American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated August 19, 2018













l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips











l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - Hea-Hyd



 


Access Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography here:



A                    B                    C                    D                    E                    F               

                      Bab-Blu         Cab-Clu
                      Boa-Byr         Cob-Cuy
   



G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

                      Hab-Has
                      Hea-Hyd



M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R

McA-May
Mea-Mye



S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha                                                                             Wad-Whe
She-Spo                                                                             Whi-Wyt
Spr-Sza


 


      



Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – Hea-Hyd



HEAD, Natt, Governor of New Hampshire, born in Hookset, New Hampshire, 20 May, 1828; died there, 12 November, 1883. His great-grandfather was a lieutenant-colonel in the war of the Revolution, losing his life at the battle of Bennington, and his grandfather served also in that war. Natt engaged in the manufacture of bricks and lumber in Hookset, and later became a railroad and general building contractor. He early connected himself with military organizations, held various offices, and sat in the legislatures of 1861 and 1862. From 1864 till 1870 he was adjutant-general of the state. When he was called to this office New Hampshire had furnished 26,000 men to the national service, but had not a complete set of the muster-rolls of a single organization, nor was there a record of the deeds of New Hampshire men on the battle-fields. General Head obtained the records of the career of every officer and enlisted man, and published them in four volumes (1865-'6), with biographical sketches of field-officers killed or who died in the service, besides sketches of the regiments and battalions. General Head also compiled the military records of the state from 1823 to 1861. When the Soldiers' Asylum at Augusta, Maine, was burned he was placed in charge of the institution during the illness of the deputy-governor, and subsequently rebuilt it. General Head was president of the New Hampshire Agricultural Society, and was prominent in furthering the agricultural interests of the state, and of the patrons of husbandry. He was chosen to the state senate in 1876 and 1877, and was president of the senate the last year. Under the new constitutional amendment of the state providing for biennial elections, he was chosen governor, to serve for two years, 1879-'80. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 152.



HEAP, Gwynn Harris, diplomatist, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, 23 March, 1817; died in Constantinople, Turkey, 6 March, 1887. His great-grandfather, George, was sent by the British government to Pennsylvania as surveyor-general. One of the earliest maps of Philadelphia was made by him, and is preserved in the Pennsylvania library in that city. In 1839-'40 Gwynn served as vice and acting consul in Tunis, where his father had been appointed consul in 1825. He was appointed a government clerk in Washington, D. C, in 1846,and in 1855-'7 was employed by the war department in Turkey in the purchase of camels. In 1861, being then a clerk in the Navy department, he volunteered for secret service at Pensacola, Florida, and in 1863-'4 had charge of the pilots of Admiral Porter's Squadron on the Mississippi. He was appointed consul at Belfast, Ireland, in 1866, and the following year sent to Tunis as consul, where he remained until 1878. In that year he was made secretary of legation and consul-general at Constantinople, occasionally serving as charge d'affaires. During his official residence in Tunis he organized the department devoted to that country in the Centennial exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. Mr. Heap compiled "A Synoptical Index to the Statutes at Large" (184950), and is the author of "Exploration of the Central Route to the Pacific" (Philadelphia, 1853) and "Itinerary of the Central Route to the Pacific" (1854).—His son, David Porter, engineer, born in San Stefano, Turkey, 24 March, 1848, was educated at Georgetown College, D. C, and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1864. He was assigned to the Engineer Corps, served in the Civil War in the Army of the Potomac, and was brevetted captain, 2 April, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious services." He was promoted captain, 7 March, 1867, and major of engineers, 23 June, 1882. Since the war he has been engaged in the construction of fortifications, the improvement of harbors, and other duties. In 1871 he was engaged in the exploration of the region afterward known as the Yellowstone park, and in 1876 had charge of the engineering section of the war department exhibit at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. In 1881 he was ordered on detached service as military representative of the United States at the Paris Congress of electricians, and honorary commissioner to the Paris Electrical Exhibition. Major Heap has travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. He is the author of a "History of the Application of the Electric Light to Lighting the Coasts of France" (Washington, D. C, 1883); "Report of Engineer Department of the Philadelphia Exhibition" (1884); "Electrical Appliances of the Present Day" (New York, 1884); and "Ancient and Modern Lights" (Boston. 1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 153.



HEBERT, Paul Octave, soldier, born in Bayou Goula, Herville Parish, Louisiana, 12 November, 1818; died in New Orleans, 29 August, 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, in the class with William T. Sherman, George H. Thomas, and other officers who afterward became distinguished. In 1841-'2 he was assistant professor of engineering at the Military Academy, and in 18435 employed at the western passes of the mouth of the Mississippi River. He resigned from the army in 1841, was appointed chief engineer of the state of Louisiana, and in an official report opposed the "Raccourci cut-off." He held this office until the Mexican War, when he was reappointed in the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 14th Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the battles of Contreras and Chapultepec, and the capture of the city of Mexico, receiving the brevet of colonel for bravery at the battle of Molino del Reverend When the army disbanded, in 1848, he returned to his plantation at Bayou Goula, Louisiana. In 1851 he was sent as U. S. commissioner to the World's fair at Paris. He was a member of the convention that framed a new state constitution in 1852, and in 1853-'6 was governor of the state. One of the notable appointments of his term was that of General William T. Sherman as president of the Louisiana Military Academy. In 1861 he was appointed a brigadier-general of the provisional Confederate Army, and was afterward confirmed in that rank by the Confederate Congress. He was first in command of Louisiana, then of the Trans-Mississippi Department, afterward of Texas, and the Galveston defences. In 1873 he became state engineer and commissioner on the Mississippi levee.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 155.



HECKER, Friedrich Karl Franz, German revolutionist, born in Eichtersheim, Baden, 28 September, 1811; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 24 March, 1881. He went to school in Mannheim, and studied law at Heidelberg. He began practice as an advocate at Mannheim in 1838, entered politics, and was elected to the Baden assembly in 1842. His expulsion from the Prussian dominions, while upon a visit to Berlin with Itzstein in 1845, made his name known in all German lands. In 184((-'7 he was the leader of the extreme left in the Baden diet. His energy and eloquence made him popular, and he was carried by the drift of the age toward Republicanism, until he took ground with Struve as a Republican and Socialist-Democrat when the arrangements for a German parliament were under discussion. His political plans having been rejected by the majority of the constituent assembly, he appealed to the masses. Appearing at the head of columns of working-men, he unfolded the banner of the social republic, and advanced into the highlands of Baden from Constance. He was beaten by the Baden soldiery at Kaudern, 20 May, 1848, and retreated into Switzerland. There he learned that the national assembly, which had met meanwhile at Frankfort, had denounced him as a traitor. His hopes of a revolution having been dashed, with the prospect of a felon's death before him if he remained, he fled to the United States in September. The following year, at the news of the May revolution, he returned to Germany, but arrived after the rising had been suppressed. Hecker recrossed the Atlantic, became a citizen of the United States, and settled as a fanner in Belleville, Illinois. Like others of the German revolutionists, he took part in American politics, but did not make a new career for himself. He refused brilliant diplomatic positions, feeling an honorable reluctance to accept a personal gain in requital for the services he performed for the party to which he attached himself. The anti-slavery cause awakened the enthusiasm of his nature, and to the end of his life he was a powerful speaker on the Republican side. He joined the Republican Party on its formation, and in the Civil War led a regiment of volunteers in Fremont's division of the National Army. He resigned his colonelcy in 1864, and devoted himself thenceforth to agricultural occupations. During the Franco-German War he uttered words of hope and sympathy for the German cause, but, after visiting Germany in 1873, he expressed disappointment at the actual political condition.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 156.



HECKMAN, Charles Adam, soldier, born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 3 December, 1822. He was graduated at Minerva seminary, in his native town, in 1837. In the war with Mexico he served as sergeant in the 1st U. S. Voltigeurs. He was commissioned captain in the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, 20 April, 1861, became major of the 9th New Jersey on 3 October, lieutenant-colonel on 3 December, and colonel on 10 February, 1862. On 29 November, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina, and afterward in the Army of the James, being wounded at Newbern and Young's Cross Roads. North Carolina, and Port Walthall, Virginia. He commanded the defences of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, in the winter of 1863-4, and at Drewry's Bluff, Virginia, on 16 May, 1864, he was captured, after his brigade had five times repelled a superior force of Confederates. He was taken to Libby Prison, and afterward to Macon, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina, where he was one of the fifty-one officers that were placed under fire of the National guns. He was exchanged on 25 August, commanded the 18th Corps at the capture of Fort Harrison, Chapin's Bluff, and the 25th Corps in January and February, 1865. He resigned when the war was over, 25 May, 1865, and now (1887) resides in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, where he has served as a member of the board of education.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 157.



HEG, Hans C., soldier, born in Norway in 1829; killed in the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, 19 September, 1863. He was brought by his father to the United States when eleven years of age, and settled in Wisconsin. He went to California during the gold excitement in 1849, returned in 1851, established himself as a farmer and merchant near Milwaukee, and was elected commissioner of state-prisons in 1859. In 1861 he entered the volunteer army as a major, and was commissioned colonel of the 15th Wisconsin Infantry, a Scandinavian regiment, on 30 September, 1861. His regiment took part in the reduction of Island No. 10, and afterward in the surprise and capture of Union City, Tennessee; also in the battle of Chaplin Hills, in the pursuit of General Bragg's forces, and the contests at Stone River and Murfreesboro. On 29 April he was placed in command of a brigade, and took part in the movements of the 20 Corps, resulting in the evacuation of Shelbyville, Tullahoma, and Chattanooga, and at Chickamauga, where he fell at the head of his forces on the second day of the fight.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 158.



HEINTZELMAN, Samuel Peter, soldier, born in Manheim, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 30 September, 1805; died in Washington, D. C, 1 May, 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1826, and entered the army as 2d lieutenant of infantry. He spent several years in border service. and had his first experience of war in Florida, against the Indians. He served during the Mexican War with the rank of captain. At Huamantla he won distinction for bravery, and on 9 October, 1847, he was brevetted major. He organized a battalion of recruits and convalescent soldiers at Vera Cruz, and marched them to the city of Mexico. From 1849 till 1855 he served in California, where he had some rough experience with the Coyote and Yuma Indians, and established Fort Yuma on the Colorado River. In 1859-60 he was in command of the troops on the Rio Grande against Mexican marauders. In May, 1861, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious services against the Indians in California, and ordered to Washington to take the office of inspector-general of the forces. In May of the same year he was commissioned colonel of the 17th regular Infantry. On 17 May he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and ordered to the command of a brigade at Alexandria. He commanded a division of McDowell's army at Bull Run, and was wounded. During the organization of the army under General McClellan, in the winter of 1861-2, he retained command of his division. When the Army of the Potomac began to move, in March, 1862, Heintzelman was in command of the 3d Army Corps, was in the battle of Williamsburg on 5 May, was made major-general of volunteers on the same day, took an active part in the battle of Fair Oaks, where he commanded the 3d and 4th Corps, and for his gallantry in both the first and second day's fighting was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army. At the head of his command he took part in the seven days' fighting around Richmond, afterward joined Pope in his Virginia Campaign, and at the second battle of Bull Run his corps formed the right wing of Pope's army. During the Maryland Campaign he was in command of the defences at Washington, and later he was appointed to the command of the Department of Washington, and of the 22d Army Corps, which appointment he held during the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He was relieved in October, 1863, and in January of the following year was put in command of the Northern Department, embracing Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. For some time before August, 1865, he was on court-martial duty. In March of that year he was brevetted major-general in the regular army, and in September resumed command of the 17th U.S. Infantry, in New York Harbor and in Texas. On 22 February, 1869, he was retired with the rank of colonel, and on 29 April, by special act of Congress, was placed on the retired list, with the rank of major-general, to date from 22 February His public career ended with his retirement from the army.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 159-160.



HENDERSON, John Brooks, 1826-1913, lawyer.  U.S. Senator from Missouri.  Appointed senator in 1863.  Member of the Republican Party.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 163-164; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 527; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 569; Congressional Globe)

HENDERSON, John Brooks, senator, born near Danville, Virginia, 16 November, 1826. He moved with his parents to Missouri in 1836, spent his early years on a farm, and taught while receiving his education. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and in that year and 1856 was elected to the legislature, originating the state railroad and banking laws in 1857. He was a presidential elector in 1856 and 1860, and opposed Pierce's administration after the president’s message on the Kansas question. Mr. Henderson was a delegate to the Charleston Democratic Convention of 1860, and to the State Convention of 1861 to determine whether Missouri should secede. In June. 1861, he equipped a regiment of state militia, which he commanded for a time. On the expulsion of Trusten Polk from the U. S. Senate, in 1862, he was appointed to fill the vacancy, and in 1863 was elected for the full term ending in 1869, serving as chairman on the committee on Indian affairs. He was one of the seven Republican senators whose votes defeated the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. He was a commissioner to treat with hostile tribes of Indians in 1867, and in 1875 was appointed assistant U. S. District attorney to prosecute men that were accused of evading the revenue laws, but reflected on President Grant in one of his arguments and was HH Gen, from this office.— His wife, Mary Foote, author, born in New York about 1835, is a daughter of Judge Elisha Foote (q. v.). She was married to Mr. Henderson in Washington, D. C, moved with him to St. Louis, Missouri, and has taken a wide interest in woman's suffrage, serving as president of the State suffrage Association in 1876. In that year she organized in St. Louis the School of Design, or Industrial Art-School, and in 1879 the Woman's Exchange. From 1881 till 1885 she studied art in the Washington University, St. Louis. She has published "Practical Cooking and Dinner-Giving" (New York, 1876), and "Diet for the Sick " (1885).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 163-164.



HENDERSON, Robert Miller, lawyer, born near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 11 March, 1827. He was graduated at Dickinson College, Pennsylvania, in 1845. was admitted to the bar in Carlisle in 1847, and served in the legislature in 1851-'3. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Union Army as captain in the 36th Pennsylvania Reserves, was appointed lieutenant-colonel of volunteers in 1862, was Provost-Marshal of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in 1863, and in 1865 was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the war. In 1872 he became law judge of the 12th judicial District of Pennsylvania, served ten years, and was elected president judge of the same district in 1882. He has since resigned, and returned to practice.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 165.



HENDERSON, Thomas Jefferson, Congressman, born in Brownsville, Tennessee, 29 November, 1824 he was educated in the common schools of his native town, moved to Illinois, and spent one term at the University of Iowa. He was clerk of the Starr County, Illinois., commissioner's court in 1847-'9, and from 1849 till 1853 clerk of the Starr County Court. In 1855-'60 he was in the legislature, and, joining the National Army in 1862, as colonel of the 112th Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, served till the close of the war. In 1865 he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the rebellion. In 1871 he became collector of internal revenue for the 5th District of Illinois. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1874, and has since served by successive re-elections.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 165.



HENNINGSEN, Charles Frederick, soldier, born in England in 1815; died in Washington, D. C, 14 June, 1877. His parents were Swedes. He joined the Carlist Army in Spain in 1834, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After the Peace Convention he returned to England, but on the renewal of the war resumed his post, and after the battle of Vielas de los Navarros was promoted colonel and given the command of the cavalry. He was afterward taken prisoner and released on parole. After serving in the Russian Army in Circassia, he joined Kossuth in the Hungarian revolution, becoming military and civil commander of the fortress of Comorn. Afterward he came to the United States as a representative of Hungarian interests, and in October, 1856, joined William Walker in Nicaragua. He was immediately made a brigadier-general, given command of the artillery, and rendered efficient service, distinguishing himself by his defence of Granada, and in the victory at Queresma. He took part in Walker's negotiations with Commodore Davis in 1857, and after the surrender to that officer returned to the United States. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Confederate Army as colonel of the 3d Regiment of Wise's brigade, and was afterward made brigadier-general, and served in Virginia. General Henningsen was an able artillerist, and also gave much attention to improvements in small arms, superintending the construction of the first Minié rifles ever made in the United States. He published "Revelations of Russia" (Paris, 1845); "Twelve Months' Campaign with Zumalivcarregui"; "The White Slave," a novel; "Eastern Europe "; "Sixty Years Hence," a novel of Russian life; "Past and Future of Hungary "; "Analogies and Contrasts ";" Personal Recollections of Nicaragua"; and various other works, most of which were published in London.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.



