General; and Carl Schurz, Secretary of the Interior. The administration began under very unfavorable circumstances, as general business stagnation and severe distress had prevailed throughout the country since the crash of 1873. As soon as the cabinet was organized, the new president addressed himself to the composition of difficulties in several southern states. He had given evidence of his conciliatory disposition by taking into his cabinet a prominent citizen of the south who had been an officer in the Confederate Army and had actively opposed his election. In both South Carolina and Louisiana there were two sets of state officers and two legislatures, one Republican and the other Democratic, each claiming to have been elected by a majority of the popular vote. The presence of Federal troops at or near the respective state-houses had so far told in favor of the Republican claimants, while the Democratic claimants had the preponderance of support from the citizens of substance and influence. President Hayes was resolved that the upholding of local governments in the southern states by the armed forces of the United States must come to an end, and that, therefore, the Federal troops should be withdrawn from the position they then occupied; but he was at the same time anxious to have the change effected without any disturbance of the peace, and without imperilling the security or rights of any class of citizens. His plan was by conciliatory measures to put an end to the lawless commotions and distracting excitements that, ever since the close of the war, had kept a large part of the south in constant turmoil, and thus to open to that section a new career of peace and prosperity. He obtained from the southern leaders in Congress assurances that they would use their whole influence for the maintenance of good order and the protection of the rights and security of all, and for a union of the people in a natural understanding that, as to their former antagonisms, by-gones should be treated as by-gones. To the same end he invited the rival governors of South Carolina, Daniel H. Chamberlain and Wade Hampton, to meet him in conference at Washington; and he appointed a commission composed of eminent gentlemen, Democrats as well as Republicans — General Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut; Charles B. Lawrence, of Illinois; John M. Harlan, of Kentucky; Ex-Governor John C. Brown, of Tennessee; and Wayne McVeagh, of Pennsylvania — to go to Louisiana and there to ascertain what were “the real impediments to regular, loyal, and peaceful procedures under the laws and constitution of Louisiana,” and further, by conciliatory influences, to endeavor to remove “the obstacles to an acknowledgment of one government within the state,” or, if that were found impracticable, at least “to accomplish the recognition of a single legislature as the depositary of the representative will of the people of Louisiana.” The two rival governors — S. B. Packard, Republican, and Francis T. Nichols, Democrat — stoutly maintained their respective claims; but the two legislatures united into one, a majority of the members of both houses, whose election was conceded on both sides, meeting and organizing under the auspices of the Nichols government. President Hayes, having received the necessary assurances of peace and goodwill, issued instructions to withdraw the troops of the United States from the state-house of South Carolina on 10 April, 1877, and from the state-house of Louisiana on 20 April, 1877, whereupon in South Carolina the state government passed peaceably into the hands of Wade Hampton, and in Louisiana into those of Francis T. Nichols. The course thus pursued by President Hayes was, in the north as well as in the south, heartily approved by a large majority of the people, to whom the many scandals springing from the interference of the general government in the internal affairs of the southern states had become very obnoxious, and who desired the southern states to be permitted to work out their own salvation. But this policy was also calculated to loosen the hold that the Republican Party had upon the southern states, and was therefore severely criticised by many Republican politicians.

President Hayes began his administration with earnest efforts for the reform of the civil service. In some of the departments competitive examinations were resumed for the appointment of clerks. In filling other offices, political influence found much less regard than had been the custom before. The pretension of senators and representatives that the “patronage” in their respective states and districts belonged to them was not recognized, although in many cases their advice was taken. The president's appointments were generally approved by public opinion, but he was blamed for appointing persons connected with the Louisiana returning-board. On 26 May, 1877, he addressed a letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, expressing the wish “that the collection of the revenues should be free from partisan control, and organized on a strictly business basis, with the same guarantees for efficiency and fidelity in the selection of the chief and subordinate officers that would be required by a prudent merchant,” and that “party leaders should have no more influence in appointments than other equally respectable citizens.” On 22 June, 1877, he issued the following executive order: “No officer should be required or permitted to take part in the management of political organizations, caucuses, conventions, or election campaigns. Their right to vote or to express their views on public questions, either orally or through the press, is not denied, provided it does not interfere with the discharge of their official duties. No assessment for political purposes, on officers or subordinates, should be allowed. This rule is applicable to every department of the civil service. It should be understood by every officer of the general government that he is expected to conform his conduct to its requirements.” The policy thus indicated found much favor with the people generally, and not a few men in public life heartily approved of it. But the bulk of the professional politicians, who saw themselves threatened in their livelihood, and many members of Congress, who looked upon government patronage as a part of their perquisites, and the distribution of offices among their adherents as the means by which to hold the party together and to maintain themselves in public office, became seriously alarmed and began a systematic warfare upon the president and his cabinet.

