American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
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l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - McA-May


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                      Bab-Blu         Cab-Clu
                      Boa-Byr         Cob-Cuy

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Sac-Sha                                                                             Wad-Whe
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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – McA-May

McADOO, William Gibbs, jurist, born near  Knoxville. Tennessee, 4 April, 1820. He was graduated at East Tennessee University, Knoxville, in 1845, and in 1845-'6 sat in the legislature. After serving in the Mexican War in 1847 he was admitted to the bar, and was attorney-general of Knoxville Judicial District in 1851-'60. He moved to Georgia in 1862, served as a captain in the Confederate Army, and in 1871 became judge of the 20th judicial District of the state. He has published various addresses, and, with Professor . C. White. " Elementary Geology of Tennessee."—His wife, Mary Faith Floyd, born in Tennessee, 8 September, 1832, is a granddaughter of General John Floyd, who commanded against the Creek Indians in 1813-'14. She was early left an orphan, and married Randolph McDonald, of Georgia, who died in 1854, and in 1858 she married Mr. McAdoo. She has been a frequent contributor to periodicals, both in prose and in verse, and has published "The Nereid," a romance, and "Antethusia."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 70.

McALESTER, Miles Daniel, soldier, born in New York, 21 March, 1833; died in Buffalo, New York, 23 April, 1869. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and assigned to the Engineer Corps, becoming 1st lieutenant, 2 May, 1861, and captain, 3 March, 1863. He served in the construction and repair of fortifications on the Atlantic Coast from Florida to New York, superintending the defences of the Narrows in 1859-'6l and Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania, in 1861. During the Civil War he was engaged in constructing the defences in Washington, and also served as chief engineer of the 3d Corps in the Army of the Potomac till October, 1862, being in all the important battles of that army, and winning the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. From October, 1862, till April, 1863, he served as chief engineer of the Department of the Ohio, fortified Cincinnati and its vicinity, and constructed bridge-trains for the western armies. During the siege of Vicksburg he was detached under the orders of General Grant, and subsequently became assistant professor of engineering at West Point. On 15 July, 1864, he was appointed chief engineer of the Military Division of West Mississippi, and engaged in the reduction of the Confederate defences in Mobile Bay and in the Mobile Campaign, receiving the brevets of colonel, 23 April, 1864, for his services as chief engineer of the Military Division of West Mississippi, and especially as supervising engineer of the siege of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and brigadier-general, 9 April, 1865, for services at the siege of Mobile. He was then engaged in constructing defences at Mobile and New Orleans, and in the improvements of the Mississippi River. He was commissioned major of the Engineer Corps on 7 March, 1867, and appointed engineer of the 8th Light-house District, 22 May, 1867.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 71.

MCALLISTER, Matthew Hall, jurist, born in Savannah, Georgia, 26 November, 1800; died in San Francisco, California, 19 December, 1865. After receiving his education at Princeton he studied law. was admitted to the bar about 1820, and practised in his native city. In 1827 he was appointed U. S. District Attorney, which post had been held by his father under General Washington's administration. In 1832 he was active in opposition to nullification, and became a political leader during the discussions of that period, ne was several times elected to both branches of the legislature, in which he obtained the establishment of the court for the correction of errors, and in 1845 was defeated by a small vote as Democratic candidate for governor of Georgia. For several years he was mayor of Savannah, and was noted as a protector of the colored people. In 1848 he was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention that nominated General Lewis Cass for the presidency. He moved to California in 1850 with his family, entered upon the practice of law in San Francisco, and in 1855 was appointed the first U. S. Circuit Judge of California, rendering eminent service by his wise decisions upon land-titles, which were then in the utmost confusion. He was also well known for his energetic action in suppressing the vigilance committee by an appeal to the naval authority. Judge McAllister resigned his office in 1862, owing to impaired health. In 1860 Columbia gave him the degree of LL. D. He was the author of a " Eulogy on President Jackson " and also of a volume of legal opinions, which was published by his son. —His son, Julian, soldier, born in New York City, 28 October, 1823; died on Governor's Island. New York, 3 January, 1887, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, assigned to the 2d U.S. Artillery, and served in the war with Mexico in 1847-8. He was transferred to the Ordnance Corps on 13 April, 1848, and was at various arsenals till the Civil War, during which he was chief of ordnance of the Department of the Pacific. He received all the brevets up to colonel at the close of the war, and in 1866 became major and a member of the board to determine the armament of the Pacific Coast fortifications. He was made lieutenant-colonel on 23 June. 1874, and in 1886 was transferred to the command of the New York Arsenal on Governor's Island, where he also served as president of the board for testing rifled cannon. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 71.