HENRY, Morris Henry, physician, born in London, England, 26 July, 1835. He was educated in London and in Belgium, came to the United States, and was graduated in medicine at the University of Vermont in 1860. He was assistant surgeon in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, and then settled in New York City, and was surgeon-in-chief of the Emigrant Hospital, Ward's Island, in 1872-'80. He is a member of many medical societies, and has invented various surgical methods and appliances, including the application of plano-convex lenses in examining the throat and upper air-passages (1864); cutting-forceps for the removal of plaster dressings (1868); depilating-forceps (1874); and cartilage-scissors to facilitate the removal of dense tissues (1881). He is the originator and editor of the "American Journal of Dermatology," and has published numerous monographs, including " Treatment of Venereal Diseases in Vienna Hospital" (1872), and "Anomalous Localities of Chancres" (1874). He delivered an address on "Specialists and Specialties in Medicine " before the alumni of the University of Vermont in 1876.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 173.



HENRY, Guy Vernon, soldier, born in Fort Smith, Indian territory, 9 March, 1839, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1861, and assigned to the 1st Artillery. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 14 May, was on General McDowell's staff at the battle of Bull Run, and was brevetted captain, 22 October, 1862, for gallantry in an action near Pocotaligo River, South Carolina He commanded a battalion in Hunter's advance on Charleston in 1863, was acting chief of artillery of the Department of the South in June of that year, and was made colonel of the 40th Massachusetts Regiment on 9 November He commanded a brigade in the Army of the James in 1864-'5, and received the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, 29 September, 1864, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 30 June, 1864, for his services before Petersburg. After the war he became captain in the 1st Artillery, 1 December, 1865, and has since served chiefly on the frontier against hostile Indians. He suffered severely from frostbites in the Black Hills Expedition, and was wounded in the battle of Rose Bud Creek, Montana, with Sitting Bull, 17 June, 1876, losing the use of one eye. On 26 June, 1881, he was promoted to major in the 9th U.S. Cavalry, and is now (1887) stationed at Omaha, Nebraska. He has published " Military Record of Civilian Appointments in the U. S. Army" (2 vols., New York, 1865-71); "Army Catechism for Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers" (Salt Lake City, 1881); and "Manual on Target Practice" (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1884).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 177



HERRICK, Stephen Solon, physician and surgeon, born in West Randolph, Vermont, 11 December, 1833. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1854, and taught in Kentucky and Mississippi till 1859. He then studied medicine, and was graduated M. D. at the University of Louisiana in 1861. He served as assistant surgeon in the Confederate Army in 1862-'3, and afterward in the navy of the Confederacy till the end of the war, and then returned to New Orleans to practise. He was one of the editors of the New Orleans "Medical and Surgical Journal "in 1866-7, visiting surgeon in the New Orleans Charity Hospital in 1865-'9, a member of the Louisiana board of health, and professor of chemistry in the New Orleans school of medicine in 1869-70.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 187-188.



HERRON, Francis Jay, soldier, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 17 February, 1837. He was graduated at the Western University of Pennsylvania in 1853, and about 1856 moved to Dubuque, Iowa, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1861 he organized and commanded the Governor's Grays, with which he served in the 1st Iowa Regiment, and was engaged in the battles of Dug Springs, Ozark, and Wilson's Creek. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 9th Iowa Regiment in September, 1861, commanding it through the campaigns in Missouri, Arkansas, and the Indian Territory. He was wounded and captured in the battle of Pea Ridge during the second day's engagement, but was soon exchanged. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 July, 1862, and had command of the Army of the Frontier during the battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, for which he was made major-general of volunteers. 29 November, 1862. Subsequently he captured Van Buren, Arkansas. After commanding the left wing of the investing forces at Vicksburg, and of the army and navy expedition that captured Yazoo City, he was in charge of the 13th Army Corps on the Texas Coast till he was assigned to command the Northern Division of Louisiana during General Banks's operations. In May, 1865, he negotiated, and in June received, the formal surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Army and all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi, and in July, 1865, was appointed one of the commissioners to negotiate treaties with the Indian tribes. He resigned his commission as major-general and also that of Indian Commissioner in August, 1865. He then practised law in New Orleans, was U. S. Marshal of the District of Louisiana from 1867 till 1869, Secretary of State of Louisiana in 1872-'3, and has since practised his profession in New York City.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 189.



HETH, William (heath), soldier, born in Virginia in 1735; died in Richmond, Virginia, 15 April, 1808. He was an officer in General Richard Montgomery's regiment during the French war, and was wounded at the battle of Quebec. At the beginning of the Revolution he joined the Continental Army; in 1777 was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Virginia Regiment, and was in command till the end of the war, serving with General Benjamin Lincoln at the siege of Charleston. After the war he received a lucrative government office under General Washington.—Heath, His grandson, Henry, soldier, born in Virginia in 1825, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and, entering the 6th U.S. Infantry, became 1st lieutenant in 1853, adjutant in 1854, and captain in 1855. In 1861 he resigned, and entered the Confederate Army as brigadier-general. In May, 1863, he was commissioned major-general. He commanded a division of General Ambrose P. Hill's corps in Virginia, and was engaged at the battle of Gettysburg and in the campaigns of 1864-'5. Since the war he has been engaged in business in South Carolina.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 190.



HEWIT, Henry Stewart, surgeon, born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 26 December, 1825; died in New York City, 19 August, 1873, was educated at Yale, and graduated in medicine from the University of New York in 1848, entering the army as acting assistant-surgeon in the autumn of this year. He was stationed at Vera Cruz during the latter part of the Mexican War, in 1849 was commissioned assistant surgeon, was stationed at Fort Yuma, California, and accompanied Captain William H. Warner on the surveying expedition in which that officer was killed by the Sierra Nevada Indians. In the spring of 1852 he resigned from the army, and, removing to San Francisco, practised medicine there three years. He then returned to New York, and established himself in his profession. In August, 1861, he re-entered the army as brigade-surgeon of volunteers, served under General Charles F. Smith, and afterward as medical director on General Grant's staff at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. He afterward served on the staff of General John M. Scofield, and was brevetted colonel in March, 1865, for gallant conduct during the war. Dr. Hewit became a Roman Catholic in 1855, and was devoted to the benevolent enterprises of his church. Settling in New York after the war, he had charge of the House of the Good Shepherd, was a director of St. Stephen's Orphan Asylum, and president of the Medical Board of the Charity Hospital.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 191-192.



HEWITT, Charles Nathaniel, physician, born in Vergennes, Vermont, 3 June, 1836. He was educated at Hobart College, and was graduated at the Albany Medical College in 1857. He practised his profession in Geneva, New York, until 1861, when he entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon of the 50th New York Regiment, and rose to the rank of brigade surgeon. After the war he moved to Red Wing, Minnesota, where he is professor of public health in the University of Minnesota. Dr. Hewitt devotes himself especially to surgery, and has invented a modification of the starch bandage.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 192.



HEYWOOD, Charles, officer of marines, born in Waterville, Maine, 3 October, 1839. He was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the Marine Corps from New York on 5 April, 1858, commissioned 1st lieutenant in May, 1861, and captain on 23 November, 1861. He was in active service during the Civil War, and was attached to the North Atlantic, and subsequently to the Gulf, Squadron as fleet marine-officer. He was engaged at the battle of Hatteras Inlet on 28 August, 1861, and continued to serve on the sloop " Cumberland" till that vessel was sunk on 8 March, 1862, by the Confederate ram " Merrimac." For his conduct during this engagement he was brevetted major. He was attached to the frigate " Sabine" on special service in 1863, and to the steam sloop "Hartford," the flagship of Farragut's squadron, in 1864-'5. He took part in the battle of Mobile Bay, and was brevetted for gallantry in that action. He was promoted major on 1 November, 1876. In 1886 he was on duty at the U.S. Navy-yard in Brooklyn, New York.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 194.



HICKENLOOPER, Andrew, engineer, born in Hudson, Ohio, 31 August, 1837. He was educated at Woodward College, Cincinnati, but was not graduated, and in 1855 became city surveyor of that city, afterward conducting the government survey of Indian lands at Little Travers Bay. He was made captain of the 5th Ohio Independent Battery on 31 August, 1861, and was afterward chief of artillery and chief engineer of the 17th Corps, Army of the Tennessee, till after the capture of Vicksburg. He was then judge-advocate-general and afterward chief of artillery of that army, and was finally given command of a brigade in the 17th Corps. He was engaged in the principal battles of the Army of the Tennessee from Shiloh to Sherman's campaign through the Carolinas, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. After the war he was U. S. Marshal for the Southern District of Ohio in 1866-'70, elected city civil engineer of Cincinnati in 1871, and in 1877 became president of the Cincinnati Gas-light and Coke Company, of which he had been vice-president since 1872. In 1880 he was chosen lieutenant-governor of Ohio. He has published "Competition in the Manufacture and Delivery of Gas (1881), and "Incandescent Electric Lights for Street Illumination" (1886).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 195.



HIGGINSON, Thomas Wentworth Storrow, 1823-1911, author, editor, Unitarian clergyman, radical abolitionist, women’s rights advocate, secretly supported radical abolitionist John Brown, and his raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, (West) Virginia, on October 16, 1859.  Served as a Colonel in the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first African American regiment formed under the Federal Government.  (Edelstein, 1968; Mabee, 1970, pp. 309, 312, 318, 319, 321, 336, 345, 377; Renehan, 1995; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 138, 207, 327, 337-338, 478-479; Rossbach, 1982; Sernett, 2002, pp. 205, 208, 211, 213, 325-326n3; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 199; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 16; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 431-434; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 757; Wells, Anna Mary. Dear Preceptor… 1963.  Higginson, Thomas, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 1870)

HIGGINSON, Thomas Wentworth, author, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 22 December, 1823, was graduated at Harvard in 1841 and at the divinity-school in 1847, and in the same year was ordained pastor of the 1st Congregational Church in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He left this church on account of anti-slavery preaching in 1850, and in the same year was an unsuccessful Free-Soil candidate for Congress. He was then pastor of a free Church in Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1852 till 1858. when he left the ministry, and devoted himself to literature. He had been active in the anti-slavery agitation of this period, and for his part in the attempted rescue of a fugitive slave (see Burns, Anthony) was indicted for murder with Theodore Parker, Wendell Phillips, and others, but was discharged through a flaw in the indictment. He also aided in the organization of parties of free-state emigrants to Kansas in 1856, was personally acquainted with John Brown, and served as brigadier-general on James H. Lane's staff in the free-state forces. He became captain in the 51st Massachusetts Regiment, 25 September, 1862, and on 10 November was made colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers (afterward called the 33d U. S. Colored Troops), the first regiment of freed slaves mustered into the national service, he took and held Jacksonville, Florida, but was wounded at Wiltown Bluff, South Carolina, in August. 1863, and in October, 1864, resigned on account of disability. He then engaged in literature at Newport, Rhode Island, till 1878, and afterward at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he has since resided. He is an earnest advocate of woman suffrage, and of the higher education for both sexes. He was a member of the Massachusetts legislature in 1880 and 1881, serving as chief of staff to the governor during the same time, and in 1881-'3 was a member of the state board of education. He has contributed largely to current literature, and several of his books consist of essays that first appeared in "The Atlantic Monthly." His first publication was a compilation with Samuel Longfellow of poetry for the sea-side, entitled "Thalatta " (Boston, 1853). He is the author of "Out-door Papers" (Boston, 1863); "Malbone, an Oldport Romance "(1869); "Army Life in a Black Regiment" (1870; French translation by Madame de Gasparin. 1884): "Atlantic Essays" (1871); "The Sympathy of Religions" (1871); "Oldport Days" (1873): "Young Folks' History of the United States " (1875; French translation, 1875; German translation, Stuttgart, 1876); "History of Education in Rhode Island " (1876): " Young Folks' Book of American Explorers" (1877); "Short Studies of American Authors" (1879); "Common-Sense about Women" (1881); "Life of Margaret Fuller Ossoli" (" American Men of Letters " series, 1884); "Larger History of the United States" to the close of Jackson's administration (New York, 1885); "The Monarch of Dreams " (1880); and " Hints on Writing and Speech-making" (1887). He has also translated the "Complete Works of Epictetus" (Boston, 1865), and edited "Harvard Memorial Biographies" (2 vols.. 1866), and "Brief Biographies of European Statesmen " (4 vols., New York, 1875-'7). Several of his works have been reprinted in England.—Thomas Wentworth's nephew, Francis John, naval officer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 19 July, 1843, was graduated at the Naval Academy in 1861, and ordered into active service. He participated in the boat expedition from the "Colorado" that destroyed the Confederate privateer "Judith" in Pensacola U.S. Navy-yard, and was present at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, acting as signal midshipman to Captain Theodoras Bailey. He took part in the blockade of Charleston. South Carolina, and the bombardment of Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, was on board the " Housatonic" when she was blown up by a torpedo off Charleston, and commanded a detachment of launches operating by night on the communications between Morris Island and Charleston. He became lieutenant in 1862, lieutenant-commander in 1866, and commander in 1876, and is now (1887) in charge of the torpedo station at Newport, Rhode Island.—The first Stephen's great-grandson, Henry Lee, banker, born in New York City, 18 November, 1834, entered Harvard in 1851, but left before the end of his second year. He served in the Civil War, attaining the rank of major and brevet lieutenant-colonel in the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, and was severely wounded at Aldie, Virginia. in 1863. Since the war he has engaged in banking in Boston. He has devoted much of his income to the promotion of music there, and especially to the organization of „the symphony orchestra.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 199.



HILL, Ambrose Powell, soldier, born in Culpeper County, Virginia, 9 November. 1825; died near Petersburg, Virginia, 2 April, 1865. His father, Major Thomas Hill, was a politician and merchant for many years. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and. entering the 1st U.S. Artillery, was made a 2d lieutenant, 22 August, 1847. He served in Mexico during the war, and was engaged in Florida against the Seminoles in 1849-'50. On 4 September, 1851, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant of the 1st Artillery, and afterward to a captaincy. In November, 1855, he was made an assistant on the Coast Survey, and was stationed in Washington until 1 March. 1861, when he resigned. When Virginia seceded he was appointed colonel of the 13th Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, and was ordered to Harper's Ferry. At the first battle of Bull Run he arrived with his regiment among those of General Johnston's command, in time to share in the last of the fight. He was promoted to brigadier-general, and fought at the battle of Williamsburg in May, 1862. with such spirit and determination that he was made a major-general. On 25 June. 1862, he was one of the council of war held in Richmond, at which were present Generals Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, D. H. Hill, and others. In the seven days' battles around Richmond he opened the series of engagements by driving McClellan's forces from Meadow Bridge, thus clearing a way for Longstreet and A. H. Hill to advance. He occupied the centre of Lee's army in the attacks against McClellan, and gained a reputation for bravery and skill in the handling of his troops. He was active in the succeeding campaign against General Pope, and at the second battle of Bull Run, 29 and 30 July, 1862. He received the surrender of the National troops at Harper's Ferry on 17 September, 1862, and, making a forced march, arrived at Antietam in time to enable General Lee to maintain his ground. At the battle of Fredericksburg. 13 December 1862, his division formed the right of Jackson's Corps; at Chancellorsville. 5 and 6 May, 1863, it formed the centre, and participated in the flank movement that crushed Hooker's right. In the assault he was severely wounded, and had to retire from the field. For his gallantry in this battle he was promoted, 20 May, 1863, to lieutenant-general, and given command of one of the three grand corps into which the army was divided. He led his corps at Gettysburg, and in the affair at Bristow Station, October, 1863, while in command of two brigades, was repelled with severe loss. On 22 June, 1864. his corps, with Longstreet's, repelled the attack on the Weldon Railroad. A few weeks before the final attack on the Southside Railroad and the defences of Petersburg, General Hill was taken ill and granted leave of absence, but he returned before his leave expired, 31 March. On Sunday morning, 2 April, 1865, in the struggle for the possession of the works in front of Petersburg, he attempted, contrary to the wishes of General Lee, to reach Heth's division, and was shot from his horse by stragglers from the National Army. By General Lee's orders a charge was made, and his body recovered and buried in Chesterfield County. Afterward it was moved to Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia General Hill married a sister of General John Morgan, the Confederate cavalry leader, and left two daughters.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 202-203.