The administration was from the beginning surrounded with a variety of difficulties. Congress had adjourned on 3 March, 1877, without making the necessary appropriations for the support of the army, so that from 30 June the army would remain without pay until new provision could be made. The president, therefore, on 5 May, 1877, called an extra session of Congress to meet on 15 October But in the meantime a part of the army was needed for active service of a peculiarly trying kind. In July strikes broke out among the men employed upon railroads, beginning on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and then rapidly spreading over a large part of the northern states. It is estimated that at one time more than 100,000 men were out. Grave disorders occurred, and the president found himself appealed to by the governors of West Virginia, of Maryland, and of Pennsylvania to aid them with the Federal power in suppressing domestic violence, which the authorities of their respective states were not able to master. He issued his proclamations on 18, 21, and 23 July, and sent into the above-mentioned states such detachments of the Federal Army as were available. Other detachments were ordered to Chicago. Whenever the troops of the United States appeared, however small the force, they succeeded in restoring order without bloodshed — in fact, without meeting with any resistance, while the state militia in many instances had bloody encounters with the rioters, sometimes with doubtful result.

In his first annual message, 3 December, 1877, President Hayes congratulated the country upon the results of the policy he had followed with regard to the south. He said: “All apprehension of danger from remitting those states to local self-government is dispelled, and a most salutary change in the minds of the people has begun and is in progress in every part of that section of the country once the theatre of unhappy civil strife; substituting for suspicion, distrust, and aversion, concord, friendship, and patriotic attachment to the Union. No unprejudiced mind will deny that the terrible and often fatal collisions which for several years have been of frequent occurrence, and have agitated and alarmed the public mind, have almost entirely ceased, and that a spirit of mutual forbearance and hearty national interest has succeeded. There has been a general re-establishment of order, and of the orderly administration of justice; instances of remaining lawlessness have become of rare occurrence; political turmoil and turbulence have disappeared; useful industries have been resumed; public credit in the southern states has been greatly strengthened and the encouraging benefit of a revival of commerce between the sections of country lately embroiled in Civil War are fully enjoyed.” He also strongly urged the resumption of specie payments. As to the difficulties to be met in this respect he said: “I must adhere to my most earnest conviction that any wavering in purpose or unsteadiness in methods, so far from avoiding or reducing the inconvenience inseparable from the transition from an irredeemable to a redeemable paper currency, would only tend to increased and prolonged disturbance in values, and, unless retrieved, must end in serious disorder, dishonor, and disaster in the financial affairs of the government and of the people.” As to the restoration of silver as a legal tender, which was at the time being agitated, he insisted that “all the bonds issued since 12 February, 1873, when gold became the only unlimited legal-tender metallic currency of the country, are justly payable in gold coin, or in coin of equal value”; and that “the bonds issued prior to 1873 were issued at a time when the gold dollar was the only coin in circulation or contemplated by either the government or the holders of the bonds as the coin in which they were to be paid.” He added: “It is far better to pay these bonds in that coin than to seem to take advantage of the unforeseen fall in silver bullion to pay in a new issue of silver coin thus made so much less valuable. The power of the United States to coin money and to regulate the value thereof ought never to be exercised for the purpose of enabling the government to pay its obligations in a coin of less value than that contemplated by the parties when the bonds were issued.” He favored the coinage of silver, but only in a limited quantity, as a legal tender to a limited amount. He expressed the fear “that only mischief and misfortune would flow from a coinage of silver dollars with the quality of unlimited legal tender, even in private transactions. Any expectation of temporary ease from an issue of silver coinage to pass as a legal tender, at a rate materially above its commercial value, is, I am persuaded, a delusion.” As to the reform of the civil service, he reiterated what he had said in his letter of acceptance and inaugural address, and insisted that the constitution imposed upon the executive the sole duty and responsibility of the selection of Federal officers who, by law, are appointed, not elected; he deprecated the practical confusion, in this respect, of the duties assigned to the several departments of the government, and earnestly recommended that Congress make a suitable appropriation for the civil-service commission, to be made immediately available. He also recommended efficient legislation for the work of civilization among the Indian tribes, and for the prevention of the destruction of the forests on lands of the United States.