MacARTHUR, Charles Lafayette, journalist, born in Claremont, New Hampshire, 7 January. 1824. He was educated in Watertown, New York, learned there the printer's trade, became editor and proprietor of the "Carthaginian," printed in Carthage, New York, and was afterward a reporter for the Detroit "Free Press." About 1842 he moved to Milwaukee, and became the first editor of the "Sentinel." In 1846-'7 he was city editor of the New York "Sun." He next joined John M. Francis in the purchase of the Troy " Budget," for which he wrote letters from Europe in 1851, and from the southern states in 1856, that attracted much attention. In 1859 he established the Troy "Daily Arena," which he sold in the spring of 1861 in order to go to the war, in which he served first as lieutenant and quartermaster of the 2nd New York Volunteers, and afterward as captain and assistant quartermaster in the regular army. In the autumn of 1864 he established the Troy "News." one of the earliest Sunday newspapers except those published in New York City. In 1866 he sold the "News," having become one of the editors and proprietors of the Troy "Daily Whig." and in March, 1869, he revived, as a Sunday newspaper, the Troy "Northern Budget." For some years prior to 1886 he was the proprietor of the Troy "Daily Telegram." In 1881-3 he was a member of the New York State Senate,  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 72.

McALLISTER, Archibald, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888; Congressional Globe)

McARTHUR, John, soldier, born in Erskine, Scotland, 17 November, 1826. He is the son of a blacksmith, and worked at that trade till he was twenty-three years of age, when he came to the United States and settled in Chicago, Illinois, where he was employed as foreman of boiler-making in a foundry, and was subsequently at the head of an establishment of his own. When the Civil War began he joined the 12th Illinois Volunteers, with a company of which he was captain, and was chosen lieutenant-colonel. He soon afterward became colonel of the regiment, commanded a brigade at the assault on Port Donelson, and for his gallantry was promoted brigadier-general, 21 March, 1862. At Shiloh he received a wound in the foot in the beginning of the first day's battle, but returned after it was dressed to his brigade, and succeeded to the command of the 2d Division, when General William H. L. Wallace was mortally wounded. In the operations against Vicksburg he commanded a division in General McPherson's corps. He took a conspicuous part in the battle of Nashville, where he was at the head of a division under General Andrew J. Smith, which carried the salient point of the enemy's line, and for gallantry in this action he was brevetted major-general. He was postmaster at Chicago in 1873-7.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p.

McBRIDE, James Henry, soldier, born in Kentucky about 1815; died in Pocahontas, Arkansas, in the autumn of 1862. He studied law, and practised in the courts of Missouri, whither he removed in 1845. When the Civil War began he joined General Sterling Price in raising the state guard of Missouri, recruited a brigade, and was afterward commissioned as brigadier-general in the Confederate service. In the counter-attack on General Lyon's force at Wilson's Creek he led the infantry on the Confederate left.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 74.