HILL, Daniel Harvey, soldier, born at Hill's Iron-Works, York District, South Carolina, 12 July, 1821. His great-grandfather came from Ireland and settled in York, Pennsylvania, whence his grandfather, William Hill, moved to South Carolina, and established "Hill's Iron-Works" in connection with his friend, Colonel Isaac Hayne. Solomon Hill, General Hill's father, joined with Edmund Hayne, son of Colonel Isaac Hayne, in reviving the iron-works (destroyed during the Revolutionary War), which they conducted for some years, until Mr. Hill's death. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, and went immediately to Maine to serve on the frontier during the troubles with England in reference to the boundary-line. He was in nearly every important battle in the Mexican War, and was a member of the storming party at Chapultepec, where he and Lieutenant James Stewart had a foot-race for the honor of being the first to enter a strongly occupied Mexican fort. For service in this battle, Captain Hill was brevetted major, as he had been previously brevetted captain for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Contreras and Churubusco. Just after the Mexican War he resigned his commission, and was elected professor of mathematics in Washington College, Lexington, Virginia He held this place for six years, and for five years filled the same chair in Davidson College, North Carolina, and went thence to be superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute at Charlotte. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made colonel of the 1st North Carolina Regiment, in command of which he fought and won the battle of Big Bethel, 10 June, 1861, soon after which he was made brigadier-general and sent to command the extreme left of General Joseph E. Johnston's army at Leesburg, Virginia He was promoted to major-general, 20 March, 1802, and distinguished himself in the Seven Days Battles on the Peninsula. During the first Maryland Campaign General Hill made a stubborn fight at Boonesboro. He also participated in the battle of Fredericksburg. During the Chancellorsville Campaign he was in command in North Carolina, and during the Gettysburg Campaign he commanded the defences of Richmond and Petersburg. On 11 July, 1863, he was commissioned lieutenant-general and placed at the head of a corps in Bragg's army. He was at Chickamauga, and shared the fortunes of the Army of Tennessee, until he surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina in April, 1865. For some years after the war he edited "The Land We Love," a monthly magazine, which he founded at Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1877 he was elected president of the University of Arkansas, and he is now (1887) president of the Military and Agricultural College of Georgia at Milledgeville. General Hill is a contributor to current literature, and has published an algebra, "A Consideration of the Sermon on the Mount" (Philadelphia, 1858), and "The Crucifixion of Christ" (1860).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 203-204.



HILLIARD, Henry Washington, lawyer, born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, 4 August, 1808. He moved with his parents to Columbia, South Carolina, at an early age, and was graduated at South Carolina College in 1826. He studied law and moved to Athens, Georgia, where he was admitted to the bar in 1829, and practised two years. In 1831 he was elected to a professorship in Alabama University, Tuscaloosa, but resigned in 1834 and practised law successfully in Montgomery. Meanwhile he was also a lay preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1838 he was elected to the Alabama Legislature, and in 1840 he was a member of the Harrisburg Whig Convention. In answer to a series of articles upon the question of the sub-treasury, by Dixon H. Lewis, under the signature of " A Nullifier," Mr. Hilliard wrote six papers signed "Junius Brutus," which were published in a Whig journal of Montgomery County. From 1842 till 1844 he was charge d'affaires in Belgium. On his return he was elected to Congress from Alabama, and served from 1845 till 1851. In 1846 he was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution. In Congress he opposed the Wilmot Proviso, and advocated the compromise measures of 1850. He was a candidate for elector on the Fillmore ticket in 1856, and in 1860 on the Bell-and-Everett ticket, visiting Mr. Everett in Boston, where he delivered an address in Faneuil Hall, he opposed secession in 1861, but after the convention of Alabama had passed the ordinance he espoused the cause of the Confederacy. He was appointed by Jefferson Davis Commissioner to Tennessee, and also accepted the commission of brigadier-general in the provisional Confederate Army, for which he raised 3,000 men. After the Civil War he resumed his law practice in Augusta, and subsequently moved to Atlanta, where he now (1887) resides. In 1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress, and he took an active part in the presidential canvass of 1872, advocating the election of Horace Greeley. In 1877 he was appointed U. S. minister to Brazil, where he remained till 1881. He has given much of his attention to literature, and has published "Roman Nights," translated from the Italian (Philadelphia, 1848); "Speeches and Addresses " (New York, 1855); and "De Vane, a Story of Plebeians and Patricians" (New York, 1865; 2d ed., Nashville, 1886).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 209.



HILLIS, David B., was colonel of the 17th Iowa Regiment in the Civil War, and received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 209.



HILLYER, William Silliman, soldier, born in Henderson, Kentucky, 2 April, 1831; died in Washington, D. C, 12 July, 1874. He was graduated at Anderson College, Indiana, in 1847, studied law, and began practice at New Albany, Indiana, afterward attaining note at the bar. In 1855 he moved to St. Louis, where he became acquainted with Ulysses S. Grant, and recommended him for the office of county engineer of St. Louis County. In 1861 he served for some time in the National Army as a private, and then moved to New York, where he practised law. Soon after General Grant was commissioned as brigadier-general he offered Mr. Hillyer a place on his staff, and he served during the Tennessee and Vicksburg Campaigns. On 15 May, 1863, he resigned, owing to failing health, and returned to New York. He was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865, and after the close of the war was appointed a revenue-agent by President Grant. In 1874 he was nominated as general appraiser in the custom-house, but after much opposition his name was withdrawn. General Hillyer was the last surviving member of Grant's original staff.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 210.



HINCKS, Edward Winslow, soldier, born in Bucksport, Hancock County, Maine, 30 May, 1830. He is descended from Chief-Justice John Hincks, of New Hampshire, who was the first of the name to arrive in this country. Edward was educated in the common schools of his native town, moved to Bangor in 1845, and from then till 1849 was a printer in the Bangor "Whig and Courier" office. In the latter year he moved to Boston, and was a member of the state legislature in 1855. On 18 December, 1860, he wrote to Major Robert Anderson, tendering a volunteer force to aid in the defence of Fort Moultrie. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Massachusetts Regiment on 17 April, 1861, and while on the march to Washington commanded a party, on 21 April, 1860, that saved the frigate " Constitution " at Annapolis, and repaired the bridge and railway at Annapolis junction. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 2d regular Cavalry on 26 April, promoted colonel of Volunteers, 16 May, 1861, and commanded the 19th Massachusetts Regiment and a brigade in Sedgwick's division of the Army of the Potomac from September, 1861, till September, 1862, when he was disabled for six months by wounds. He became brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862, was on court-martial and recruiting duty in 1863-'4, commanded the camp of prisoners-of-war at Point Lookout, Maryland, in March and April, 1864, and a division of the Army of the James during the field operations of that year. He commanded the draft rendezvous on Hart's Island, New York, from October, 1864, till January, 1865. and from that time till the close of the war was chief mustering-officer for the United States in New York City. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, made lieutenant-colonel of the 40th U. S. Infantry on 28 July, 1866. and in 1866-'7 was governor of the National Soldiers' Home. He was retired with the rank of colonel on 15 December, 1870, on account of wounds. From 1872 till 1880 he was deputy governor and treasurer of the National soldiers' homes at Hampton, Virginia. and Milwaukee, Wis.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 211.



HINDMAN, Thomas Carmichael, soldier, born in Tennessee in November, 1818; died in Helena, Arkansas, 28 September, 1808. After receiving a common school education, he studied law, and moved to Mississippi, where he practised his profession. He served throughout the Mexican War as lieutenant in a Mississippi regiment, and in 1858 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving till 1861. He had been re-elected as a Secessionist, but entered the Confederate Army with the appointment of brigadier-general, tie first served under General Simon Buckner in Kentucky, was in command at Memphis, lost the battle of Newtonia, and having collected his forces at Van Buren, Arkansas, crossed Arkansas River with 2,500 men and was defeated at Prairie Grove by General James G. Blunt and General Francis J. Herron. After the battle of Shiloh, where he was promoted major-general, he was transferred to Arkansas, and commanded a brigade under General Leonidas Polk. After the war he moved to the city of Mexico, but returned to the United States in 1867, and settled in Helena, Arkansas General Hindman's military career had been criticised for its severity in enforcing conscription and maintaining discipline, and he was assassinated by one of his former soldiers in revenge for some act of discipline during the war.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 212-213.



HITCHCOCK, Alfred, surgeon, born in Westminster, Vermont, 17 October, 1813; died in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, 30 March, 1874. He was educated at Phillips Andover academy, was graduated in the medical department at Dartmouth in 1838, and at that of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 1845, settling first in Ashley and afterward in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, in the practice of his profession. He was frequently a member of the legislature between 1847 and 1855, was one of the executive council of Massachusetts in 1862-'4, special agent of the state to superintend the care of the wounded during the Civil War, and in 1862 superintendent of the transportation of the wounded. Dr. Hitchcock was the second surgeon on record to perform the operation of cesophagotomy, and was one of the first to operate for strangulated hernia. He designed a stretcher, a surgical chair, and a splint, made two important changes in surgical instruments, and discovered two medical preparations. Dartmouth gave him the degree of  A. M. in 1844. Besides several monographs and addresses, he published "Christianity and Medical Science" (Boston, 1867).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 315-216.



HITCHCOCK, Ethan Allen, soldier, born in Vergennes, Vermont, 18 May, 1798; died in Hancock, Georgia, 5 August, 1870. His father was a circuit judge during Washington's administration, and his mother was a daughter of General Ethan Allen. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1817, commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1818. adjutant in 1819, and captain in 1824. In 1824-'7 he was assistant instructor of military tactics, and in 1829-'33 commandant of cadets at West Point. For the next ten years he was on frontier duty, served in the Seminole War, was acting inspector-general in General Edmund P. Gaines's campaign of 1836, was transferred to recruiting service, and afterward to Indian duty, where his administration as disbursing agent was of great value in protecting the Indians against swindlers. He was promoted major of the 8th U.S. Infantry in 1838, became lieutenant-colonel in 1842. and during the Mexican War was engaged in all the important battles, serving a part of the time as inspector-general on General Winfield Scott's staff, and receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and that of brigadier-general for Molino del Rey. In 1851 he was promoted colonel of the 2d U.S. Infantry, and in 1851-'4 commanded the Pacific Military Division. In October, 1855, he resigned his commission in consequence of the refusal of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, to confirm a leave of absence that had been granted him by General Scott, and resided in St. Louis until 1861, devoting himself to literary pursuits. At the beginning of the Civil War he re-entered the army, was made major-general of volunteers, and stationed in Washington, serving on the commission for exchange of prisoners and that for revising the military code. He was the warm personal friend and the military adviser of President Lincoln. General Hitchcock was a disciple of Emanuel Swedenborg, and attempted to prove in his works that a subtle and elevated theology is taught in the hermetical system of philosophy. He published "Remarks on Alchemy and the Alchemists" (Boston, 1857); "Swedenborg a Hermetic Philosopher" (New York, 1858); "Christ the Spirit," in which he attempted to show that the gospels were symbolic books, written by members of a Jewish secret Society (1860); "The Sonnets of Shakespeare" (1865); " Spenser's' Colin Clout' Explained " (1865); and "Notes on the Vita Nuova of Dante " (1866).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 217-218.



HITCHCOCK, Robert Bradley, naval officer, born in Connecticut, 25 September, 1803. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy in 1825, promoted lieutenant in 1835, commander in 1855, captain in 1861, commodore in 1862, and retired in 1865. He commanded the steam sloop " Susquehanna," of the Western Gulf Squadron, in 1862-'3, and was senior officer of the blockading fleet off Mobile. He was on ordnance duty in 1864-'5, was commandant of the Boston U.S. Navy-yard in 1866, and was then retired from the service.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 218.

 



HOBSON. Edward Henry, soldier, born in Greensburg, Kentucky, 11 July, 1825. He was educated in common schools in Greensburg and Danville, Kentucky. In 1846 he enlisted in the 2d Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, and was soon promoted to 1st lieutenant, serving in the battle of Buena Vista, 22 and 23 February, 1847. He was mustered out of service in June, 1847, returned to Greensburg, and resumed mercantile business. He was a director of the Branch Bank of Kentucky in 1853, and served as president from 1857 till 1861. He then organized and became colonel of the 13th Kentucky Volunteers, serving at Camp Hobson till he moved southward with General Buell's army in February, 1862. He commanded his regiment at the battle of Shiloh with such success that he was nominated by President Lincoln for brigadier-general. Before receiving this commission, he took part in the siege of Corinth, Mississippi. He commanded a brigade at Perrysville. Owing to the condition of his regiment, he was relieved from active service and ordered to Mumfordsville, Kentucky, to protect the lines of communication and to discipline about 10,000 new troops. Receiving his commission as brigadier-general, he was placed in charge of the Southern Division of Kentucky troops, was ordered to Marrowbone, Kentucky, with cavalry and infantry, to watch the movements of General John Morgan, and after a slight engagement pursued him through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. At Lebanon, Kentucky, he was given two brigades in connection with his own in the pursuit of General Morgan, whom he attacked near the Ohio. He was appointed to the command of General Burnside's cavalry corps, but owing to impaired health was unable to serve, and again commanded troops in repelling raids at Lexington, Kentucky. He was mustered out of service in September, 1865, since which time he has been engaged in business. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1880, serving as a vice-president, and was a supporter of General Grant. He is now (1887) president of the Southern Division of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad company.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 222-223.



HODGE, Hugh Lenox, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30 July, 1836; died there, 10 June, 1881, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1855 and in medicine there in 1858. In 1861 he was appointed demonstrator of surgery and chief of the surgical dispensary of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1870 was made demonstrator of anatomy. He was attached to the U. S. Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia during the Civil War. and was also a surgeon in the Pennsylvania reserve Corps, serving in McClellan's Campaign, before Richmond, in the Gettysburg Campaign, and at Fredericksburg in Grant's advance on Richmond. He was consulting surgeon to many charitable institutions, served as president of the Pathological Society, and was a member of various medical associations. He contributed freely to medical literature on his original investigations on the subjects of metallic sutures, the treatment of fractures of the thigh by improved apparatus, the drainage of wounds by a solid metal probe, deformities after hip disease, tracheotomy in cases of pseudo-membranous croup, ovariotomy, and excision of the hip-joint.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 223-224.



HODGE, George B., soldier, born in Fleming County, Kentucky, 8 April, 1828. He was educated at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, became a midshipman, 16 December, 1845, and afterward acting lieutenant, but resigned in 1851. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1852, was subsequently admitted to the bar at Newport, Kentucky, and was elected to the legislature in 1859. In 1860 he was an elector on the Breckinridge ticket. He entered the Confederate service as a private in 1861, and was soon afterward chosen to represent Kentucky in the Confederate Congress. While not at Richmond, he was in the field, and was made captain and assistant adjutant-general in Breckinridge's division. He was promoted major for gallantry at Shiloh, and colonel in 1864, serving as inspector-general. He became a brigadier-general, and participated in the battle of Chickamauga, subsequently commanding the districts of east Louisiana and Mississippi until the close of the war. He then resumed practice at Newport, Kentucky, and was an elector on the Greeley ticket in 1872. He was state senator in 1873-'7.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 224.



HOFF, Henry Kuhn, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1809; died in Washington, D. C, 25 December, 1878. He was appointed a midshipman from South Carolina on 28 October, 1823, commissioned lieutenant on 3 March, 1831, and commander on 6 February, 1854. In 1861-'2 he commanded the steam sloop "Lancaster" of the Pacific Squadron. He was promoted commodore on 16 July, 1862, was on special duty in 1863, and afterward on ordnance duty in Philadelphia till 1867. He was made a rear-admiral on 13 April, 1867, and in 1868-'9 commanded the North Atlantic Squadron. During the Cuban Insurrection, which began in October, 1868, he promptly and energetically interfered to protect resident American citizens, who suffered injustice from Spanish officials. He was placed on the retired list on 19 September, 1868, returned to the United States in August, 1869, was a member of the retiring board, and in 1870 President of the Board of Visitors at Annapolis.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 226.