The recommendations thus made by President Hayes were not heeded by Congress. No appropriation was made for the civil-service commission: on the contrary, the dissatisfaction of Republican senators and representatives with the endeavors of the administration in the direction of civil-service reform found vent in various attacks upon the president and the heads of departments. The nomination of one of the foremost citizens of New York for the office of collector of customs at that port was rejected by the Senate. The efforts of the administration to check depredations on the timber-lands of the United States, and to prevent the destruction of the forests, were denounced as an outlandish policy. Instead of facilitating the resumption of specie payments, the House of Representatives passed a bill substantially repealing the resumption act. A resolution was offered by a Republican senator, and adopted by the Senate, declaring that to restore the coinage of 412½-grain silver dollars and to pay the government bonds, principal and interest, in such silver coin, was “not in violation of the public faith, nor in derogation of the rights of the public creditor.” A “silver bill” passed both houses providing that a silver dollar should be coined at the several mints of the United States, of the weight of 412½ grains, which, together with all silver dollars of like weight and fineness coined theretofore by the United States, should be a full legal tender for all debts and dues, public and private, except where otherwise expressly stipulated in the contract, and directing the secretary of the treasury to buy not less than two million dollars' worth of silver a month, and cause it to be coined into dollars as fast as purchased. President Hayes returned this bill with his veto, mainly on the ground that the commercial value of the silver dollar was then worth eight to ten per cent. less than its nominal value, and that its use as a legal tender for the payment of pre-existing debts would be an act of bad faith. He said: “As to all debts heretofore contracted, the silver dollar should be made a legal tender only at its market value. The standard of value should not be changed without the consent of both parties to the contract. National promises should be kept with unflinching fidelity. There is no power to compel a nation to pay its just debts. Its credit depends on its honor. A nation owes what it has led or allowed its creditors to expect. I cannot approve a bill which in my judgment authorizes the violation of sacred obligations.” But the bill was passed over the veto in both houses by majorities exceeding two thirds. During the same session the House of Representatives, which had a Democratic majority, on motion of Clarkson N. Potter, of New York, resolved to institute an inquiry into the allegations of fraud said to have been committed in Louisiana and Florida in making the returns of the votes cast for presidential electors at the election of 1876. The Republicans charged that the investigation was set on foot for the purpose of ousting Mr. Hayes from the presidency and putting in Mr. Tilden. The Democrats disclaimed any such intention. The result of the investigation was an elaborate report from the Democratic majority of the committee, impugning the action of the returning boards in Louisiana and Florida as fraudulent, and a report from the Republican minority dissenting from the conclusions of the majority as unwarranted by the evidence, and alleging that the famous “cipher despatches” sent to the south by friends of Mr. Tilden showed “that the charges of corruption were but the slanders of foiled suborners of corruption.” The investigation led to no further action; the people generally acquiescing in the decision of the electoral commission, and the counting of the electoral vote by Congress based thereon, as irreversible.

President Hayes was again obliged to resort to the employment of force by the outbreak of serious disturbances caused by bands of desperadoes in the territory of New Mexico, which amounted to organized resistance to the enforcement of the laws. He issued, on 7 October, 1878, a proclamation substantially putting the disturbed portion of New Mexico under martial law, and directing the U. S. Military forces stationed there to restore and maintain peace and order.

In his message of 2 December, 1878, President Hayes found himself obliged to say that in Louisiana and South Carolina, and in some districts outside of those states, “the records of the recent [Congressional] elections compelled the conclusion that the rights of the colored voters had been overridden, and their participation in the elections not been permitted to be either general or free.” He added that, while it would be for Congress to examine into the validity of the claims of members to their seats, it became the duty of the executive and judicial departments of the government to inquire into and punish violations of the laws, and that every means in his power would be exerted to that end. At the same time he expressed his “absolute assurance that, while the country had not yet reached complete unity of feeling and confidence between the communities so lately and so seriously estranged, the tendencies were in that direction, and with increasing force.” He deprecated all interference by Congress with existing financial legislation, with the confident expectation that the resumption of specie payments would be “successfully and easily maintained,” and would be “followed by a healthful and enduring revival of business prosperity.” On 1 January, 1879, the resumption act went into operation without any difficulty. No preparation had been made for that event until the beginning of the Hayes administration. The Secretary of the Treasury, in 1877, began to accumulate coin, and, notwithstanding the opposition it found, even among Republicans, this policy was firmly pursued by the administration until the coin reserve held against the legal-tender notes was sufficient to meet all probable demands. Thus the country was lifted out of the bog of an irredeemable paper currency. The operation was facilitated by increased exports and a general revival of business. Although his first nominee for the office of collector of customs in New York had been rejected by the Senate, President Hayes made a second nomination for the same place, as well as for that of naval officer of the same port, and in a special message addressed to the Senate on 31 January, 1879, he gave the following reasons for the suspension of the incumbents, Chester A. Arthur and Alonzo B. Cornell, who had failed to conform their conduct to the executive order of 22 June, 1877: “For a long period of time it [the New York custom-house] has been used to manage and control political affairs. The officers suspended by me are, and for several years have been, engaged in the active personal management of the party politics of the city and state of New York. The duties of the offices held by them have been regarded as of subordinate importance to their partisan work. Their offices have been conducted as part of the political machinery under their control. They have made the custom-house a centre of partisan political management.” [For the other side of this disputed question, see
Arthur, Chester Alan, vol. i., pp. 100, 101.] For like reasons, President Hayes moved an influential party manager in the west, the postmaster of St. Louis. With the aid of Democratic votes in the Senate, the new nominations were confirmed. President Hayes then addressed a letter to the new collector of customs at New York, General Edwin A. Merritt, instructing him to conduct his office “on strictly business principles, and according to the rules which were adopted, on the recommendation of the civil-service commission, by the administration of General Grant.” He added: “Neither my recommendation, nor that of the Secretary of the Treasury, nor the recommendation of any member of Congress, or other influential person, should be specially regarded. Let appointments and removals be made on business principles, and by fixed rules.” Thus the system of competitive examinations, which under the preceding administration had been abandoned upon the failure of Congress to make appropriations for the civil-service commission, was, by direction of President Hayes, restored in the custom-house of New York. A like system was introduced in the New York post-office under the postmaster, Thomas L. James.