McCABE, John Collins, clergyman, born in Richmond, Virginia, 12 November, 1810; died in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 26 February, 1875, left school early, and became a clerk in a bank. He contributed a poem to the first number of the ' Southern Literary Messenger," formed a friendship with its editor, Edgar A. Poe, and wrote constantly for it and other magazines poems, essays, and papers on colonial history. In 1845 he entered the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and after being rector at Smithfield.  For five years, took charge of a parish in Hampton, and while there prosecuted researches among parish registers and family archives into the early history of his church in Virginia, and published papers on the subject, but, on the announcement of Bishop William Meade's work, handed over his materials to Dr. Meade. At this time he received from the College of William and Mary the degree of D. D. In 1855 he was chairman of the state yellow fever committee. He was rector of a church in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1856-'9, and then in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, till 1861, when he became chaplain of a Virginia regiment of Confederate troops. From 1862, till the close of the war he was chaplain of Libby Prison in Richmond. In 1865-'7 he had charge of a church in Bladensburg, Maryland, then went to Middleburg, Delaware, and left that parish in 1872 to become rector of a church in Chambersburg. Dr. McCabe lectured frequently on literary topics, and delivered memorial addresses and poems, many of which were published. A volume of his early poems was printed under the title of "Scraps (Richmond, 1835).—James Dabney's son, James Dabney, author, born in Richmond, Virginia, 30 July, 1842; died in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 27 January, 1883, was educated at the Virginia Military Institute. During the secession crisis he published a pamphlet entitled " Fanaticism and its Results," by "A Southerner" (Richmond, 1860). A war-story entitled "The Aide-de-Camp," was issued in book-form in 1863, and three plays of martial tenor were performed at the Richmond theatre in 1862-'3. In the winter of 1863 he published "The Bohemian," a Christmas book, to which his wife and Charles P. Dimitry also contributed, and in 1863-'4 he edited the "Magnolia Weekly." His "Sword of Harry Lee " and other war-poems were very popular. He published a " Life of General Thomas J. Jackson," by "An Ex-Cadet" (Richmond, 1863; enlarged ed., 1864); "Memoir of General Albert S. Johnston p (1866): and "Life and Campaigns of General Robert E. Lee" (New York, 1867), in which he disparages Jefferson Davis, and ascribes the loss of the southern cause to his blunders. He also made a compilation of the romance and humor of the war entitled " The Gray  Jackets" (1867). He was the author of several hundred short stories, essays, poems, and translations. His works include "Planting the Wilderness" (Boston, 1869); "History of the Late War between Germany and France" (1871); "Lights and Shadows of New York Life" (New York, 1872); "The Great Republic" (1872); and a " History of the Grange Movement," which, with some of his subsequent works, was published under the pen-name of " Edward Winslow Martin " (Chicago, 1874). His later publications are "Paris by Sunlight and Gaslight" (Philadelphia, 1875); "Centennial History of the United States" (Philadelphia, 1875); "Pathways of the Holy Land " (1877); "History of the Turko-Russian War" (1879): "Our Young Folks Abroad" (Philadelphia, 1881); and "Our Young Folks in Africa" (1882).—A son of John C, William Gordon, educator, born near Richmond, Virginia, 4 August, 1841. He was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1861. and immediately enlisted in the Confederate Army, and served throughout the Civil War, for the first year as a private, and afterward as a captain of artillery. After the war was ended he established the university school at Petersburg, Virginia, of which he is still (1888) head-master. While in the army he contributed many poems to southern magazines, and after returning to civil life published essays, reviews, sketches, and translations from mediaeval Latin poetry. He translated and revised "Aids to Latin Orthography," from the German of Wilhelm Brambach (New York, 1872), edited " Ballads of Battle and Bravery " (1873), and is the author of "The Defence of Petersburg, Campaign of 1864-'5" (Richmond, 1876). He has also published a " Latin Grammar" (Philadelphia. 1883), edited "Caesar" (Philadelphia, 1886), and is engaged (1888) in preparing an edition of " Horace's Works."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 74.

McCAGG, Ezra Butler, lawyer, born in Kinderhook, New York, 22 November, 1825. He studied law in Hudson and settled in 1847 in Chicago, where he has taken a high rank in his profession, having refused a nomination by both parties for judge of the Illinois Supreme Court. Mr. McCagg was a member of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, and president of the Northwestern Sanitary Commission and of the board of trustees of the Illinois Eastern Hospital for the Insane, and first president of the Lincoln Park trustees. His library and art collection, one of the best in the west, was destroyed by the fire of 1871. He has since then collected another large library and many choice works of art. Among them is the historical picture by  P. A. Healy representing the conference between Lincoln, Grant, Sherman, and Porter, on board "The Queen," 28 March, 1863, at City Point, which is represented in the article Sherman, William Tecumseh. Mr. McCagg has delivered many lectures, and published numerous pamphlets.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 75.

McCALL, George Archibald, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 16 March, 1802; died in West Chester, Pennsylvania, 26 February, 1868. He was the son of Archibald McCall, merchant of Philadelphia. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1822, and, after serving as aide to General Edmund P. Gaines in 1831-'6, was commissioned captain in 1836 and major in 1847, and served in the Florida and Mexican Wars, receiving the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel "for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma." On his return from the Mexican War he was given a sword by the citizens of Philadelphia. In 1850 he was appointed inspector-general of the army, with the rank of colonel, which place he resigned, 22 August, 1853, and settled in Chester County, Pennsylvania. At the beginning of the Civil War he tendered his services to Governor Andrew D. Curtin, who made him major-general of militia, with the task of organizing the Pennsylvania Reserves. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 May, 1861. He commanded the reserves, which formed a division of three brigades, until June, 1862, planning the successful movement against Dranesville, 20 December, 1861, and commanding all the National troops at the battle of Mechanicsville, 26 June, 1862, where he repelled a greatly superior force. He was at Gaines's Hill and Charles City Cross-roads, but was taken prisoner at New Market Cross-roads, on 30 June, and confined in Libby Prison for several weeks, after which he was on sick-leave, and resigned from the army, 31 March, 1863. In August, 1862, he received a sword from the citizens of Chester County, Pennsylvania, and in the autumn of that year he was Democratic candidate for Congress from Pennsylvania. He was the author of " Letters from the Frontier," a posthumous work (Philadelphia, 1868).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 75.