HOFFMAN, David Bancroft, physician, born in Bainbridge, Chenango County, New York, 25 July, 1827. He studied medicine in his father's office, and attended lectures at Rush and Jefferson Medical Colleges. He crossed the plains in 1849, and spent two years in California. In 1851-'3 he was a surgeon on mail steamers from New York to Aspinwall and from Panama to San Francisco. He then settled in San Diego, California, was coroner and afterward postmaster there, and represented the county in the legislature in 1861-2. He received the degree of M. D. from Toland Medical College in San Francisco in 1864. During the Civil War he served as a field-surgeon in the U. S. Army, and afterward as a contract-surgeon till 1880. In 1868 he was a presidential elector, in 1869-'73 collector of customs at San Diego, and in 1870-'5 U. S. commissioner in bankruptcy. He engaged in railroad enterprises, and was chosen president of the San Diego and San Bernardino Railroad Company. He published a "Medical History of San Diego County " (San Francisco, 1864).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 227.



HOFFMAN, William, soldier, born in New York City, 2 December, 1807; died in Rock Island, Illinois., 12 August, 1884. His father, of the same name, was a lieutenant-colonel in the U. S. Army. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1829, entered the army as a lieutenant of infantry, served in Kansas and in the Black Hawk War in 1832, and was promoted 1st lieutenant on 16 November, 1836, and captain on 1 February, 1838. In the war with Mexico he was engaged in the march through Chihuahua, the siege of Vera Cruz, and the battle of Cerro Gordo, was brevetted for services at Contreras and Churubusco, and again for bravery in the battle of Molino del Rey, and was present at the storming of Chapultepec and at the capture of the city of Mexico. He was promoted major on 15 April, 1851, served in the Sioux Expedition of 1855, and in 1858 in the Utah Expedition and the march to California He became a lieutenant-colonel on 17 October, 1860, and was engaged in frontier duty at San Antonio, Texas, when he was made a prisoner of war by the Confederates, and not exchanged till 27 August, 1862. He was made a colonel on 25 April, 1862, served during the war as commissary-general of prisoners at Washington, and was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general. At the close of the war he took command of his regiment in Kansas, and in 1870 was retired at his own request.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 228.



HOGE, Solomon La Fayette, member of Congress, born in Logan County, Ohio, about 1837. He was graduated at the Cincinnati Law College in 1859, and practised at Bellefontaine. He entered the army in 1861 as 1st lieutenant of Ohio volunteers, was promoted captain, and was severely wounded at the second battle of Bull Run. He was twice brevetted for gallantry in battle, and on 23 February. 1866, received the commission of 2d lieutenant in the 6th regular Infantry. He was promoted 1st lieutenant on 28 July, 1866, but resigned in 1868 and moved to South Carolina, where he took an active part in the reconstruction movement. He was elected an associate judge of the state supreme court, and afterward to Congress, serving from December, 1869, till March, 1871, and again from 6 December, 1875, till 3 March, 1877. He was comptroller-general of South Carolina in 1874-'5.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 230.



HOLABIRD, Samuel Beckley, soldier, born in Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut,16 June, 1826. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, assigned to the 1st U.S. Infantry, promoted 1st lieutenant in May, 1855, and was in service at the academy as adjutant from 2 September, 1859, till 13 May, 1861. He served during the Civil War in the Northern Virginia Campaign in August and September, 1862, with the Army of the Potomac in the Maryland Campaign, and was chief quartermaster of the Department of the Gulf from 16 December, 1862, till July, 1865. He was present at the siege of Port Hudson in 1863, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, for meritorious services during the war. He was depot quartermaster at New Orleans from 1 October till 16 December, 1865, and was chief quartermaster of the Department of Louisiana from 1 October, 1865, till 7 March, 1866. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel and deputy quartermaster-general 29 July, 1866; colonel and quartermaster-general, 22 January, 1881, and brigadier-general and quartermaster-general, 1 July, 1883. General Holabird has translated General Jomini's "Treatise on Grand Military Operations" (1865).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 230-231.



HOLLEY, Myron, 1779-1841, Rochester, New York, abolitionist leader, political leader, reformer. Founder of the Liberty Party. Published the anti-slavery newspaper, Rochester Freeman. (Blue, 2005, pp. 20, 23, 25, 26; Chadwick, 1899; Dumond, 1961, pp. 295-296, 404n16; Goodell, 1852, pp. 470, 474, 556; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 16-17, 21; Sernett, 2002, pp. 107-109, 112, 180, 305-306n17; Sorin, 1971; Wright, 1882; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 236; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 150; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 62)

HOLLEY, Myron, reformer, born in Salisbury, Connecticut, 29 April, 1779; died in Rochester, New York, 4 March, 1841. He was graduated at Williams in 1799, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1802. He began practice in Salisbury, but in 1803 settled in Canandaigua, New York. Finding the law uncongenial, he purchased the stock of a local bookseller and became the literary purveyor of the town. In 1810-'14 he was county-clerk, and in 1816 was sent to Albany as an assemblyman. The project of the Erie Canal was at that time the great subject of interest, and through the efforts of Mr. Holley a board of commissioners was appointed, of whom he was one. His work thenceforth, until its completion, was on the Erie Canal. For eight years his practical wisdom, energy, and self-sacrifice made him the executive power, without which this great enterprise would probably have been a failure. On the expiration of his term of office, in 1824, as canal-commissioner and treasurer of the board, he retired to Lyons, where with his family he had previously moved. The anti-Masonic excitement of western New York, arising from the abduction of William Morgan, soon drove Mr. Holley into prominence again. This movement culminated in a national convention being held in Philadelphia in 1830, where Henry D. Ward, Francis Granger, William H. Seward, and Myron Holley were the representatives from New York. An "Address to the People of the United States," written by Holley, was adopted and signed by 112 delegates. The anti-Masonic adherents presented a candidate in the next gubernatorial canvass of New York, and continued to do so for several years, until the Whigs, appreciating the advantages of their support, nominated candidates that were not Masons. This action resulted, in 1838, in the election of William H. Seward. Meanwhile, in 1831, Mr. Holley became editor of the Lyons "Countryman," a journal devoted to the opposition and suppression of Masonry; but after three years, this enterprise not having been successful, he went to Hartford, and there conducted the "Free Elector" for one year. He then returned to Lyons, but soon disposed of his property and settled near Rochester, where for a time he lived in quiet, devoting his attention to horticulture. When the anti-slavery feeling began to manifest itself Mr. Holley became one of its adherents. At this time he was offered a nomination to Congress by the Whig Party, provided he would not agitate this question; but this proposition he declined. He participated in the meeting of the Anti-Slavery Convention held in Cleveland in 1839, and was prominent in the call for a national convention to meet in Albany, to take into consideration the formation of a Liberty Party. At this gathering the nomination of James G. Birney was made, and during the subsequent canvass Mr. Holley was active in support of the candidate, both by continual speaking and by his incessant labors as editor of the Rochester "Freeman." Mr. Holley's remains rest in Mount Hope cemetery, at Rochester, and the grave is marked by an obelisk, with a fine medallion portrait in white marble, the whole having been paid for in one-cent contributions by members of the Liberty Party, at the suggestion of Gerrit Smith. See "Myron Holley; and What he did for Liberty and True Religion," by Elizur Wright (Boston," 1882).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 236.



HOLLINS, George Nichols, naval officer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 20 September, 1799; died there, 18 January, 1878. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1814, and served on the sloop-of-war "Brie" in her unsuccessful attempt to break the British blockade of Chesapeake Bay. He was assigned to the frigate "President" under Stephen Decatur, was captured by the British, and kept a prisoner of war at Bermuda until peace was established, he also served under Decatur in the Algerian war in 1815, and received from him a Turkish sabre for his bravery in the capture of an Algerian frigate. After serving on the "Guerriere," the "Columbus," the "Franklin," and the "Washington," he took command of an East Indian merchantman. In 1825 he was promoted lieutenant, and in 1844 commander. In 1855, while lying off the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, the American residents of Greytown appealed to him for protection from the local authorities, by whom they alleged they had been injured. Hollins accordingly bombarded the city as a punishment to the authorities, and the property and lives of the English residents being imperilled, they declared he had encroached on British domain, as Nicaragua was under the protection of that government. In consequence of his precipitate conduct, serious difficulties were apprehended between England and the United States. In 1861 he resigned his commission to join the Confederate Navy, but the war department refused to accept it, struck his name from the rolls, and ordered his arrest. He eluded the authorities, went to the south, and was commissioned commodore in the Confederate Navy. In October, 1861, he attacked the National Blockading Squadron at the passes of the Mississippi, and was appointed flag-captain of the New Orleans Station for what was claimed as an important victory. In 1862 he was superseded by Commodore William C. Whipple. After the war he became a crier in the city court of Baltimore.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 237.



HOLLOWAY, James Montgomery, physician, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 14 July, 1834. He was educated at Oakland College. Mississippi, and Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, and in 1857 was graduated in medicine at the University of Louisiana. He practised at Vernon, Madison County, Mississippi, and in 1861-'5 served as a surgeon in the Confederate Army. In 1863 he was senior medical officer, and appointed president of the medical examining board of all the hospitals in Richmond. He was professor of anatomy in Louisville College, Kentucky, in 1865-'6, of physiology in 1866-'7, in 186770 'held the chair of physiology and medical jurisprudence in the Kentucky school of medicine, from 1870 till 1874 was professor of physiology and clinical surgery in Louisville Medical College, and from 1874 till 1877 professor of surgery in the hospital College of the medical department of Central University, Kentucky. He has written much for medical periodicals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 328.



HOLMES, Oliver Wendell, jurist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 8 March, 1841, was educated at Harvard. He entered the National service as lieutenant in the 20th Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry in 1861, was wounded severely at Ball's Bluff, at Antietam, and at the second battle of Fredericksburg, and was mustered out with the rank of captain in June, 1864. He had been offered a commission as lieutenant-colonel in 1863, but declined promotion. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1866, and practised in Boston. In 1882 he was professor in the law school of Harvard, and in the same year was appointed a justice of the supreme court of the state. He has edited Kent's "Commentaries" (Boston, 1873), and is the author of "The Common Law" (1881) and of numerous articles and addresses.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 241.



HOLMES, Theophilus Hunter, soldier, born in Sampson County, North Carolina, in 1804; died near Fayetteville, North Carolina, 21 June, 1880, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1829, served on the western frontier, and as lieutenant and captain of infantry in the Florida War, the occupation of Texas, and the war with Mexico, receiving the brevet of major for gallantry in the engagements before Monterey. He was commissioned major on 3 March, 1855, took part in the Navajo Expedition of 1858-'9, and was superintendent of the general recruiting service when the Civil War began. He went on leave of absence to North Carolina, where he owned large estates, resigned his commission on 22 April, 1861, and was at once made a brigadier-general in the service of the state. He organized many of the North Carolina regiments, and selected their commanding officers. When North Carolina joined the Confederacy he was commissioned a brigadier-general by the Confederate government. He commanded at Aquia Creek, and was engaged in the various campaigns of northern Virginia, rising to be major-general in the Confederate Army. In September, 1862, he was transferred to the command of the Trans-Mississippi Department, with headquarters at Little Rock, Arkansas. He was tendered a commission as lieutenant-general while there, and at first declined, but accepted when Jefferson Davis pressed it upon him a second time. In March, 1863, he was at his own request relieved in the command of the department by General E. Kirby Smith. He attacked Helena, Arkansas, on 3 July, 1863, and was driven back with heavy losses.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 241-242.



HOLT, John Saunders, author, born in Mobile, Alabama, 5 December, 1820; died in Natchez, Mississippi, 27 February, 1886. He moved with his father, when an infant, to Woodville, Mississippi, and was educated in New Orleans and Centre College, Danville, Kentucky. In 1846 he joined a Mississippi regiment of volunteers under Colonel Jefferson Davis, and served as a private in the Mexican War, receiving honorable mention for bravery at Buena Vista. After studying law, he was licensed to practise in Woodville, Mississippi, in 1848, and resided there until his removal to New Orleans in 1851. He returned to Woodville in 1857, and throughout the Civil War served as lieutenant in the Confederate Army. At its close he resumed the practice of law. His novels, which are intended to portray various phases of southern character, are written under the pen-name of "Abraham Page," and are entitled "The Life of Abraham Page, Esq."(Philadelphia, 1868); "What I know about Ben Eccles, by Abraham Page" (1869); and " The Quines" (1870).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 244.



HOLT, Joseph, jurist, born in Breckenridge County, Kentucky, 6 January, 1807. He was educated at St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, and at Centre College, Danville, and in 1828 began to practice law at Elizabethtown, Kentucky. He moved to Louisville in 1832, was attorney for the Jefferson circuit in 1833, and in 1855 went to Port Gibson, Mississippi, where he attained eminence in his profession. He became an adherent of . Richard M. Johnson,  and a speech that he made in Johnson's favor in the National Democratic Convention of 1836 made him widely known as an orator. At this time he was counsel for the city of Vicksburg in a celebrated suit involving the claim of the heirs
of Newit Vick, founder of the city, to a strip of land along the river-front that Vick had devoted to the public use. He was a frequent opponent of Sergeant S. Prentiss. Holt returned to Louisville in 1842, and after a trip to Europe was appointed commissioner of patents by President Buchanan in 1857. He became Postmaster-General in 1859, and when John B. Floyd withdrew from the cabinet in 1860 he assumed charge of the War Department. He actively co-operated with General Scott in providing against hostile demonstrations at the inauguration of President Lincoln in 1861, and in a report, which was afterward published, described the plot that had been made to seize the capital. Although he had been a Douglas Democrat, Mr. Holt now gave his earnest support to the administration, denounced the policy of " neutrality " in his native state, and advocated the Union cause there and elsewhere. In the latter part of 1861 he was one of the commission that was appointed to investigate the military claims against the Department of the West. President Lincoln made him judge-advocate-general of the army on 3 September, 1862, with the rank of colonel, and on the establishment of the Bureau of Military Justice in 1864 he was put at its head with the same title, but with the rank of brigadier-general. He expressed his strong approval of the Emancipation Proclamation of 1862, and on 26 August, 1863, addressed an opinion to Secretary of War Stanton in which he approved the enlistment and subsequent emancipation of those Negroes who, living in states to which the proclamation did not refer, were still in slavery. Judge Holt bore a conspicuous part in various courts-martial and military commissions, especially in that which tried the assassins of President Lincoln. He was brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, on 13 March, 1865, for " faithful, meritorious, and distinguished services in the Bureau of Military Justice during the war," and on 1 December, 1875, was retired at his own request, being over sixty-two years of age. Since that time he has resided in Washington, D. C.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 244.



HOOD, John Bell, soldier, born in Owenville, Bath County, Kentucky, 1 June, 1831; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 August, 1879. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1853, and, after serving two years in California, was transferred in 1855 to the 2d U.S. Cavalry, of which Albert Sidney Johnston was colonel and Robert E. Lee lieutenant-colonel. In the fight at Devil's Run with the Comanche and Lipian Indians, in July, 1857, he was severely wounded in a hand-to-hand encounter with a savage. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 1858, and was cavalry instructor at the Military Academy in 1859-60. At the beginning of the Civil War he resigned his commission, and, entering the Confederate Army, rose to the rank of colonel, and, after a short service in the peninsula, was appointed brigadier-general of the Texas Brigade. He was then ordered back to the peninsula, was engaged at West Point, and, while leading his men on foot at Gaines's Mill, was shot in the body. In this battle his brigade lost more than half its number, and Hood was brevetted major-general on the field. He served in both Maryland Campaigns, was engaged in the second battle of Bull Run and those of Boonesborough, Fredericksburg, and Antietam, and was a second time severely wounded at Gettysburg, losing the use of his arm. Two months later he re-joined his command, and was ordered to Tennessee to re-enforce General Braxton Bragg. During the second day's fight at Chickamauga, seeing the line of his brigade waver, he rode to the front, and demanded the colors. The Texans rallied and charged, and Hood, at the head of the column, was again shot down. This wound necessitated the loss of his right leg, and while in hospital he was offered a civil appointment, which he refused, saying: "No bomb-proof place for me; I propose to see this fight out in the field." Six months later he returned to duty, and in the spring of 1864 commanded a corps in General Joseph E. Johnston's army, fighting through the retreat from Dalton to Atlanta. In obedience to an order of Jefferson Davis he succeeded Johnston in the command on 8 July, 1864, and, after several days of stubborn fighting, was completely outflanked by General William T. Sherman, and compelled to evacuate Atlanta, leaving Sherman in the rear, and enabling him to make his march to the sea. Hood then began a counter-movement into Tennessee. He compelled the evacuation of Decatur in November, crossed the Tennessee, and on the 30th of this month was defeated by General George H. Thomas at Franklin. On 16 December he was again disastrously defeated at Nashville by the same general, and after this battle, at his own request, was relieved of command and succeeded by General Richard Taylor. On the termination of the war he engaged in business as a commission-merchant in New Orleans, and was also president of the Louisiana branch of the Life Association of America, acquiring a competency, which was afterward lost in trade. During the yellow-fever epidemic of 1879 his wife and eldest child died within a few hours of each other, and Hood also succumbed to the disease. He is the author of "Advance and Retreat, Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate Armies" (New Orleans, 1880).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 247.