Congress passed a bill “to restrict the immigration of Chinese to the United States,” requiring the president immediately to give notice to the government of China of the abrogation of certain articles of the treaty of 1858 between the United States and China, which recognized “the inherent and inalienable right of a man to change his home and allegiance,” and provided that “the citizens of the United States visiting or residing in China shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities, or exemptions, in respect to travel or residence, as may there be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation,” and reciprocally that Chinese subjects should enjoy the same advantages in the United States. The bill further limited the number of Chinese passengers that might be brought to this country by any one vessel to fifteen. President Hayes, on 1 March, 1879, returned the bill to Congress with his veto. While recognizing some of the difficulties created by the immigration of the Chinese as worthy of consideration, he objected to the bill mainly on the ground that it was inconsistent with existing treaty relations between the United States and China; that a treaty could be abrogated or modified by the treaty-making power, and not, under the constitution, by act of Congress; and that “the abrogation of a treaty by one of the contracting parties is justifiable only upon reasons both of the highest justice and of the highest necessity”; and “to do this without notice, without fixing a day in advance when the act shall take effect, without affording an opportunity to China to be heard, and without the happening of any grave unforeseen emergency, would be regarded by the enlightened judgment of mankind as the denial of the obligation of the national faith.”

The 45th Congress adjourned on 4 March, 1879, without making the usual and necessary appropriations for the expenses of the government. The house, controlled by a Democratic majority, attached to the Army appropriation bill a legislative provision substantially repealing a law passed in 1865, under President Lincoln, which permitted the use of troops “to keep the peace at the polls” on election-days. The house also attached to the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill a repeal of existing laws providing for the appointment of supervisors of election and special deputy marshals to act at elections of members of Congress. The Republican majority of the Senate struck out these legislative provisions, and, the two houses disagreeing, the appropriation bills failed. President Hayes, on 4 March, 1879, called an extra session of Congress to meet on 18 March. The Democrats then had a majority in the Senate as well as in the house, and attached to the Army appropriation bill the same legislative provision on which in the preceding Congress the two houses had disagreed. President Hayes returned the bill with his veto on 29 April, 1879. He took the ground that there was ample legislation to prevent military interference at elections; that there never had been any such interference since the passage of the act of 1865, and was no danger of any; that if the proposed legislation should become law, there would be no power vested in any officer of the government to protect from violence the officers of the United States engaged in the discharge of their duties; that the states may employ both military and civil power to keep the peace, and to enforce the laws at state elections, but that it was now proposed to deny to the United States even the necessary civil authority to protect the national elections. He pointed out also that the tacking of legislative provisions to appropriation bills was a practice calculated to be used as a means of coercion as to the other branches of the government, and to make the House of Representatives a despotic power. Congress then passed the Army appropriation bill without the obnoxious clause, but containing the provision that no money appropriated should be paid for the subsistence, equipment, transportation, or compensation of any portion of the army of the United States “to be used as a police force to keep the peace at the polls at any election held within any state.” This President Hayes approved. The two houses then passed a separate bill, substantially embodying the provision objected to by the president in the vetoed Army-appropriation bill. This “act to prohibit military interference at elections” President Hayes returned with his veto. He said: “The true rule as to the employment of military force at the elections is not doubtful. No intimidation or coercion should be allowed to influence citizens in the exercise of their right to vote, whether it appears in the shape of combinations of evil-disposed persons, or of armed bodies of the militia of a state, or of the military force of the United States. The elections should be free from all forcible interference, and, as far as practicable, from all apprehension of such interference. No soldiery, either of the United States or of the state militia, should be present at the polls to perform the duties of the ordinary civil police force. There has been and will be no violation of this rule under orders from me during this administration. That there should be no denial of the right of the national government to employ its military force on any day and at any place in case such employment is necessary to enforce the constitution and laws of the United States.” The legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill passed by Congress contained a legislative provision not, indeed, abolishing the supervisors of election, but divesting the government of the power to protect them, or to prevent interference with their duties, or to punish any violation of the law from which their power was derived. President Hayes returned this bill also with his veto, referring to his preceding veto message as to the impropriety of tacking general legislation to appropriation bills. He further pointed out that, in the various legal proceedings under the law sought to be repealed, its constitutionality had never been questioned; and that the necessity of such a law had been amply demonstrated by the great election frauds in New York City in 1868. He added: “The great body of the people of all parties want free and fair elections. They do not think that a free election means freedom from the wholesome restraints of law, or that the place of an election should be a sanctuary for lawlessness and crime.” If any oppression, any partisan partiality, had been shown in the execution of the existing law, he added, efficient correctives of the mischief should be applied; but as no congressional election was immediately impending, the matter might properly be referred to the regular session of Congress.