McCALLUM, Daniel Craig, engineer, born in Johnston, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 21 January, 1815; died in Brooklyn. New York, 27 December, 1878. He came to Rochester, New York, with his parents in his youth, became an architect and builder, and in 1855-'6 was general superintendent of the Erie Railway. On 11 February, 1862, he was appointed director of all the Military Railroads in the United States, with the staff rank of colonel, and to him was due much of the efficiency of the railroad service during the Civil War. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers " for faithful and meritorious services," 24 September, 1864, and major-general, 13 March, 1865, and on 31 July, 1866, was mustered out of the service. In the same year he published a valuable report on the military railroads during the war.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 76.

McCALMONT, Alfred Brunsen, soldier, born in Franklin, Venango County, Pennsylvania, 28 April, 1825: died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 May, 1874. He was admitted to the bar and practised in Franklin, and afterward in Pittsburg, where he became city solicitor in 1853. He was assistant Attorney-General of the United States during Buchanan's administration, and afterward returned to his native town. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 142d Pennsylvania Regiment in September, 1862, and in 1864 became colonel of the 208th Pennsylvania, taking part in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and others. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, and after the war resumed his profession.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 76.

McCANN, William Penn, naval officer, born in Paris, Kentucky, 4 May, 1830. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy, 1 November, 1848, and, having been promoted through the various grades, became lieutenant-commander, 16 July. 1862. He was stationed at Vera Cruz on the first hostile demonstrations at Pensacola, Florida, and re-enforced Fort Pickens with sailors and marines on 14 and 15 April, 1861. He remained off the fort 127 days, and in June assisted in landing additional re-enforcements under Colonel Harvey Brown. In 1862 he operated on York, Pamunkey, and James Rivers in co-operation with the Army of the Potomac, and captured, on 4 July of that year, the Confederate gun-boat " Teazer," with plans of batteries, torpedoes, and defences of Richmond. Having been ordered to the command of the "Hunchback" in the following October, he was present at New Berne, 14 March, 1863, when the Confederate forces, with eighteen guns and several thousand infantry, attacked that vessel and Camp Anderson. After an action of an hour and a half he silenced the enemy's guns and compelled him to withdraw. After further service on the North Carolina Coast, McCann was ordered to the " Kennebec," and had thirteen months active blockade service before Mobile, participating in several engagements with the batteries and Fort Morgan while attacking stranded blockade-runners. He captured at sea three of the latter loaded with cotton, together with forty-five of the officers and crew. The vessels and cargoes were subsequently sold for half a million dollars. During the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, the " Kennebec " was lashed to the "Monongahela," fifth in line of battle. McCann was relieved from the "Kennebec" in December, 1864, and was engaged in various routine duties until 8 December, 1867, when he was commissioned commander. He was promoted captain, 21 September, 1876, and commodore, 26 January, 1887, and is now (1888) commandant of the Boston U.S. Navy-yard.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 76-77.