HOOKER, Charles Edward, lawyer, born in Union District, South Carolina, in 1825. He was graduated at Harvard Law-School in 1846, and afterward practised at Jackson, Mississippi. He was elected district attorney of the River District in 1850, and in 1859 a member of the Mississippi legislature, but resigned his seat on entering the Confederate Army. He was wounded during the siege of Vicksburg, and, having been promoted to the rank of colonel of cavalry, was assigned to duty on the military court that was attached to General Leonidas Polk's command. He was elected Attorney-General of Mississippi in 1865, re-elected in 1868, and. together with the other civil officers of the state, was moved by the military authorities. He was afterward elected to Congress as a Democrat, served from 6 December, 1875, till 3 March, 1883, and was again chosen in 1886.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 248.



HOOKER, Edward, naval officer, born in Farmington, Hartford County, Connecticut, 25 December, 1822. He is descended from Reverend Thomas Hooker. Edward was educated at Farmington academy, and at the age of fourteen entered the merchant marine, where he remained until he entered the U.S. Navy as acting master. 19 July, 1861, on the gun-boat "Louisiana," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and was severely wounded, 5 October, 1861. He was on service on that gun-boat in the Burnside expedition, and commanded it, in the absence of the chief officer, at Washington, North Carolina, 5 September. 1862. For his gallant conduct in this action he was promoted to acting-volunteer lieutenant, 20 September, 1862. He was in command of the steamer "Victoria" in 1863, and captured the brig " Minna"' and the steamer "Nicholai I." off Wilmington, North Carolina. He had command of the boats on the Rappahannock during the advance of General Grant, and cleared the river of torpedoes, opening it to transports. He was promoted to acting volunteer lieutenant-commander in January, 1865, was naval store-keeper in the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard from October, 1865, till October. "1867, commanded the store-ship "Idaho" in 1867-'9, and was commissioned lieutenant-commander in the regular navy. 18 December, 1868. He was inspector of yards and docks at the U.S. Navy-yard. New York, in 1870, and in 1884 was retired with the rank of commander.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 248.



HOOKER, Joseph, soldier, born in Hadley. Massachusetts, 13 November, 1814; died in Garden City. New York, 31 October, 1879. After a good elementary education he was appointed a cadet in the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1837 with Braxton Bragg, Jubal Early, John Sedgwick, and Edward D. Townsend. He was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery, and after serving in the Florida War was sent with his regiment to the Maine frontier, on account of the disputed boundary controversy. On 1 November, 1838, he was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. After continued service with his regiment, he was appointed adjutant of the Military Academy, 1 July, 1842, but soon afterward, having been offered the adjutancy of his own regiment, accepted it, and retained it until 11 May, 1846. He served with distinction in the Mexican War from 1846 till 1848, and in the former year was appointed a captain in the adjutant-general's department. He was attached successively to the staffs of Generals Persifer F. Smith. Thomas L. Hamer, William O. Butler, and Gideon I. Pillow. He was particularly distinguished in the siege and assault of Monterey, under General Zachary Taylor, and received the brevet of captain. He took part in the movements from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, and for his gallantry in a spirited affair at the National Bridge on 11 August, 1847, was brevetted major. He was favorably mentioned in the despatches announcing the series of actions and victories in the valley of Mexico—Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of the city. For the decisive action of Chapultepec he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, being thus among the very few to whom were given three brevets during the war. After a year's sojourn at the east he was sent, on 9 July, 1849, as assistant adjutant-general to the Division of the Pacific, where he served until 24 November, 1851. By regular lineal promotion he had become a captain in his regiment on 29 October, 1848; but this post he declined and vacated, since he could not hold both, in order to retain his captaincy in the adjutant-general's department. From 1851 till 1853 he was on leave of absence. Being, like many others, smitten with the "California fever," he resigned from the army on 21 February, 1853, and from that time until 1861 lived a precarious and not very successful life. At first he was a farmer in Sonora County, California In 1858 he was appointed superintendent of military roads in Oregon, and had other government surveying. From 1859 till 1861 he was colonel of California militia, expecting the cloud of war soon to burst. Thus by his needs, his training, and his forecast he was ready to avail himself of the opportunity that soon presented itself to his uncommon military talents. Still young, tall, handsome, cool, brave, and dashing, he was at once a soldier and a general, the beau-ideal of a leader of men. The government made haste to accept his services, which he had promptly offered, and he was appointed on 17 May, 1861, a brigadier-general of volunteers. The actual time of issuing his commission was in August, but it was dated back to give him a claim to higher command. He saw the battle of Bull Run, without participating in it. He was employed in the defences of Washington, 12 August, 1861, and then on the eastern shore of the lower Potomac, and was appointed in April, 1862, to the command of the 2d Division in the 3d Corps, Army of the Potomac, under Heintzelman, and fought in that capacity during the Peninsular Campaign. He was distinguished at the siege of Yorktown, 5 April to 4 May, and was appointed a major-general of volunteers on the day after the evacuation, 5 May. In the battle of Williamsburg his single division held the whole Confederate Army in check, and lost 2,228 men, killed or wounded, while 30,000 National troops looked on and gave no assistance until, when all his men had been engaged, and he was obliged to retire, Kearny and Hancock came to his relief. He was also distinguished at the battles of Fair Oaks, Frazier's Farm. Glendale. and Malvern, where so much depended upon defeating the enemy while the change of base was being executed. At the close of the campaign, Hooker was employed, still as a division commander, in the new movement under General John Pope, against General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, and fought with skill and valor at Bristoe Station, 27 August, Manassas, 20 and 30 August, and Chantilly, where he held the enemy in check with the gallant Kearny, who was killed there. From the soldiers who had admired his cool and dashing courage under fire he received the nickname of "Fighting Joe," and when he appeared on the field the men were strengthened and inspired. Especially had his rapid defeat of Ewell, 27 August, at Manassas compelled Jackson to evacuate Manassas, and relieved the army from a very critical situation. When Pope had failed and was hurled back under the defences of Washington, the Army of the Potomac was restored to McClellan, and Hooker was promoted to the command of the 1st Corps. He took a prominent part in the Maryland Campaign, and was engaged in the battle of South Mountain, 14 September, 1862. where he carried the mountain-sides on the right of the gap, as Reno carried those on the left, the enemy precipitately retreating. At the battle of Antietam, 17 September, he again did more than his share of the fighting. His corps lay on the right, resting on Antietam Creek, with Mansfield in rear and Sumner on his left. At dawn he crossed the creek and attacked the Confederate left flank; but that unbalanced field caused him to be confronted with overpowering numbers, and his losses were extremely heavy. He was shot through the foot and carried from the field. Had the movements of the left wing been as vigorous, had others obeyed orders as promptly and fought as bravely as he, the victory would have been much more decisive. For his conduct in this action he was appointed a brigadier-general in the regular army, to date from 20 September, 1862. His wound only kept him out of the field until 10 November, when he rejoined the army for the campaign on the Rappahannock, with Fredericksburg as the objective point. The slow and cautious movement of McClellan in pursuit of Lee after Antietam had caused him to be relieved of the command, which was conferred upon General Ambrose E. Burnside. In the new organization for the advance on Fredericksburg the army was formed into three grand divisions, the command of the centre, 40,000 men, being given to Hooker. The principal attack was made on 13 December, Burnside had expected to surprise Lee, but failed in this, and the assault resulted in the discomfiture of the National Army. In the criminations and controversies of generals, Hooker's conduct in the field had impressed Mr. Lincoln with a favorable estimate of his abilities, and when, at his own request, Burnside was relieved of the command, Hooker was appointed, by an order of 25 January, to succeed him. The letter that was addressed to General Hooker by President Lincoln, when he appointed him to the command, is so remarkable for its keen insight into character and careful study of the situation that it seems proper to insert it here: "I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. Of course I have done this upon what appear to me sufficient reasons, and yet I think it best for you to know that there are some things in regard to which I am not quite satisfied with you. I believe you to be a brave and skilful soldier, which of course I like. I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in which you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a valuable if not indispensable quality. You are ambitious, which, within reasonable bounds, does good rather than harm; but, I think that during General Burnside's command of the army you have taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as much as you could, in which you did a great wrong to the country and to a most meritorious and honorable brother officer. I have heard, in such a way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the army and the government needed a dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship. The government will support you to the utmost of its ability, which is neither more nor less than it has done and will do for all commanders. I much fear that the spirit which you have aided to infuse into the army, of criticising their commander and withholding confidence from him, will now turn upon you. I shall assist you as far as I can to put it down. Neither you nor Napoleon, were he alive again, could get any good out of an army while such a spirit prevails in it. And now, beware of rashness! Beware of rashness! But with energy and sleepless vigilance go forward and give us victories." The hopes of the country were high that the Army of the Potomac now had a general that would lead it to glorious victory. Hooker reorganized it, abandoned the cumbrous machinery of grand divisions, returned to the corps system, and formed a new plan, of the success of which he was very sanguine. He said he had "the finest army on the planet," and that no power, earthly or heavenly, could save Lee from destruction. After some unimportant movements he sent Stoneman's cavalry to the enemy's rear, and then, crossing the Rappahannock at several fords, with the ultimate intention of turning Lee's left, while Sedgwick should make a demonstration on Fredericksburg, instead of attacking Lee, he took post at Chancellorsville, where he awaited Lee's attack. This came with unexpected force and unexampled rapidity. Sedgwick's attack upon the Fredericksburg Heights had been successful, but Jackson, by a vigorous flanking movement, turned the National right, and threw it back in great confusion upon the centre; there was want of concert of action, and thus the battle, although well planned, was lost. In the very heat of the conflict occurred an accident that entailed serious results. General Hooker was leaning against a pillar on the piazza of the Chancellor House, which was struck by a cannon-ball. He was stunned, and for some time senseless, and could not recover his judgment so as to continue the command or to transfer it to a subordinate. Jackson was mortally wounded, and for two days the Army of the Potomac held its ground. The command devolved upon General Couch, of the 2d Corps, who withdrew the forces to the north side of the river. While the Confederate general, elated by this unexpected victory, was moving northward with bold schemes of invasion, the Army of the Potomac took up a line extending from Washington to Baltimore, hoping and expecting that Lee would again give battle in Maryland. In this they were disappointed. It soon became evident that Lee was going to invade Pennsylvania by way of Chambersburg. The Army of the Potomac marched northward, parallel with Lee's route, and looking for the best place to thwart him. Perceiving the inferiority of his army, Hooker demanded that the 11,000 troops under French at Harper's Ferry should be added to his force. This was refused, and for this reason ostensibly Hooker sent in his resignation of the command. In this condition of affairs, without assigning any reason, the president issued an order, under date of 27 June, 1863, relieving Hooker from the command and conferring it upon General George G. Meade, the commander of the 5th Corps, who conducted it to Gettysburg, fought Lee there, and drove him back across the Potomac. In his farewell order to the troops, General Hooker acquiesced cheerfully in the action of the government, like a soldier and a patriot, and gave the true significance of the order: "Impressed," he says. "with the belief that my usefulness as the commander of the Army of the Potomac is impaired, I part from it, yet not without the deepest emotion." He went to Baltimore, where he remained about two months. But so accomplished a general could not be spared, and on 24 September he was assigned to the command of the 11th and 12th Army Corps, which were consolidated later, and constituted the 20th Corps. With these troops he was sent to the south for the relief of Chattanooga, first under Rosecrans and afterward under Grant. From Wauhatchie he marched into Lookout valley on 27 and 28 October, and thus aided in opening communications for supplies, so that the army was thoroughly provisioned by two steamers, with only eight miles of wagoning. When Grant's plans were in order for the final movement, so that his line was complete from the northern end of Lookout Mountain to the northern end of Missionary Ridge, Hooker made a bold attack on the former, and carried it on 24 November, fighting what has been picturesquely called "the battle above the clouds." He then marched across to strengthen the National right, and shared in the grand attack on Missionary Ridge, by which Bragg was defeated and driven away in confusion. In pursuit of the enemy, he fought him at Ringgold on the 27th, where he met with stubborn resistance. When General William T. Sherman organized his army for the invasion of Georgia, Hooker was retained in command of the 20th Corps, and gained new laurels at Mill Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, and Pine Mountain, he took part in the attack on Atlanta, and in the capitulation in the latter days of August. General James B. McPherson, who commanded the Army of the Tennessee, was killed in one of the movements around Atlanta, 22 July, 1864. Hooker had expected to succeed him, but was disappointed. The president, at the suggestion of General Sherman, appointed General Oliver O. Howard to that post. Sherman regarded Hooker as one that interfered in the actions of others and questioned the orders of his superiors. Hooker considered himself ill-treated, and by his own request was relieved of his command, 30 July, and was placed upon waiting orders until 28 September. But his services were not forgotten. For the part he took in the movements under Grant and Sherman he was brevetted a major-general in the regular army, under date of 13 March, 1865. After the close of the war in 1865, Hooker was put in charge of the Department of the East, with his headquarters in New York City. In August. 1866, he was transferred to the Department of the Lakes, with headquarters at Detroit. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, 1 September, 1866, and was for some time on a board for the retirement of officers. Having been struck with paralysis and incapacitated for further active duty, he was, at his own request, placed on the retired list, 15 October, 1868, with the full rank of a major-general. He lived subsequently in New York and in Garden City, Long Island, where he was buried. Hooker was a brave soldier, a skilful military organizer, with an overplus of self-esteem, which led him to follow the dictates of his ambition, sometimes without regard to the just claims of others; but his military achievements and unwavering patriotism so overshadowed his few faults that he is entitled to great praise.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 249-251.



HOPE, James Barron, poet, born in Norfolk, Virginia, 23 March, 1827. He was educated at William and Mary College, Virginia, and previous to 1861 was a practising lawyer and commonwealth attorney in Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He had won some literary distinction from a series of poems that he published in a Baltimore periodical under the pen-name of "the late Henry Ellen, Esq." After serving throughout the Civil War as quartermaster and captain in the Confederate Army, he settled in Norfolk, Virginia , was superintendent of public schools, and edited the Norfolk " Landmark," a daily newspaper. On the one hundredth anniversary of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, 19 October, 1881, Mr. Hope, on the invitation of a joint committee of the U. S. Senate and House of Representatives, delivered an address entitled "Arms and the Man," afterward published with other poems (Norfolk, 1882). His writings include "Leoni di Monota" (Philadelphia, 1857); "Elegiac Ode. and Other Poems" (Norfolk, 1875); and ' Under the Empire" (1878).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 253.



HORWITZ, Phineas Jonathan, surgeon, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 3 March, 1822. He was educated at the University of Maryland and at Jefferson Medical College. In 1847 he entered the U. S. Navy as assistant surgeon, and during the Mexican War was in charge of the naval hospital at Tobasco. From 1859 till 1865 he was assistant to the Bureau of Medicine, and chief of that bureau in 1865-'9. He was promoted surgeon 19 April, 1861, commissioned medical inspector 3 March, 1871, medical director 30 June, 1873, and was retired with the relative rank of captain in 1885. His office as assistant to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery during the war involved the adjustment of all the pensions that accrued to the wounded and to the widows and orphans of the killed in the navy; the tabulation of medical and surgical statistics; and the general management of all financial matters pertaining to the office. Dr. Horwitz projected and constructed the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 267.