In a bill “making appropriations for certain judicial expenses,” passed by Congress, it was attempted not to repeal the election laws, but to make their enforcement impossible by prohibiting the payment of any salaries, fees, or expenses under or in virtue of them, and providing also that no contract should be made, and no liability incurred, under any of their provisions. President Hayes vetoed this bill, 23 June, 1879, on the ground that as no bill repealing the election laws had been passed over his veto, those laws were still in existence, and the present bill, if it became a law, would make it impossible for the executive to perform his constitutional duty to see to it that the laws be faithfully executed. On the same ground the president returned with his veto a bill making appropriations to pay fees of United States marshals and their general deputies, in which the same attempt was made to defeat the execution of the election laws by withholding the necessary funds as well as the power to incur liabilities under them. All the appropriation bills were passed without the obnoxious provisions except the last. President Hayes appealed to Congress in a special message on 30 June, 1879, the end of the fiscal year, not to permit the marshals and their general deputies, officers so necessary to the administration of justice, to go unprovided for, but in vain. The Attorney-General then admonished the marshals to continue in the performance of their duties, and to rely upon future legislation by Congress, which would be just to them.

In his annual message of 1 December, 1879, President Hayes found occasion to congratulate the country upon the successful resumption of specie payments and upon “a very great revival of business.” He announced a most gratifying reduction of the interest on the public debt by refunding at lower rates. He strongly urged Congress to authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to suspend the silver coinage, as the cheaper coin, if forced into circulation, would eventually become the sole standard of value. He also recommended the retirement of United States notes with the capacity of legal tender in private contracts, it being his “firm conviction that the issue of legal-tender paper money based wholly upon the authority and credit of the government, except in extreme emergency, is without warrant in the constitution, and a violation of sound financial principles.” He recommended a vigorous enforcement of the laws against polygamy in the territory of Utah. He presented a strong argument in favor of civil-service reform, pointed out the successful trial of the competitive system in the interior department, the post-office department, and the post-office and the custom-house in New York, and once more earnestly urged that an appropriation be made for the civil-service commission, and that those in the public service be protected by law against exactions in the pay of party assessments. But these recommendations remained without effect.

On 12 February, 1880, President Hayes issued a second proclamation — the first having been issued in April, 1879 — against the attempts made by lawless persons to possess themselves for settlement of lands within the Indian territory, and effective measures were taken to expel the invaders. On 8 March, 1880, he sent to the House of Representatives a special message communicating correspondence in relation to the interoceanic canal, which had passed between the American and foreign governments, and expressing his own opinion on the subject as follows: “The policy of this country is a canal under American control. The United States cannot consent to the surrender of this control to any European power, or to any combination of European powers. If existing treaties between the United States and other nations, or if the rights of sovereignty or property of other nations, stand in the way of this policy — a contingency which is not apprehended — suitable steps should be taken by just and liberal negotiations to promote and establish the American policy on this subject, consistently with the rights of the nations to be affected by it. An interoceanic canal across the American isthmus will be the great ocean thoroughfare between our Atlantic and our Pacific shores, and virtually a part of the coast-line of the United States. No other great power would, under similar circumstances, fail to assert a rightful control over a work so closely and vitally affecting its interest and welfare.” Congress passed a deficiency appropriation bill, which contained provisions materially changing, and, by implication, repealing certain important parts of the election laws. President Hayes, on 4 May, 1880, returned the bill with his veto, whereupon Congress made the appropriation without re-enacting the obnoxious clauses.