McCAULEY, Charles Stewart, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 3 February, 1793; died in Washington, D. C, 21 May, 1869. He was a nephew of Admiral Charles Stewart, and became a midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 16 January, 1809, rising to the rank of lieutenant, 9 December, 1814, commander, 3 March, 1831, and captain, 9 December, 1839. He served on the "Constellation " in 1813, and took part in the gunboat attack on the British frigate " Narcissus in Hampton Roads, and in the defence of Craney Island. He served as acting lieutenant of the "Jefferson" in 1814 on Lake Ontario. In 1823 he obtained leave of absence, and for two years commanded a vessel in the merchant marine. Refusing an offer of $10,000 a year from a shipping firm, he then returned to duty, and served four years in the "Boston." in the South Atlantic Squadron. In April, 1855, McCauley was placed in command of the Home Squadron, and directed by the Secretary of the Navy to go to the island of Cuba and protect American interests. For his success in this he was publicly complimented on his return in June by President Pierce at a dinner at the White House. In 1860 he was ordered to the command of the Gosport U.S. Navy-yard, and in 1861 he destroyed a large amount of property there, to prevent its falling into the hands of the Confederates. He was placed on the retired list, 21 December, 1861, and promoted commodore. 4 April, 1867.— His nephew, Edward Yorke, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 November, 1826, was appointed midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 9 September, 1841, and promoted lieutenant, 14 September, 1855. He resigned, 19 August, 1859, but entered the service again as acting lieutenant, 11 May, 1861. He was made lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862; commander, 27 September, 1866; captain, 3 September, 1872; commodore, 7 August. 1881; and rear-admiral, 2 March. 1885. He was present in the " Powhatan " at the attack on pirates in the China Seas in 1855, took part in the "Niagara" in laying the Atlantic cable in 1857-'8, and served in the "Flag" in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1861-'2. He commanded the steamer " Fort Henry," of the Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron in 1863—'3, and in 1863-'4, when in command of the "Tioga," took part in the boat attack on Bayport, Florida In 1864-5 he had charge of the gun-boat " Benton." of the Mississippi Squadron. In 1886 Admiral McCauley commanded the Pacific Station, and in February, 1887. he was retired. He has published "The Egyptian Manual and Dictionary''(Philadelphia, 1883-'4). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 78.

McCAWLEY, Charles Grymes, officer of marines, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania," 29 January, 1827. He was appointed from Louisiana 2d lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 8 March, 1847; became 1st lieutenant, 2 January, 1855; captain, 26 July, 1861; major, 10 June, 1864; and lieutenant-colonel, 5 December 1867. He served with the army in Mexico, being present at the storming of Chapultepec and the capture of the city of Mexico, for gallantry in which actions he was brevetted 1st lieutenant, 13 September, 1847. In May, 1862, he was sent to reoccupy the Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard with a force of 200 men, and hoisted the National flag on behalf of the navy. In July, 1863, he was ordered to join a battalion of marines for service in the South Atlantic Squadron, and was present on Morris Island during the bombardment and destruction of Port Sumter and the capture of Forts Wagner and Gregg. In the boat attack on Fort Sumter, 8 September, 1863, he led a detachment of 100 men and officers, and received a brevet as major for his bravery on that occasion. Since 1876 he has been in command of the Marine Corps with rank of colonel, and headquarters at Washington.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 78-79.

McCLEERY, James, soldier, born in Ohio about 1840: died in New York City, 5 November, 1871. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 41st Ohio Infantry on 21 August, 1861, and made 1st lieutenant, 9 January, 1862; captain, 9 October, 1862; and major, 23 November, 1865. He lost his right arm at Shiloh, and was wounded at Stone River, 31 December, 1862. On 28 July, 1866, he entered the regular army as captain of the 45th U.S. Infantry, and was retired, 15 December, 1870. He had received the brevets of major, 2 March, 1867, for gallantry at Mission Ridge, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. After his retirement he settled in St. Mary's Parish, Louisiana, where he purchased a plantation, practised law, and was connected with the Freedmen's Bureau. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1870, but was unable to serve, owing to impaired health.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 79.