HOUSTON, David Crawford, engineer, born in New York City, 5 December, 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and was retained at the academy as assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy until September, 1857, when he was placed on construction of fortifications at Hampton Roads, Virginia. From 1856 till 1860 he commanded a detachment of engineer troops in Oregon, after which he was assistant engineer in the construction of a fort on Sandy Hook, New Jersey. During the Civil War, as 1st lieutenant of the Engineer Corps, he aided in constructing the defences of Washington. D. C. He was at Blackburn's Ford and Bull Run as engineer of General Tyler's division, and as chief engineer 1st Army Corps, department of the Rappahannock. He was with the 3d Army Corps in the second battle of Bull Run and of Cedar Mountain, after which he was brevetted captain. He became chief engineer of the 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, in the Maryland Campaign, and was engaged in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, where he was brevetted major, 17 September, 1862. He was in charge of the defences of Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and of the Department of the Gulf during the siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in March, 1863, for which service he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 17 June, 1863. He took part in the expedition to the mouth of the Rio Grande, 1863, and in the Red River Campaign in April, 1864. He was a member of the special board of engineers for the defences of San Francisco, California, in 1864-'5. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted colonel for "gallant and meritorious services during the rebellion." He served on the board for defences of Willet's Point, New York, in 1865, and from 1865 till 1867 on the board to carry out in detail the modifications of the defences near Boston, as proposed by the board of 27 January, 1864. He was also superintending engineer of the construction of the defences of Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island, in 1865; of the river and harbor improvements in Rhode Island and Connecticut from 1866 till 1870: and of surveys and improvements of various rivers in Wisconsin since July, 1870. In 1868 he was a member of the board of engineers on Block Island breakwater, on the wreck of the steamer "Scotland,” and on the improvement of Ogdensburg and Oswego Harbors. In 1869 he served on the Wallabout Channel and in the New York Navy yard. In 1871 he was charged with the plans for docks in Chicago breakwater, and from 1872 till December, 1875, was engaged in constructing harbors in the northwest. He was also superintending engineer on modifications proposed for Michigan City Harbor, Indiana, in July, and on the improvement of Fox and Wisconsin Rivers in August, 1878. He became major of the Corps of Engineers on 7 March, 1867, lieutenant-colonel, 30 dune, 1882, and since 1886 has been a member of the board of engineers for fortifications and river and harbor improvements.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 273.



HOVEY, Charles Edward, lawyer, born in Thetford, Orange County, Vermont, 26 April, 1827, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1852, after which he became principal of the high-school in Farmington, Massachusetts, and of the boy's high-school in Peoria, Illinois. He assisted in organizing the Illinois Normal University in Normal, of which he was president from 1857 till the Civil War, and on the organization of a system of public schools in that city, in 1856, he was appointed superintendent, and assisted in forming the State Teachers' Association, of which he was president in 1856. On 15 August, 1861, he entered the national service as colonel of the 33d Illinois Volunteer Infantry, a regiment composed chiefly of young men from the state colleges. In 1862 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and on 5 September, 1862, to that of major-general by brevet, for gallant and meritorious conduct in battle, particularly at Arkansas Post, 11 January, 1863. He left the military service in May, 1863, and has since practised law. He delivered a number of addresses in Illinois, was a member of the state board of education there, was the editor of the "Illinois Teacher," and contributed also to other educational periodicals from 1852 till 1861.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 276.



HOVEY, Alvin Peterson, soldier, born in Posey County, Indiana, 6 September, 1821. He was educated in the Mount Vernon common schools, studied law, was admitted to the bar of Mount Vernon in 1843, and practised with success. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of Indiana in 1850. In 1851 he became circuit judge of the 3d Judicial Circuit of Indiana, which office he held until 1854, when he was made judge of the Supreme Court of Indiana. From 1856 till 1858 he served as U. S. District Attorney for Indiana. During the Civil War he entered the national service as colonel of the 24th Indiana Volunteers, in July, 1861. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 28 April, 1862, and brevetted major-general for meritorious and distinguished services in July. 1864. He was in command of the Eastern District of Arkansas in 1863, and of the District of Indiana in 1864-'5. General Grant, in his official report, awards to General Hovey the honor of the key-battle of the Vicksburg Campaign, that of Champion's Hill. General Hovey resigned in October, 1865, and was appointed minister to Peru, which office he resigned in 1870. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1880.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 276.



HOWARD, Oliver Otis, 1830-1919, abolitionist, Union Major General, commander of the 11th Corps of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Tennessee, the Right Wing of General Sherman’s March to the Sea, and the Carolinas Campaign, November 1864-April 1865.  Recipient of the Medal of Honor.  Founder and director of the Freeman’s Bureau, 1865-1874.  Founder of Howard University, Washington, DC.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 278; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 279; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11; Cullum, 1891; U.S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1881-1901. Series 1; Warner, 1964.)

HOWARD, Oliver Otis, soldier, born in Leeds, Maine, 8 November, 1830. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1850, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1854, became 1st lieutenant and instructor in mathematics in 1854, and resigned in 1861 to take command of the 3d Maine Regiment. He commanded a brigade at the first battle of Bull Run, and for gallantry in that engagement was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 3 September, 1861. He was twice wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks, losing his right arm on 1 June, 1862, was on sick-leave for six months, and engaged in recruiting service till September of this year, when he participated in the battle of Antietam, and afterward took General John Sedgwick's division in the 2d Corps. In November, 1862, he became major-general of volunteers. He commanded the 11th Corps during General Joseph Hooker's operations in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, 2 May, 1863, served at Gettysburg, Lookout Valley, and Missionary Ridge, and was on the expedition for the relief of Knoxville in December, 1863. He was in occupation of Chattanooga from this time till July, 1864, when he was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee in the invasion of Georgia, was engaged at Dalton, Resaca, Adairsville, and Pickett's Mill, where he was again wounded, was at the surrender of Atlanta, and joined in pursuit of the Confederates in Alabama, under General John B. Hood, from 4 October till 13 December, 1864. In the march to the sea and the invasion of the Carolinas he commanded the right wing of General William T. Sherman's army. He became brigadier-general in the U. S. Army, 21 December, 1864. He was in command of the Army of the Tennessee, and engaged in all the important battles from 4 January till 26 April, 1865, occupying Goldsborough, North Carolina, 24 March, 1865, and participating in numerous skirmishes, terminating with the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston at Durham, North Carolina, 26 April, 1865. In March of this year he was brevetted major-general for gallantry at the battle of Ezra Church and the campaigns against Atlanta, Georgia. He was commissioner of the Freedmen's bureau at Washington from March, 1865, till July, 1874, and in that year was assigned to the command of the Department of the Columbia. In 1877 he led the expedition against the Nez Perces Indians, and in 1878 led the campaign against the Bannocks and Piutes. In 1881-'2 he was superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy. In 1886 General Howard was commissioned major-general, and given command of the Division of the Pacific. Bowdoin College gave him the degree of A. M. in 1853, Waterville College that of LL. D. in 1865, Shurtleff College the same in 1865, and Gettysburg theological seminary in 1866. He was also made a chevalier of the Legion of honor by the French government in 1884. General Howard has contributed various articles to magazines, his latest being an account of the Atlanta Campaign in the “Century” for July, 1887, and has published “Donald's School Days” (1879); “Chief Joseph, or the Nez Perces in Peace and War” (1881); and is the author and translator of a “Life of Count Agenor de Gasparin.” Appleton’s 1990, Vol. III. p. 278.



HOWARD, Roland
, abolitionist.  Brother of General Oliver Otis Howard.  (Marching in Proud Company, Civil War Recollections of Oliver Otis Howard [pamphlet, reprint], Anthoensen Press, Portland, ME, 1983)



HOWARD, William A., revenue officer, born in Maine in 1807: died 18 November, 1871. When a boy he distinguished himself by leading an expedition to rescue a United States vessel that had been seized by the British for infringing the fishery laws. In 1824 he entered the U. S. Navy, and in 1828 resigned his commission to receive a captaincy in the revenue marine. So successful was he in assisting vessels in distress on the coast of New England that the merchants of Boston presented him with a valuable service of silver. In 1848 the German confederation appointed him second in command of the fleet on the Weser, and he there constructed a navy-yard and dock, and remained in charge until the breaking up of the fleet. At the beginning of the Civil War Captain Howard raised a regiment of marine artillery, which was attached to the Burnside expedition. On returning north he began organizing in New York a regiment of heavy artillery, and raised 2,500 men, who were detailed for active service with the Army of the James. As colonel he commanded the defences around Portsmouth and Norfolk, and at the close of the war resumed his commission as captain in the revenue marine. He hoisted the flag of the United States in Alaska soon after its transference by Russia. His last service was superintending the building of steam-launches for the revenue marine.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 278-279.



HOWE, Albion Paris, soldier, born in Standish, Maine, 13 March, 1818. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, entered the 4th U.S. Artillery, and from 1843 till 1846 was a teacher of mathematics at West Point. He served with credit in the Mexican War, was brevetted captain for his conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and became captain, 2 March, 1855. He was General McClellan's chief of artillery in western Virginia in 1861, and commanded a brigade of light artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the campaign on the Peninsula in 1862. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 11 July, 1862, and was assigned to a brigade in Couch's division, 4th Army Corps. He was in the battles of Manassas, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. He was in command of the artillery depot, Washington, D. C, in 1864-'6, and was brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. for meritorious service during the rebellion. He was retired from the army in 1882, after serving for several years on the Pacific Coast with the 4th U.S. Artillery, of which he was major.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 279.



HOWE, Dr. Samuel Gridley, 1801-1876, abolitionist leader, philanthropist, physician, reformer.  Actively participated in the anti-slavery movement.  Free Soil candidate for Congress from Boston in 1846.  From 1851-1853 he edited the anti-slavery newspaper, the Commonwealth.  Active with the U. S. Sanitary Commission during the Civil War.  Member of the American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission, 1863. Supported radical abolitionist John Brown. Husband of Julia Ward Howe.  (Filler, 1960, pp. 43, 56, 117, 181, 204, 214, 238, 241, 268; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 32, 117, 119-120, 213; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 165, 207, 327, 388, 341; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 283; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 296; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 453-456; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 342)

HOWE, Samuel Gridley, philanthropist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 10 November, 1801; died there, 9 January, 1876. He was graduated at Brown in 1821, and at the Harvard Medical school in 1824. After completing his studies he went to Greece, where he served as surgeon in the war for the independence in 1824-'7, and then as the head of the regular surgical service, which he established in that country. In 1827 he returned to the United States in order to obtain help for the Greeks when they were threatened with a famine, and later founded a colony on the isthmus of Corinth, but in consequence of prostration by swamp-fever he was obliged in 1830 to leave the country. In 1831, his attention having been called to the need of schools for the blind, for whose education no provision had been made in this country, he again visited Europe in order to study the methods of instruction then in use for the purpose of acquiring information concerning the education of the blind. While in Paris he was made president of the Polish committee. In his efforts to convey and distribute funds for the relief of a detachment of the Polish Army that had crossed into Prussia, he was arrested by the Prussian authorities, but, after six weeks' imprisonment, was taken to the French frontier by night and liberated. On his return to Boston in 1832 he gathered several blind pupils at his father's house, and thus gave origin to the school which was afterward known as the Perkins institution, and of which he was the first superintendent, continuing in this office until his death. His greatest achievement in this direction was the education of Laura Bridgman (q. v.). Dr. Howe also took an active part in founding the experimental school for the training of idiots, which resulted in the organization of the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feeble-minded youth in 1851. He was actively engaged in the anti-slavery movement, and was a Free-Soil candidate for Congress from Boston in 1846. During 1851-'3 he edited the “Commonwealth.” Dr. Howe took an active part in the sanitary movement in behalf of the soldiers during the Civil War. In 1867 he again went to Greece as bearer of supplies for the Cretans in their struggle with the Turks, and subsequently edited in Boston “The Cretan.” He was appointed, in 1871, one of the commissioners to visit Santo Domingo and report upon the question of the annexation of that Island to the United States, of which he became an earnest advocate. In 1868 he received the degree of LL. D. from Brown. His publications include letters on topics of the time; various reports, especially those of the Massachusetts commissioners of idiots (Boston, 1847-'8); “Historical Sketch of the Greek Revolution” (New York, 1828); and a “Reader for the Blind,” printed in raised characters (1839). See “Memoir of Dr. Samuel G. Howe,” by Mrs. Julia



HOWELL, John Adams, naval officer, born in New York, 16 March, 1840. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1858; became a lieutenant in April, 1861; lieutenant-commander in March, 1865; and commander, 6 March, 1872. He served as executive officer of the steam-sloop " Ossipee" at the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, and was honorably mentioned by his commanding officer in his despatches. He was promoted to captain on 1 March, 1884, and in 1887 was a member of the naval advisory board. He is the inventor of a torpedo (the result of sixteen years of study) which naval officers regard as probably superior to any other in use.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 285.



HOWELL, John Cumming, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, 24 November, 1819, was educated at Crawford's classical school in that city, and at Washington College, Pennsylvania, entering the U.S. Navy as an acting midshipman, 9 June, 1830. He became lieutenant in August. 1849; commander, 16 July, W02; and captain, 25 July, 1866. He served in the " Minnesota," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1861, and was her executive officer at the battle of Hatteras Inlet. He commanded the steamer " Tahamo," Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron, in 1862-'3, and the "Nereus," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1864-'5, and participated in the two actions at Fort Fisher in 1864-'5. For his cool performance of duty he was recommended for promotion by Rear-Admiral Porter, 28 January, 1865. From 1868 till 1870 he was fleet-captain of the European Squadron, and from 1870 till 1872 commandant of the U.S. Navy-yard at League Island, Philadelphia. He was commissioned commodore, 29 January, 1872, had command of the U.S. Navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, till 1874, and from that year till 1878 was chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. He became a rear-admiral, 25 April, 1877, commanded the North Atlantic and European Squadrons in 1878-'81, and was acting Secretary of the Navy at various times from 1874 till 1878.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 285.



HOYT, Henry Martyn, governor of Pennsylvania, born in Kingston, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 8 June, 1830. His parents were natives of Connecticut and among the earliest settlers in the Wyoming Valley. He was graduated at Williams in 1849, taught for a year in Towanda, Pennsylvania, and in 1851-'3 was professor of mathematics in Wyoming Seminary. He then read law with Chief-Justice George W. Woodward, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. At the beginning of the Civil War he was active in raising the 52d Pennsylvania Regiment, of which he was appointed lieutenant-colonel. He served in the Army of the Potomac till January, 1863, was engaged in the siege of Morris Island under General Quincy A. Gillmore, and was captured in a night attack on Fort Johnson, in which he successfully led a division of boats, landed, and entered the fort, which he was unable to hold by reason of the failure of his support to come to his aid. After being confined some time in Macon, Georgia, he was taken back to Charleston and made his escape, but was recaptured. On his exchange he rejoined his regiment, with which he remained till the close of the war, when he was mustered out with the rank of brevet brigadier-general. He then resumed his law-practice, and in 1867 was appointed by Governor Geary additional law-judge of the courts of Luzerne County. In 18750 he was chairman of the Republican state committee. He was elected governor of Pennsylvania in November, 1878, and held the office till 1883, when he again resumed his law practice. During his term the debt of the state was reduced to $10,000,000, and refunded at the rate of three per cent. In 1881 he received the degree of LL. D. from the University of Pennsylvania and also from Lafayette College. He has published " Controversy between Connecticut and Pennsylvania" (Philadelphia, 1879); and "Protection vs. Free Trade" (New York, 1885).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 289-290.