In November, 1880, was held the election that put James A. Garfield into the presidential chair and proved conclusively that the Republican Party had gained largely in the confidence of the public during the Hayes administration. In his last annual message, 6 December, 1880, President Hayes again mentioned the occurrence of election disorders in a part of the Union, and the necessity of their repression and correction, but declared himself satisfied, at the same time, that the evil was diminishing. Again he argued in favor of civil-service reform, especially competitive examinations, which had been conducted with great success in some of the executive departments and adopted by his direction in the larger custom-houses and post-offices. He reiterated his recommendation of an appropriation for the civil-service commission, and of a law against political assessments. He also, to stop the interference of members of Congress with the civil service, suggested that an act be passed “defining the relations of members of Congress with regard to appointments to office by the president,” and that the tenure-of-office act be repealed. He recommended “that Congress provide for the government of Utah by a governor and judges, or commissioners, appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate — a government analogous to the provisional government established for the territory northwest of the Ohio, by the ordinance of 1787,” dispensing with an elected territorial legislature. He announced that on 17 November two treaties had been signed at Peking by the commissioners of the United States and the plenipotentiaries of the emperor of China — one purely commercial, and the other authorizing the government of the United States, whenever the immigration of Chinese laborers threatened to affect the interests of the country, to regulate, limit, or suspend such immigration, but not altogether to prohibit it, said government at the same time promising to secure to Chinese permanently or temporarily residing in the United States the same protection and rights as to citizens or subjects of the most favored nation. President Hayes further suggested the importance of making provision for regular steam postal communication with the Central and South American states; he recommended that Congress, by suitable legislation and with proper safeguards, supplement the local educational funds in the several states where the grave duties and responsibilities of citizenship have been devolved upon uneducated people, by devoting to the purpose grants of lands, and, if necessary, by appropriations from the treasury of the United States; he repeated his recommendations as to the suspension of the silver coinage, and as to the retirement from circulation of the United States notes, and added one that provision be made by law to put General Grant upon the retired list of the army, with rank and pay befitting the great services he had rendered to the country.

On 1 February, 1880, he addressed a special message to Congress in relation to the Ponca Indians, in which he pointed out the principles that should guide our Indian policy: preparation for citizenship by industrial and general education; allotment of land in severalty, inalienable for a certain period; fair compensation for Indian lands not required for allotment; and, finally, investment of the Indians, so educated and provided for, with the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. His last communication to Congress, 3 March, 1881, was a message returning with his veto a bill “to facilitate the refunding of the national debt,” which contained a provision seriously impairing the value and tending to the destruction of the national banking system. On the following day he assisted at the inauguration of his successor.

The administration of President Hayes, although much attacked by the politicians of both parties, was on the whole very satisfactory to the people at large. By withdrawing the Federal troops from the southern state-houses, and restoring to the people of those states practical self-government, it prepared the way for that revival of patriotism among those lately estranged from the Union, that fraternal feeling between the two sections of the country, and the wonderful material advancement of the south which we now witness. It conducted with wisdom and firmness the preparations for the resumption of specie payments, as well as the funding of the public debt at lower rates of interest, and thus facilitated the development of the remarkable business prosperity that continued to its close. While in its endeavors to effect a thorough and permanent reform of the civil service there were conspicuous lapses and inconsistencies, it accomplished important and lasting results. Not only without any appropriations of money and without encouragement of any kind from Congress, but in the face of the decided hostility of a large majority of its members, the system of competitive examinations was successfully applied in some of the executive departments at Washington and in the great government offices at New York, thus proving its practicability and usefulness. The removal by President Hayes of some of the most powerful party managers from their offices, avowedly on the ground that the offices had been used as part of the political machinery, was an act of high courage, and during his administration there was far less meddling with party politics on the part of officers of the government than at any period since Andrew Jackson's time. The success of the Republican Party in the election of 1880 was largely owing to the general satisfaction among the people with the Hayes administration.