McCLELLAN, George Brinton, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 3 December, 1826: died in Orange, New Jersey, 29 October, 1885. His father was Dr. George McClellan (q. v.), who married Miss Elizabeth Brinton. and George was their second son. The three noble elms to be seen at Woodstock, Connecticut, were planted by Mrs. McClellan, the general's great-grandmother, in honor and remembrance of her husband, Captain McClellan, on hearing he had passed safely through the battle of Bunker Hill. The general saw them for the first time in the summer of 1884. He was educated by private tutors, and spent two years, 1840-'2, in the University of Pennsylvania, where he acquired a love of polite literature, which was never lost in his later life. He was always an industrious student, and shared the first honors of his class in the university. At the age of fifteen years and six months (the minimum age being sixteen, and the exceptions rare) he entered the U. S. Military Academy 1 July, 1842. In his class were "Stonewall " Jackson, Jesse L. Reno, and others who subsequently became distinguished. He led his class in mathematics. He was graduated 1 July, 1846, appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, and assigned to a company of engineer troops (the only one then in service) raised for the Mexican War. With it he was at Malan, Camargo, Tampico, and Vera Cruz. After the fall of Vera Cruz they took an active part in the battle of Cerro Gordo, 17 and 18 April, 1847, and McClellan led the unsuccessful attack on the left against the triple batteries that swept the road. A second attack was rendered unnecessary by the fall of the Cerro de Telegraph. He was promoted to a 2d lieutenancy on 24 April, and afterward took part in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, 18 and 19 August, in the former of which his horse was shot. After the rupture of the armistice by the Mexicans in September, he was engaged with his company in constructing batteries against Chapultepec, and shared in the assault and capture of the city of Mexico, 13 and 14 September, 1847. He received the brevet of 1st lieutenant "for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco," and that of captain for his part in the assault of Chapultepec. In 1848, after the war was ended, he served at West Point as assistant instructor of practical engineering. In 1852 he was with Captain Marcy (later his father-in-law) on an exploration of the upper Red River, between Texas and the Indian Territory; and afterward he was engineer-in-charge of explorations and surveys in Texas. In 1853 he was on engineer duty in Oregon and Washington territories, and later was employed as engineer on the western division of the Northern Pacific Railroad. On 3 March, 1855, he was appointed a captain in the 1st U.S. Cavalry, and in the same year was sent to Europe, as a member of a military commission, to report on the condition of the armies of Europe, and to observe the operations of both sides in the Crimean War. His colleagues were Colonel Richard Delafield, of the engineers, and Major Alfred Mordecai, of the ordnance. The commission received facilities from the British government, but not from the French and Russian. The separate reports of these officers were published by Congress. Captain McClellan's was a model of fullness, accuracy, and system, and was republished in 1861, with the title "The Armies of Europe." The details of the organization and equipment of European armies he put to good use in organizing the Army of the Potomac, soon after the beginning of the Civil War.

On 16 January, 1857, Captain McClellan resigned his commission to accept the place of chief engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad. He became its vice-president in 1858, and in 1859 was elected president of the eastern division of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, residing in Cincinnati. In 1860 he was made president of the St. Louis, Missouri, and Cincinnati Railroad, which office he held until the beginning of the Civil War in 1861. While engaged in railroad work, he was able to help his classmate, Ambrose E. Burnside, who, having resigned from the service, was in need of assistance. On 23 April, 1861, McClellan was appointed major-general of Ohio volunteers, and placed in command of the Department of the Ohio, including the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, with portions of Virginia and Pennsylvania. In a month he was in the field, and on 26 May he crossed the Ohio into Virginia, and occupied Parkersburg. This advance into West Virginia, he says, was made "without orders, and entirely of his own volition." The plain bordering the Ohio was occupied by McClellan's forces; the mountains by the Confederates under General Garnett, who looked down upon the plain and the Great Kanawha River from two spurs separating the Monongahela from Tygart Valley River and Cheat River. The southern portion was called Rich Mountain,  and the northern Laurel Hill: and behind them both runs the great Virginia turnpike through Beverly and Leedsville. To cover this turnpike, Garnett had posted Pegram at Rich Mountain with 2,000 men, while he held Laurel Hill with 3,000. McClellan, who had five brigades, posted General Jacob D. Cox's command on the Lower Kanawha, General Hill's to guard the communications between western Virginia and the upper Potomac, and went in person with the remainder, divided into two columns. The first was to make a demonstration against Garnett at Philippi; the second to capture Pegram at Rich Mountain, and cut off the enemy's retreat. Advancing with Generals Schleich and Rosecrans, who commanded these columns, to Buckhannon, on 10 July he was in front of Pegram, and sent Rosecrans to the right to gain his rear. By some miscalculation there was a delay, and Pegram evacuated Rich mountain, but many of his scattered force were captured by McClellan near Beverly. Garnett abandoned Laurel hill to join Pegram, but found himself intercepted. He then tried by devious paths to escape to the Cheat River. He was overtaken at Carrick's ford, but succeeded in crossing with the loss of all his material, and was killed on the farther bank, and his force was scattered. In this eight days' Campaign McClellan had driven the enemy from the great Kanawha, and captured 1,000 prisoners, and he wrote to Washington that "he had completely annihilated the enemy in western Virginia." Lee fared no better when he succeeded Garnett and attempted to dislodge the force of Rosecrans, under Reynolds, at Cheat Mountain. In a convention held at Wheeling, 11 June, 1861, at which 40 counties were represented, this portion of the state had disapproved secession and adhered to the Union, which it was now free to enter as a separate state, as it did, by act of Congress, 31 December, 1862.