HUBBARD, Lucius Frederick, governor of Minnesota, born in Troy, New York, 26 January, 1836. He was but three years old when he lost his father, Charles P. Hubbard, sheriff of Rensselaer County, and was sent to live with an aunt at Chester, Vermont He was educated in the academy at Granville, New York, and apprenticed to the tinner's trade, at which he worked in Chicago for three years, and in 1857 he moved to Red Wing, Minnesota, where he established the "Republican." He was elected register of deeds in 1858, and in 1861 was a Republican candidate for the state senate, but lacked seven votes of being elected. He enlisted as a private in the 5th Minnesota Infantry in December, 1861, became captain in February, and lieutenant-colonel in March, 1862, and was severely wounded in the first battle of Corinth. He was promoted colonel, 31 August, 1862, commanded his regiment in the battle of Iuka and the 2d brigade of the 1st Division, Army of the Mississippi, in the battles of Jackson and Mississippi Springs, and remained in command of the brigade till the spring of 1863, when the 5th Minnesota was transferred to the 15th Army Corps and took part in the siege of Vicksburg. After the fall of that city he resumed command of his brigade, which in March, 1864, was assigned to the 16th Corps under General A. J. Smith, took part in General Banks's Red River Expedition, and within a very brief period was in seven battles, the last being that of Greenfield, Louisiana, where the enemy was routed and the Mississippi River relieved from blockade. Afterward he was in several engagements in northern Mississippi, marched across Arkansas and Missouri to the Kansas line to attack Price's force, and then returned to Memphis, where Colonel Hubbard's regiment re-enlisted as veterans and was furloughed. Under his command his brigade, in the battle of Nashville, 16 December, 1864, was in the first line of the assaulting column, and captured seven pieces of artillery, several stand of colors, and many prisoners. But it suffered heavy loss, and Colonel Hubbard was severely wounded. He was brevetted brigadier-general for "conspicuous gallantry" in this battle. In the campaign of Mobile, under General E. R. S. Canby, his brigade was one of the foremost in the siege and capture of Spanish Fort. He was mustered out of the service in October, 1865. In 1866 he engaged in the grain business at Red Wing, and afterward in milling. He projected and secured the construction of the Midland Railway from Wabashaw to Zumbrota, and the Cannon Valley Railway from Red Wing to Waterville. In 1872 and 1874 he was elected as a Republican to the state senate. He was one of the arbitrators to settle the dispute between the state and the prison contractors, and also one of a commission to investigate the state railroad bonds. In 1881 he was elected governor of Minnesota by a majority of 27,857. He entered upon his office 10 January, 1882, and was re-elected in 1883, serving till January, 1887. In 1886 he contributed a paper on Minnesota to the "North American Review."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 293.



HUEBSCHMANN, Francis, physician, born in Riethnordhausen, grand-duchy of Weimar, 19 April, 1817; died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21 March, 1880. He was educated at Erfurt and Weimar, and was graduated in medicine at Jena in 1841. He came to the United States in 1842, and settled in Milwaukee, where he resided until his death. He was school-commissioner from 1843 till 1851, a member of the first constitutional convention in 1846, and served on the committee on suffrage and elective franchise. He was the especial champion of the provision in the constitution granting foreigners equal rights with Americans. He was presidential elector in 1848, a member of the city council and county supervisor from 1848 till 1867, and state senator m 1851-2, 1862, and 1871-2. From 1853 till 1857 he was superintendent of Indian Affairs of the north. During the Civil War he entered the national service in 1862 as surgeon of the 26th Wisconsin Volunteers. He was surgeon in charge of a division at the battle of Chancellorsville, and of the 9th Army Corps at Gettysburg, where he was held by the Confederates for three days. He was also at the battle of Chattanooga, in charge of the corps hospital in Lookout Valley in 1864, and brigade surgeon in the campaign to Atlanta. He was honorably discharged in that year, and, returning to Milwaukee, became connected with the United States General Hospital.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 299.



HUGER, Thomas Bee, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 12 July, 1820; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 10 May, 1862, entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman, July, 1835. During the Mexican War he was at the siege of Vera Cruz, serving with the land forces. On the secession of South Carolina he resigned his commission and returned home. During the bombardment of Fort Sumter he commanded a battery on Morris Island. As lieutenant-commander in the Confederate Navy, he fought his vessel, the "McCrae," a converted merchant steamer, when the National fleet under Farragut forced its way up to New Orleans, where he fell mortally wounded, 24 April, 1862. He married Miss Mariamne Meade, a sister of General George G. Meade of the U. S. Army.— 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.



HUGER, Benjamin, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1806; died there, 7 December, 1877, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1825, and brevetted 2d lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Artillery. He served on topographical duty till 1828, when he went to Europe on leave of absence. He became a captain of ordnance, 30 May, 1832, and was in command of Fort Monroe Arsenal, Virginia, from 1832 till 1839. From 1839 till 1846 he was a member of the Ordnance Board, and in 1840-'l of a military commission on professional duty in Europe, and he was again in command of Fort Monroe Arsenal from 1841 till 1846. In 1847-'8 he was chief of ordnance in the army under General Winfield Scott in the war with Mexico, having charge of the siege-train at Vera Cruz, and was brevetted major for gallantry, 29 March, 1847. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel at Molino del Rey, 8 September, 1847, and colonel at Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847. In 1852 South Carolina presented him with a sword of honor for meritorious conduct and gallantry in the war with Mexico. From 1848 till 1851 he again held command of the Fort Monroe Arsenal, and from 1849 till 1851 was a member of a board to devise "a complete system of instruction for siege, garrison, sea-coast, and mountain artillery," adopted, 20 May, 1851, for the U. S. service. In 1851-'4 he commanded the armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He became major on 15 February, 1855, and was stationed at Pikesville Arsenal, Maryland, in 1854-'60, and the Charleston Arsenal, South Carolina, in 1860. On 22 April, 1861, he resigned, and was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army. He commanded, with the rank of major-general, at Norfolk, before its occupation by the National forces, 10 May, 1862. and subsequently led a division in the Seven Days' fight in front of Richmond. He was relieved from command of his division in consequence of his failure to cut off McClellan's retreat after the battle of Malvern Hill, 1 July, 1862. He was assigned to duty in the ordnance department in the trans-Mississippi, where he continued until the end of the war. He then became a farmer in Virginia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.



HUGHES, Aaron K., naval officer, born in New York City, 31 March, 1822. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 20 October, 1838; became a lieutenant, 9 September, 1853; commander, 10 November, 1862; captain, 10 February, 1869; commodore in 1875, and rear-admiral in 1882. He made a voyage to Puget Sound in the sloop-of-war "Decatur" in 1855, and had a fight on shore at the town of Seattle with 500 Indians, whom he defeated, 25 January, 1855. He commanded the "Water-Witch,'' of the Gulf Squadron, in 1861-2; the steamer "Mohawk," of the South Atlantic Squadron, 1862-'3, and the steamer " Cimmaron " of that squadron in 1863-'4, and participated in the bombardment of the other works in Charleston Harbor. In 1884 he was retired from the service.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 302.



HUIDEKOPER, Henry Shippen, soldier, born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, 17 July, 1839, was graduated at Harvard in 1862. He served in the Civil War from July, 1862, till March, 1864, commanding the 150th Pennsylvania Regiment, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, at Gettysburg, where he was wounded twice and lost his right arm. After the war he served in the National guard of Pennsylvania fifteen years, with one commission as brigadier-general and three as major-general. During the railroad riots of 1877 he commanded the 7th Division, and at Scranton, by prompt decision and timely action, he saved the city from a mob. General Huidekoper was postmaster of Philadelphia in 1880-'5, and now (1887) resides in New York. He has published a "Manual of Service," which is an authority in military matters (Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1879).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 307.



HULL, Joseph Bartine, naval officer, born in Westchester, New York, 26 April, 1802. He was appointed midshipman from Connecticut in 1813, lieutenant in 1835, commander in 1841, captain in 1855, commodore in 1802. and on 16 July of that year was retired. He commanded the sloop "Warren" in the Pacific Squadron in 1843-'7, cut out the Mexican gun-brig "Malekadhel" off Mazatlan, and was in command of the Northern District of California for a short time previous to the close of the Mexican War. In 1856-'9 he commanded the frigate "St. Lawrence," of the Brazil Squadron, Paraguay Expedition, and from May till September, 1861, the "Savannah," of the coast blockade. From 1862 till 1864 he superintended the building of gun-boats at St. Louis, commanded at the Philadelphia U.S. Navy-yard in 1866, was president of the examining board at Philadelphia in 1867, and lighthouse-inspector for the 1st District, with headquarters at Portland, Maine, in 1869. His present residence (1887) is Philadelphia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 311.



HUMPHRIES, Andrew Atkinson, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 November, 1810; died in Washington, D. C, 27 December, 1883. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, assigned to the 2d Artillery, and served at the academy, on garrison duty, in special work, and in the Florida Campaign of 1835. In September, 1836, he resigned, and was employed as a civil engineer by the U. S. government on the plans of Brandywine Shoal Lighthouse and Crow Shoal Breakwater, under Major Hartman Bache. On 7 July, 1838, he was reappointed in the U. S. Army, with the rank of 1st lieutenant in the corps of Topographical Engineers, and served in charge of works for the improvement of various harbors, and in Washington in 1842-'9 as assistant in charge of the Coast-Survey office. Meanwhile, in May, 1848, he was promoted captain, and subsequently was engaged in a topographical and hydrographical survey of the delta of the Mississippi River, with a view of determining the most practicable plans for securing it from inundation and for deepening its channel at the mouth. He was compelled by illness to relinquish the charge of this work in 1851, and went to Europe, where he examined the river deltas of the continent, studying the means that were employed abroad for protection against inundation. On his return in 1854 he was given charge of the office duties in Washington that were connected with the explorations and surveys for railroads from the Mississippi to the Pacific. In 1857 he resumed his work on the survey of the Mississippi Delta, and published in conjunction with Lieutenant Henry L. Abbot a " Report on the Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River" (Philadelphia, 1861). He was made major in August, 1861,and after the beginning of the Civil War was assigned to duty on General McClellan's staff. During the campaign on the Virginia Peninsula he was chief topographical engineer of the Army of the Potomac, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 28 April, 1862. In September, 1862, General Humphreys was given command of a division of new troops in the 5th Corps of the Army of the Potomac, with which he led in the Maryland Campaign. He was engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg and at Chancellorsville. where he was posted on the extreme left of the army, and meanwhile he received the brevet of colonel and was made lieutenant-colonel in the Corps of Engineers. He was then transferred to the command of the 2d Division in the 3d Corps, with which he served in the battle of Gettysburg under General Daniel E. Sickles, where he was promoted major-general in the volunteer army. On 8 July, 1863, he became chief of staff to General Meade, and he continued to fill that place till November, 1864. He was then given command of the 2d Corps, which was engaged under his direction at the siege of Petersburg, the actions at Hatcher's Run, and the subsequent operations, ending with Lee's surrender. General Humphreys received the brevet of major-general in the U. S. Army for services at Sailor's Creek, and, after the march to Washington, was placed in command of the District of Pennsylvania. From December, 1865, till August, 1866, he was in charge of the Mississippi levees, where he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He was then made brigadier-general and given command of the Corps of Engineers, the highest scientific appointment in the U. S. Army, with charge of the Engineer Bureau in Washington. This office he held until 30 June, 1879, when he was retired at his own request, serving during three years on many commissions, including that to examine into canal routes across the isthmus connecting North and South America, and also on the Lighthouse Board. General Humphreys was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1857, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1863, and was one of the incorporating' members of the National Academy of Sciences in the last-named year. He also held honorary memberships in foreign scientific societies, and received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1868. His literary labors included several reports to the government concerning the engineering work on the Mississippi and on railroad routes across the continent, and he contributed biographical material concerning Joshua Humphreys to Jas. Grant Wilson's " History of the Frigate Constitution." He also published "The Virginia Campaigns of 1864 and 1865 " (New York, 1882), and "From Gettysburg to the Rapidan" (1882).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 314.



HUNT, Charles Sedgwick, journalist, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, 7 April, 1842; died in New York City, 15 October, 1876. He entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1855, but left in 1857, and became a student at Phillips Andover Academy. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the U.S. Navy, and became acting master on the war-sloop "Juniata," but resigned his commission toward the close of the war, and entered Harvard, where he was graduated in 1868. He then became a reporter on the New York "Tribune." For a time he was financial editor of the New York "Standard," and from 1871 to 1873 was Albany correspondent of the "Tribune," and was instrumental in exposing political corruption. In 1873 he became an editorial writer on the "Tribune," writing chiefly upon topics of finance and political economy. He was also associated with John P. Cleveland in the preparation of the "Tribune Almanac." Early in 1876 he joined the editorial staff of the New York "Times, where he continued until his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 315-316.



HUNT, Ezra Mundy, physician, born in Middlesex County, New Jersey, 4 January, 1830. He was graduated at Princeton in 1849, and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1852. He began practice at Metuchen, lectured on materia medica in the Vermont Medical College in 1854, and was elected professor of chemistry there in 1855, but declined. He joined the volunteer army as regimental surgeon in 1862, and in 1863 was placed in charge of a hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has been president of the American Public Health Association, and has contributed papers to eight volumes of " Public Health." Since 1876 he has been secretary of the New Jersey Board of Health, preparing all its reports, and since 1881 has conducted the Sanitary Department in the New York "Independent." he was a delegate to the International Medical Congresses at London (1881) and Copenhagen (1884). His residence is in Trenton, New Jersey. He is instructor in hygiene in the State Normal school. In 1883 he received the degree of Sc. D. from Princeton. He is the author of "Patients' and Physicians' Aid" (New York, 1859); "Physicians' Counsels" (Philadelphia, 1859); "Alcohol as a Food and Medicine" (New York, 1877); and "Principles of Hygiene, together with the Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology" (New York, 1887); also of works on religious subjects, especially "Grace Culture" (Philadelphia, 1865) and "Bible Notes for Daily Readers" (New York, 1870).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 316.



HUNT, Henry Jackson, soldier, born in Detroit, Michigan, 14 September, 1819. His grandfather, Thomas (1754-1809), served in the Revolution, and at the time of his death was colonel of the 1st U.S. Infantry; and his father, Samuel W., lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Infantry, died in September, 1829. Henry accompanied his father on the expedition that established Fort Leavenworth in 1827, and, after attending school in Missouri, entered the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1839. He served in the 2d Artillery on the frontier during the Canada border disturbances of that year, in garrisons at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, and Fort Columbus and Fort Hamilton, New York, and on recruiting service till 18 June, 1846, when he was promoted to 1st lieutenant. During the Mexican War he was brevetted captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and major at Chapultepec, and he was at Vera Cruz. Cerro Gordo, San Antonio. Molino del Rey, where he was twice wounded, and at the capture of the city of Mexico. He was then on frontier duty till the Civil War, with the exception of service in 1856-'7 and 1858-'60 on a board to revise the system of light-artillery tactics. He had become captain, 28 September, 1852, was promoted to major, 14 May, 1861, and commanded the artillery on the extreme left in the battle of Bull Run. He was chief of artillery in the defences of Washington from July to September, 1861, and on 28 September became aide to General McClellan with the rank of colonel. In 1861-'2 he was president of a board to test rifled field-guns and projectiles, and organized the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, commanding it in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. In September, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and became chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac, holding the office till the close of the war, and taking an active part in all the battles that were fought by that army in 1862-'5. He was brevetted colonel, 3 July, 1863, for his services at Gettysburg, major-general of volunteers, 6 July, 1864, for "faithful and highly meritorious services" in the campaign from the Rapidan to Petersburg, brigadier-general in the regular army for his services in the campaign ending with Lee's surrender, and major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for services during the war. He was president of the permanent artillery board in 1866, and then commanded various forts, being promoted to colonel of the 5th U.S. Artillery, 4 April, 1869. He was retired from active service, 14 September, 1883, and is now (1887) governor of the Soldiers' Home, Washington, D. C. General Hunt has published "Instruction for Field Artillery" (Philadelphia, 1860), and is the author of various papers on artillery, projectiles, and army organization. In 1886 he contributed to the " Century" three articles on the battle of Gettysburg. —His brother, Lewis Cass, soldier, born in Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 23 February, 1824; died in Fort Union, New Mexico, 6 September, 1886, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and assigned to the infantry. He became captain, 23 May, 1855, and served on the Pacific Coast till the Civil War. He was stationed in Washington Territory in 1859, when General Harney occupied San Juan Island in Puget Sound, which was then claimed by Great Britain, and, when a joint occupation of the harbor by British and U. S. forces was arranged by General Scott, was chosen to command the American detachment. After serving in the first part of the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, he became on 21 May of that year colonel of the 92d New York Regiment, and was severely wounded at Fair Oaks. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers 29 November, 1862, and in the winter of 1862-'3 served in North Carolina, receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry at Kinston. He was made major in the 14th U.S. Infantry, 8 June, 1863, had charge of the draft rendezvous at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1863-'4, and, after special duty in Missouri and Kansas, commanded the defences of New York Harbor in 1864-'6. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army, 13 March, 1865, for his services in the war, and afterward commanded various posts, becoming lieutenant-colonel of the 20th U.S. Infantry, 29 March, 1868. He was transferred to the 4th U.S. Infantry on 25 February, 1881, and promoted to colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry on 19 May.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 316-317.