On the expiration of his term, ex-President Hayes retired to his home at Fremont, Ohio. He was the recipient of various distinctions. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Kenyon College, Harvard University, Yale College, and Johns Hopkins University. He was made senior vice-commander of the military order of the Loyal legion, commander of the Ohio commandery of the same order, the first president of the Society of the Army of West Virginia, and president of the 23d Regiment Ohio Volunteers association. Much of his time is devoted to benevolent and useful enterprises. He is president of the trustees of the John F. Slater education-fund, one of the trustees of the Peabody education-fund, president of the National prison-reform association, an active member of the National conference of corrections and charities, a trustee of the Western Reserve University at Cleveland, Ohio, of the Wesleyan University of Delaware, Ohio, of Mount Union College, at Alliance, Ohio, and of several other charitable and educational institutions. On the occasion of a meeting of the National prison-reform association, held at Atlanta, Georgia, in November, 1886, he was received with much popular enthusiasm, and greeted by an ex-governor of Georgia as one to whom, more than to any other, the people were indebted for the era of peace and union which they now enjoyed, and by the present governor, John B. Gordon, as the man who had “made a true and noble effort to complete the restoration of the Union by restoring fraternal feeling between the estranged sections.” See “Life, Public Services, and Select Speeches of Rutherford B. Hayes,” by James Quay Howard (Cincinnati, 1876). Campaign lives were also written by William D. Howells (New York, 1876) and Russell H. Conwell (Boston, 1876). — His wife, Lucy Ware Webb, born in Chillicothe, Ohio, 28 August, 1831; died in Fremont, Ohio, 25 June, 1889. She was the daughter of a physician, and married in 1852. Of eight children, four sons and one daughter are living. Mrs. Hayes was noted for her devotion to the wounded soldiers during the war. She refused to permit wine to be served on the White House table, and for this innovation incurred much censure in some political circles, but received high praise from the advocates of total abstinence, who, on the expiration of her husband's term of office, presented her with various testimonials, including an album filled with autograph expressions of approval from many prominent persons.  Appleton’s  1888, 1892 pp. 134-143.

HAYMAN, Samuel Brinkle, soldier, born in Chester County. Pennsylvania. 5 June, 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, became 1st lieutenant of infantry in 1847, captain in 1855, major in 1863. and lieutenant-colonel in 1867. During the Mexican War he was in several important battles, participating in the assault and capture of the city of Mexico. He served throughout the Civil War with the Army of the Potomac, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Chancellorsville. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in June, 1863, and afterward participated in the battles of Kelly's Ford, Mine Run, and the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, 1864, where he was wounded and brevetted colonel. In March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Fair Oaks. In 1865-'6 he was acting assistant provost-marshal-general, and disbursing officer at Elmira, New York. He took command at Fort Dakota in 1866, and was retired in 1872. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 143.

HAYNIE, Isham Nicolas, soldier, born in Dover, Tennessee, 18 November, 1824; died in Springfield, Illinois, in November, 1868. He moved to Illinois in early childhood, received little education, and worked on a farm to obtain means to study law, in which he was licensed to practise in 1846. He served throughout the Mexican War as 1st lieutenant of the 6th Illinois Volunteers, resumed his profession in 1849, and was a member of the legislature in 1850. He was graduated at the Kentucky laws school in 1852, and in 1856 was appointed judge of the court of common pleas at Cairo, Illinois. He canvassed the state as presidential elector on the Douglas ticket in 1860, and in 1861 raised and organized the 48th Illinois Infantry, being commissioned its colonel. He participated in the battles of Fort Henry, Port Donelson, Shiloh, where he was severely wounded, and Corinth. He was defeated as war candidate for Congress in 1862, and on 20 November of this year received the appointment of brigadier-general of volunteers. He resumed his profession in 1864, and subsequently became adjutant-general of Illinois.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 146.

HAYS, Alexander, soldier, born in Franklin, Venango County, Pennsylvania, 8 July, 1819; killed in the battle of the Wilderness, 5 May, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1844 with Winfield S. Hancock and Alfred Pleasonton. As 2d lieutenant of the 8th U.S. Infantry, he entered on the Mexican Campaign, and won special distinction in the engagement near Atlixco. In April, 1848, he resigned his commission in the army, and settled in Venango County, Pennsylvania, where he engaged in the manufacture of iron in 1848-'50, was assistant engineer on railroads in 1850-'4, and from 1854 till 1861 was a civil engineer in Pittsburg. When the war began in 1861, Hays re-entered the service as colonel of the 63d Pennsylvania Regiment, and with the rank of captain in the 16th regular Infantry, to date from 14 May, 1861. In the Peninsula he was attached with his regiment to the first brigade of Kearny's division of Heintzelman's corps, and at the close of the seven day’s contest he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. He took part in the Maryland Campaign, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 September, 1862. He was wounded at Chancellorsville while at the head of his brigade. He commanded the 3d Division of his corps at the battle of Gettysburg, and, after Hancock was wounded, was temporarily in command, gaining the brevet of colonel in the United States Army. He was engaged at Auburn and Mine Run. When the Army of the Potomac was reorganized, Hays was placed in command of the second brigade of Birney's 3d Division of the 2d Corps. In this capacity he fought, and gallantly met his death during the terrible struggle toward the junction of the Plank and Brock roads, which was the feature of the first day's fighting in the Wilderness. General Hays was frank and brave, quick and full of energy, and was a great favorite with his men.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 146.