On 14 May McClellan had been appointed a major-general in the U. S. Army. Meantime preparations and been pushed forward at Washington for a direct movement toward Richmond, the command of the force being given to General Irwin McDowell. Immediately after the battle of Bull Run, McClellan was called to Washington, and on 27 July he was assigned to the command of the Department of Washington and Northeastern Virginia. While reorganizing the Army of the Potomac he was, on 20 August, invested with its command, and, on the retirement of General Scott, 1 November, he was made commander of all the armies of the United States, to the great satisfaction of the whole country, who hoped more from him than it was in the power of man to accomplish. What he had done so sagaciously, intelligently, and promptly in West Virginia placed him before his countrymen as the incarnation of perfect military genius. In his report he declared that, on his arrival at Washington, he had " found no army to command —a mere collection of regiments cowering on the banks of the Potomac, some perfectly raw, others dispirited by recent defeat, some going home. There were no defensive works on the southern approaches to the capital. Washington was crowded with straggling officers and men absent from their stations without authority." He had to bring order out of this chaos, to create an army, and to defend the city. If he was slow in doing this, he did it well. He declared that the true place to defend Washington was on the James River. After the discussion of his plan, a compromise was made in favor of a movement by the York and Pamunkey Rivers. Growing out of his reputed tardiness and the conflicting opinions as to the best plan of campaign, McClellan was now looked upon by the government with suspicion. Mr. Stanton, who had succeeded Simon Cameron as Secretary of War, and who was at first McClellan's friend, soon took issue with him on vital points, and embarrassed the general and the army greatly. In spite of McClellan's remonstrances the secretary was constantly urging a forward movement, and prevailed on Sir. Lincoln to issue an order—impossible to be carried out—that a combined movement by land and water should be made on 22 February, 1862. The serious illness of McClellan in December retarded the organization, and it was not until 10 March, 1862, that he put the army in motion for a demonstration upon Manassas; an unnecessary and unfortunate movement, because, in expectation of it, the Confederates had evacuated the position the day before. One good was accomplished, however, the gigantic machine had been put in successful motion, and active operations were fairly begun. Various plans of campaign were considered. The general purpose was to embark at Annapolis, proceed to either the Rappahannock, the York, or the James, and thence move upon Richmond. One proposition was to land at Fort Monroe, which would be a base of operations, and proceed by James River to Richmond. Another was to proceed by York River with the co-operation of the navy. This last plan of campaign having been reluctantly accepted by the president, McClellan moved the Army of the Potomac to Alexandria from 17 March to 6 April by water to Hampton Roads, and, landing at. Old Point Comfort, entered upon the Peninsular Campaign. As soon as he was gone from Washington his opponents declared he had left the capital undefended. The course of the government was shaped in a great degree by the views of the opposition, and his plan of campaign was altered. He had been assured of the co-operation of McDowell's corps. 40,000 men, marching southward to join him and to form his right before Richmond; but such were the fears as to the security of Washington that Banker's division of Sumner's corps, twelve regiments and eighteen guns, was detached on 31 March, and McDowell's corps was diverted from him on 4 April. On 3 April an order was issued to discontinue all recruiting for volunteers, upon which McClellan depended to supply his losses, and the recruiting-offices were closed. As soon as he left Washington he was relieved from the command-in-chief by a published order that hail not been communicated to him before, and became simply commander of the Army of the Potomac. Thus thwarted, whether right or wrong, he made it clear on what conditions he was fighting, and then went on. His first objective point was Yorktown, which he besieged from 5 April until 4 May, Without venturing an opinion whether Yorktown could have been taken earlier by a vigorous assault, it is known that the enemy held it until the  National batteries were ready to open, and their general. Magruder, expressed his surprise that they were not stormed without all this engineering work. He said that with 5,000 men he held 100,000 in check, refusing to obey orders to leave the place until the batteries were ready to open. On 10 April Norfolk was occupied by General Wool. On the other hand, it may be said that McClellan's caution was not without its peculiar logic. It was the first engagement since the battle of Bull Run. McCLellan could afford to wait rather than to risk much; but criticism, in the light of later events, warrants the opinion that his habits as an engineer and his lack of experience, combined with a systematic character of mind, in which deliberation was a strong factor, caused him to be unnecessarily slow in this early portion of the campaign, he was deceived by the enemy as to the numbers in his front, and was misled by false maps of the terrain, in which the directions of streams and the localities of roads were wrong. According