HUNT, John Wesley, physician, born in Groveland, Livingston County, New York, 10 October, 1834. He was educated at the Wesleyan Seminary, Lima, New York, and graduated at the University Medical College, New York City, in 1859. He served on the house surgical staff in Bellevue Hospital, New York City, and began practice in Jersey City, New Jersey. In May, 1861, he was commissioned as surgeon of a New York regiment, and served at Fortress Monroe, where he was remarkably successful in treating the disease that became known as Chickahominy fever. In May, 1862, he was made brigade-surgeon of volunteers, and placed in charge of the Mill Creek Hospital, near Fortress Monroe. There he demonstrated the practicability of thoroughly ventilating a large building crowded with wounded men. In August, 1862, he was attacked with fever, and returned to the north. He resigned from the army, and after months of illness resumed his practice. He was one of the organizers of the Jersey City Charity Hospital, and first president of its medical board. He has read papers before the Hudson County Medical Society, and contributed to the "Transactions" of the New Jersey Medical Society. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 317-318.



HUNT, Robert Woolston, metallurgist, born in Fallsington, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 9 December, 1&38. He received his early education in Covington, Kentucky, and then studied analytical chemistry with James C. Booth and Thomas H. Garrett in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania During the Civil War he was commandant of Camp Curtin. Harrisburg. with the rank of captain. Meanwhile he had become associated with the Cambria iron company as chemist, and in July, 1860, established the first analytical laboratory connected with any iron or steel works in the United States. Subsequently he assisted George Fritz in constructing the Bessemer steel works of the Cambria company, and after 1808 was superintendent of that department, also having charge during 1805-'G of the experimental steel works in Wyandotte, Michigan. He was called to the charge of the Bessemer steel works of John A. Griswold and County, in Troy, New York, in 1873; was made general superintendent of the Albany and Rensselaer iron and steel company in 1875; and in 1885 of its successor, the Troy Steel and Iron Company. The works of the various Troy companies with which he has been connected have been rebuilt and extended under his supervision. Mr. Hunt has obtained patents for improvements in bottom casting of steel ingots, for making special soft Bessemer steel, for a recarburizer for Bessemer Steel, also a series relating to automatic tables for rolling-mills, and one for a feeding-in device for the same kind of mills. In 1886 he was elected one of the trustees of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Mr. Hunt is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and was president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in 1883-'4. His contributions to literature have consisted of technical papers in the transactions of societies of which he is a member.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 318.



HUNT, Timothy Atwater, naval officer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1805; died there, 21 January, 1884. He was educated at Yale, entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1825, became lieutenant in 1836, commander in 1855, captain in 1862, commodore in 1863, and was retired in 1877. He commanded the supply ship " Electra" in the Mexican War, the "Narragansett" at the beginning of the Civil War, in 1861, and was then attached to the Pacific Squadron. He was ordered home in 1863, and was inspector of ordnance till 1867, when he was assigned to special duty at New London, Connecticut From 1870 till his retirement he was on the reserved list, residing in New Haven. Connecticut. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 319.



HUNT, Edward Bissell, military engineer, born in Livingston County, New York, 15 June, 1822; died in Brooklyn, New York, 2 October, 1863. Bissell was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1845, entered the Corps of Engineers, was commissioned as 2d lieutenant in December, 1845, and was employed as assistant professor of civil and military engineering at West Point in 1846-'9, afterward in the Coast Survey, and in the construction of fortifications and lighthouses. He became a captain on 1 July, 1859, while engaged in the construction of defensive works at Key West, and was instrumental in preventing the forts of southern Florida from falling into the hands of the Confederates at the beginning of the Civil War. In 1862 he served as chief engineer of the Department of the Shenandoah. He was subsequently employed in erecting fortifications on Long Island Sound, and in April, 1862, was detailed to perfect and construct a battery for firing under water, which was invented by him, and which he called the "sea miner." He was promoted major on 3 March, 1863. While making experiments with his submarine battery, he was suffocated by the escaping gases, and killed by falling into the hold of the vessel. He married a daughter of Prof. Nathan W. Fiske. (See Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske.) He contributed papers to the "Transactions" of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and to several literary and scientific periodicals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 319-320.



HUNTER, David Dard (“Black David”), 1802-1886, General, U.S. Army.  In 1862, he organized and formed all-Black U.S. Army regiments without authorization from the Union War Department.  Established the African American First South Carolina Volunteer Regiment in May 1862.  Without authorization, he issued a proclamation that emancipated slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.  President Lincoln ordered the Black troops disbanded and countermanded the emancipation order.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 372; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 66, 140, 243, 275, 690-691; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 100; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 516)

HUNTER, David, soldier, born in Washington, D. C, 21 July, 1802; died there, 2 February, 1886. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1822, appointed 2d lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Infantry, promoted 1st lieutenant in 1828, and became a captain in the 1st Dragoons in 1833. He was assigned to frontier duty, and twice crossed the plains to the Rocky Mountains. He resigned his commission in 1836, and engaged in business in Chicago. He re-entered the military service as a paymaster, with the rank of major, in March. 1842, was chief paymaster of General John E. Wool's command in the Mexican War, and was afterward stationed successively at New Orleans, Washington, Detroit, St. Louis, and on the frontier. He accompanied President-elect Lincoln when he set out from Springfield for Washington in February, 1861, but at Buffalo was disabled by the pressure of the crowd, his collar-bone being dislocated. On 14 May he was appointed colonel of the 6th U. S. Cavalry, and three days later was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the main column of McDowell's army in the Manassas Campaign, and was severely wounded at Bull Run, 21 July, 1861. He was made a major-general of volunteers, 13 August, 1861, served under General Fremont in Missouri, and on 2 November succeeded him in the command of the Western Department. From 20 November, 1861, till 11 March, 1862, he commanded the Department of Kansas. Under date of 19 February, 1862, General Halleck wrote to him: "To you, more than any other man out of this department, are we indebted for our success at Fort Donelson. In my strait for troops to reinforce General Grant, I applied to you. You responded nobly, placing your forces at my disposition. This enabled us to win the victory." In March, 1862, General Hunter was transferred to the Department of the South, with headquarters at Port Royal, South Carolina. On 12 April he issued a general order in which he said: "All persons of color lately held to involuntary service by enemies of the United States, in Fort Pulaski and on Cockspur Island, Georgia, are hereby confiscated and declared free in conformity with law, and shall hereafter receive the fruits of their own labor." On 9 May, in general orders declaring Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina (his department) under martial law, he added, " Slavery and martial law, in a free country, are altogether incompatible. The persons in these three states, heretofore held as slaves, are therefore declared forever free." Ten
days later this order was annulled by the president. (See Lincoln, Abraham.) In May General Hunter organized an expedition against Charleston, in which over 3,000 men were landed on James Island, but it was unsuccessful. Later he raised and organized the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment of black troops in the National service. Thereupon a Kentucky representative introduced into Congress a resolution calling for information on the subject. This being referred to General Hunter by the Secretary of War, the general answered: "No regiment of fugitive slaves has been or is being organized in this department. There is, however, a fine regiment of persons whose late masters are fugitive rebels—men who everywhere fly before the appearance of the National flag, leaving their servants behind them to shift, as best they can, for themselves." In August Jefferson Davis issued a proclamation to the effect that, if General Hunter or any other U. S. officer who had been drilling and instructing slaves as soldiers should be captured, he should not be treated as a prisoner of war, but held in close confinement for execution as a felon. In September General Hunter was ordered to Washington and made president of a court of inquiry, to investigate the causes of the surrender of Harper's Ferry, and other matters. In May, 1864. he was placed in command of the Department of West Virginia. He defeated a Confederate force at Piedmont on 5 June, and attacked Lynchburg unsuccessfully on the 18th. From 8 August, 1864, till 1 February, 1865, he was on leave of absence, after which he served on courts-martial, being president of the commission that tried the persons who conspired for the assassination of President Lincoln. He was brevetted major-general U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, and mustered out of the volunteer service in January, 1866, after which he was president of a special-claims commission and of a board for the examination of cavalry officers. He was retired from active service, by reason of his age, 31 July, 1866, and thereafter resided in Washington. General Hunter married a daughter of John Kinzie, who was the first permanent citizen of Chicago. Mrs. Hunter survived her husband. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321.



HUNTER, Lewis Boudinot, surgeon, born in Princeton, New Jersey, 9 October, 1804; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 24 June, 1887, was graduated at Princeton in 1824, and at the Medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1828. He then entered the U. S. Navy as a surgeon, and was on the "Princeton" when the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Navy were killed by the bursting of a gun in 1843. He served during the Mexican War on the "Saratoga," and during the Civil War as fleet-surgeon of the North Atlantic Squadron under Admiral Porter. On 3 March, 1871, he was made medical director, with the rank of commodore, and retired.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 321.



HUNTER, Morton Craig, soldier, born in Versailles, Indiana, 5 February, 1825. He was graduated at the law department of Indiana University in 1849, and elected a member of the legislature of that state in 1858. He was colonel of the 82d Regiment of Indiana Infantry in the Civil War, until the fall of Atlanta. He then commanded a brigade in the 14th Army Corps till the end of the war, taking part in Sherman's march to the sea. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and was afterward elected to Congress from Indiana as a Republican, serving from 4 March, 1867. till 3 March, 1869, and again from 1 December, 1873, till 4 March, 1879. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 322.



HUNTER, Charles, naval officer, born in Newport, R. L, in 1813; died at sea, 22 November, 1873, entered the U. S. Navy in 1831, was commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1841, and retired at his own request in 1855. When the Civil War began he volunteered in the U. S. Navy, was commissioned commander, and assigned to the steamer " Montgomery " of the Gulf Squadron. In 1862, while in command of this ship, he chased a British blockade runner into Cuban waters, and fired on her. This breach of neutrality was investigated, and Commander Hunter was placed on the retired list. In 1866, by an act of Congress, he was made captain on the retired list, and he afterward resided at Newport, Rhode Island.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 324.



HUNTON, Eppa, soldier, born in Fauquier County, Virginia, 23 September, 1823. His early education was limited. He studied and practised law, and was commonwealth attorney for Prince William County from 1849 till 1862. He was elected to the Virginia Convention of 1861, and after serving through its first session entered the Confederate Army as colonel of the 8th Virginia Infantry. After the battle of Gettysburg he was promoted and served through the rest of the war as brigadier-general. He was captured at Sailor's Creek, 6 April, 1865, and imprisoned in Fort Warren, but was released in July, 1865. General Hunton was elected a representative to Congress as a Democrat in 1873, and re-elected to the three succeeding Congresses. He was a member of the joint committee that formed the electoral bill in the 44th Congress, and one of the electoral commission of 1876-'7.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 327.



HURLBUT, Stephen Augustus, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 29 November, 1815: died in Lima, Peru, 27 March, 1882. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and practised in Charleston until the Florida War, in which he served as adjutant in a South Carolina regiment. In 1845 he went to Illinois and practised his profession in Belvidere. He was a presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1848, was a member of the legislature in 1859. 1861, and 1867, and presidential elector at large on the Republican ticket in 1868. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded at Fort Donelson after its capture in February, 1862. When General Grant's army moved up Tennessee River, Hurlbut commanded the 4th Division, and was the first to reach Pittsburg Landing, which he held for a week alone. He was promoted major-general for meritorious conduct at the battle of Shiloh, was then stationed at Memphis, and after the battle of Corinth, in October, 1862, pursued and engaged the defeated Confederates. He commanded at Memphis in September, 1863. led a corps under Sherman in the expedition to Meridian in February, 1864, and succeeded General Nathaniel P. Banks in command of the Department of the Gulf, serving there from 1864 till 1865, when he was honorably mustered out. He was minister resident to the United States of Colombia from 1869 till 1872, and then elected a representative to Congress from Illinois as a Republican for two consecutive terms, serving from 1873 till 1877. In 1881 he was appointed minister to Peru, which office he retained till his death. — His brother, William Henry, journalist, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 3 July, 1827, was graduated at Harvard in 1847, at the divinity-school there in 1849, and then studied in Berlin, Rome, and Paris. After a few years in the Unitarian ministry, he entered Harvard Law School in 1852, in 1855 was a writer on " Putnam's Magazine " and the " Albion," and joined the staff of the New York " Times " in 1857. While visiting the south in 1861, he was arrested by a vigilance committee in Atlanta, Georgia, imprisoned for a time, and then released, but he was refused a passport unless upon conditions with which he would not comply, and finally in August, 1862, made his escape through the Confederate lines, and reached Washington. He became connected with the New York " World " in 1862,and in 1864 purchased the “Commercial Advertiser," intending to publish it as a free-trade paper, but. he and his associates in the enterprise failing to agree, the paper was sold in 1867 to Thurlow Weed. He went to Mexico in 1860, and was invited to the capital by Maximilian, represented the New York "World" at the World's Fair at Paris in 1867, and the Centenary Festival of St. Peter at Rome, and in 1871 accompanied the U. S. expedition to Santo Domingo, during which time he wrote and published the most complete account in any language of the modern history of that Island. In 1876-83 he was editor-in-chief of the " World," and in the latter year went to Europe, where he has since chiefly resided. He has contributed largely to American periodicals and to the " Edinburgh " and other British magazines, and has published "Gan-Eden" (Boston, 1854): " General McClellan and the Conduct of the War" (New York, 1804), and other works, besides several hymns and poems.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 328.



HYATT, Alpheus, naturalist, born in Washington, D. C, 5 April, 1838. He was educated at the Maryland Military Academy, at Yale College, and at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard, where he was graduated in 1802. Subsequently he served during the Civil War in the 47th Massachusetts Volunteers, and attained the rank of captain. He then renewed his studies under Louis Agassiz, and in 1867 became a curator in the Essex Institute. While holding this office in connection with Edward S. Morse, Alpheus S. Packard, Frederick W. Putnam, and the officers of the Essex Institute, he founded the Peabody academy of science. Its museum was planned by these four naturalists, together they formed its first scientific staff, and in 1869 Mr. Hyatt was made one of its curators. He was also associated with these gentlemen in establishing the "American Naturalist," and was one of its original editors. In 1870 he was elected custodian and in 1881 curator of the Boston society of natural history. He has also charge of the fossil invertebrates in the Museum of comparative zoology at Cambridge, and since 1881 has held the professorship of zoology and paleontology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prof. Hyatt also has a class in the Boston University, and in connection with the Society of natural history is manager of the Teachers' school of science, which was founded in 1870. A general laboratory of natural history was founded at Annisquam, Massachusetts, by the Woman's educational society of  Boston, and Prof. Hyatt is also in charge of this enterprise, the origin of which is due to him. He was elected a fellow of the American academy of arts and sciences in 1869, and in 1875 was made a member of the National academy of science. The American Society of naturalists was organized in consequence of suggestions that were made by him, and at the first meeting in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1883, he was elected its president. Prof. Hyatt has devoted special attention to the lower forms of animal life. Among his important researches are "Observations on Polyzoa " (I860);" Fossil Cephalopodsof the Museum of Comparative Zoology" (1872); "Revision of North American Perofera '(1875-'7), which is the only work on North American commercial sponges, and is recognized throughout the world as an authority; "Genesis of Tertiary Species of Planorbis at Steinheim" (1880), giving the details of his study at Steinheim of the fossils, which were at that time regarded in Europe as the only positive demonstration of the theory of evolution: and "Genera of Fossil Cephalopoda" (1883). containing important contributions to the theory of evolution. "Larval Theory of the Origin of Cellular Tissue" (1884) contains his theory of the origin of sex. Besides the foregoing, Prof. Hyatt has edited a series of "Guides for Science Teaching," and is himself the author of several of the series, including "About Pebbles." "Commercial and other Sponges," "Common Mydroids, Corals. and Echinoderms," "The Oyster, Clam, and other Common Mollusks," and " Worms and Crustaceans."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 335-336.



HYDE, James Nevins, surgeon, born in Norwich, Connecticut, 21 June, 1840. He was graduated at Yale in 1861, began the study of medicine in the New York College of physicians and surgeons, entered the U. S. Navy in 1863 as assistant surgeon, and served during the Civil War and afterward on the "Ticonderoga," of the Mediterranean Squadron, under Admiral Farragut. In 1869 he resigned, was graduated in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, and settled in Chicago, Illinois. He is professor of dermatology and orthopedic surgery in the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons, and clinical instructor in the Southside Dispensary, associate editor of the "Chicago Medical Journal and Examiner," a contributor to the New York "Archives of Dermatology," and a member of various medical societies.