HAYS, William, soldier, born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1819; died in Fort Independence, Boston harbor, 7 February, 1875. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and promoted 1st lieutenant in 1847, captain in 1853, and major in 1863. He served throughout the Mexican War with the light artillery. He was wounded at Molino del Rey, and brevetted captain and major. From 1853 till 1854 he was engaged in the Seminole Indian Wars, and was on frontier duty in 1856-'60. He commanded a brigade of horse-artillery in 1861-'2 in the Army of the Potomac, participating in the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers in November, 1862. He was wounded and taken prisoner at Chancellorsville, 6 May, 1863, rejoined the army at Gettysburg, and in November was appointed provost-marshal of the Southern District of New York. At the expiration of his term in February, 1865, he rejoined his regiment at Petersburg, and served with the 2d Corps, and in command of the reserve artillery until the close of the war, when he was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for gallant conduct. He was mustered out of volunteer service in 1866 with the rank of major, and served on various posts, commanding Fort Independence from 29 April, 1873, till his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 147.  

HAYWOOD, Edmund Burke, physician, born in Raleigh, North Carolina, 13 June, 1825, was educated at the University of North Carolina, and took his medical degree in 1849 at the University of Pennsylvania. He began practice in Raleigh, where he now (1887) resides. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon in the Confederate Army in charge of the hospitals in Raleigh and in Richmond, Virginia, and was acting medical director of the Department of North Carolina, and president of the board to grant discharges from 1863 till the close of the war, when he returned to practice. He was president of the Medical Association of North Carolina in 1868, and from 1871 till 1877, of the State insane asylum. He was a delegate to the International Medical Congress in Philadelphia in 1876. He has contributed various professional papers to surgical and medical journals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 148.

HAZEN, William Babcock, soldier, born in West Hartford, Vermont, 27 September, 1830; died in Washington, D. C, 16 January, 1887. He was a descendant of Moses Hazen, noticed above. His parents moved to Ohio in 1833. William was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1855, and, after serving against the Indians in California and Oregon, joined the 8th U.S. Infantry in Texas in 1857. He commanded successfully in five engagements, until, in December, 1859, he was severely wounded in a personal encounter with the Comanches. He was appointed assistant professor of infantry tactics at the U. S. Military Academy in February, 1861, 1st lieutenant, 6 April, and promoted captain on 14 May. In the autumn of 1861 he raised the 41st Ohio Volunteers, of which he became colonel on 29 October, 1861, and commanded in the defence of the Ohio frontier and in operations in Kentucky. On 6 January, 1862, he took command of a brigade and served with distinction at Shiloh and Corinth. In the battle of Stone River, 12 October, 1862, he protected the left wing of the army from being turned by simultaneous attacks in front and flank. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, commanded a brigade in the operations that resulted in the battle of Chickamauga, and, by a well-executed movement on 27 October, at Brown's Ferry, enabled the army at Chattanooga to receive its supplies. He captured eighteen pieces of artillery at Mission Ridge, served through the Atlanta Campaign, and in Sherman's march to the sea commanded the 2d Division of the 15th Corps. He assaulted and captured Fort McAllister, 13 December, 1864, for which service he was promoted a major-general of volunteers the same day. He was in command of the 15th Army Corps from 19 May till 1 August, 1865. At the end of the war he had received all the brevets in the regular army up to major-general. He was made colonel of the 38th U.S. Infantry in 1866, was in France during the Franco-Prussian War, and was U. S. Military attaché at Vienna during the Russo-Turkish War. In the interval between those two visits, while stationed at Fort Buford, Dakota, he made charges of fraud against post-traders, which resulted in revelations that were damaging to Secretary Belknap. On 8 December, 1880, he succeeded General Albert J. Meyer as chief signal-officer, with the rank of brigadier-general. His administration was marked by the expedition of Lieutenant A. W. Greely to Lady Franklin Bay, and by another to Point Barrow, Alaska, to make meteorological and other observations in co-operation with European nations. (See Greely, A. W.) In September, 1883, after the return of Lieutenant Garlington's unsuccessful relief expedition, General Hazen urged the Secretary of War to despatch a sealer immediately to rescue Greely, and, his recommendation not having been acted upon, he severely censured Secretary Lincoln. In consequence of this, General Hazen was court-martialed and reprimanded. General Hazen introduced the "cold wave signal," promoted the use of local and railway weather signals, organized special observations for the cotton-producing states, established frost warnings, and initiated forecasts for vessels coming to this country from Europe. He published "The School and the Army in Germany and Prance, with a Diary of Siege-Life at Versailles" (New York, 1872); "Barren Lands of the Interior of the United States" (Cincinnati, 1874); and "Narrative of a Military Career" (Boston, 1885).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 150-151.