to the returns on 1 April, 1862, the army was divided into four corps, those of McDowell, Sumner. Heintzelman, and Keyes, with a division of regular infantry and cavalry and a reserve artillery, numbering in grand aggregate on the rolls of 1 April, 1862, 119,905 men. This does not include McDowell's corps, which was soon detached and did not participate in the Peninsular Campaign. Richmond was the objective point. The southern portion of the Peninsula is flat and marshy, with a salt tide on York River as far as West Point and on the James beyond City Point. Northeast of Richmond flows the Pamunkey, joining the Mattapony to form York River. Between the Pamunkey and the upper James, flowing north of Richmond, is the Chickahominy, which, passing through wooded swamps and flowing south into the James, proved during the rainy periods a much more difficult obstacle than had been anticipated. There are thickets of white oak interspersed with pool-like extensions. Thus, while in dry seasons it was a brook, in wet ones it was a broad river with swampy banks. After the evacuation of Yorktown, the occupation of Williamsburg was contested on 5 and 6 May. The apportionment of troops to the attack was not wisely calculated. Hooker complained that for nine hours his division of thirteen regiments bore the brunt of the enemy's attacks without support, although there were 30,000 men in sight unengaged. Williamsburg was abandoned by the enemy and the forward movement was resumed. The distance to Richmond is about fifty miles. As the Confederates fell back to cover their capital, fighting in retreat, the National Army advanced, meeting with no strong resistance until it was established on the Chickahominy. Had McClellan then made his change of base, the James River being opened, he would doubtless have been successful. The Confederate iron-dads ran up as far as Drewry's Bluff on 15 May, and on the lst McClellan had reached the Chickahominy. The nearest part of this river is only five miles from Richmond; but there are large swamps intervening, which in rainy seasons form a decided military obstacle. McClellan’s advance was well in position by 23 May. Franklin's division had now ascended York River, and the base of operations for the army was the White House on the York River Railroad where it crosses the Pamunkey, twenty-four miles east of Richmond. In expectation of "the junction with McDowell, General Fitz-John Porter had advanced to Hanover Court-House, north of Richmond, where on 24 May he defeated a Confederate force. As McDowell did not come, and it became known that he would not, Porter was returned to his original camp. The river now divided the Army of the Potomac, and the communications were precarious. The army advanced upon Richmond along the Chickahominy. now greatly swollen—the left wing in four divisions along the York River Railroad, south of the Chickahominy, and the right wing, consisting of five divisions, by the opposite bank, the swollen stream rushing between, and no bridge being a sure communication except Bottom's bridge, below the railroad crossing. On the night of 30 May the Confederates, taking advantage of a deluge of rain, moved out under General Joseph E. Johnston to attack the National left, which it would be difficult to support from the north. Early the next day Longstreet and Hill attacked, and there was fought the battle of Fair Oaks, called by the Confederates Seven Pines. Casey's division was driven back, and Couch and Heintzelman coming to his support were about to succumb. The enemy audaciously attempted to pass between the left wing and the river and to seize Bottom's bridge, when McClellan, sick in bed, ordered Sumner to attempt the crossing of the tottering bridge in his front. Sumner already had his corps prepared to move at a word, and Sedgwick's division rushed across, planted a battery of twenty-four Napoleon guns so as to flank the Confederate advance, and hurled the attacking force back upon Fair Oaks station. Had the entire army crossed, the capture of Richmond might soon have followed. When the Confederates renewed their attack on 1 June, it was without proper concert, and they were repelled with a loss of 4,233 men. The Federal loss was 5,739. Soon afterward the National Army recovered its posts at Fair Oaks, but made no further attempts to capture Richmond. General J. E. Johnston had been severely wounded, and his place was taken by General G. W. Smith, while General Robert E. Lee was in chief command in the city.

Two events now occurred to embarrass McClellan’s further movement: the first was a demonstration that had been made by “Stonewall" Jackson upon Washington, and the other a raid of General J. E. B. Stuart, on 12 and 13 June, with 1,500 cavalry, around the right flank of the National Army, destroying stores and capturing provisions. The course taken by McClellan, whatever may be the opinion whether a retreat was necessary, was bold, and skilfully carried out. McDowell withheld, and Jackson again in line before Richmond, he determined to fall back to reorganize and plan anew, and, preparatory to this, he would make a change of base. White House could no longer be safely held; the James River was open; transports had already reached City Point. Thus the new base was correct for a new movement upon Richmond. He determined upon a flank movement to the James by substantially a single road, open on his flank to many roads, of which he would have to contest every foot of the way. The divisions north of the Chickahominy were to be carefully and secretly withdrawn, the bridges utilized for trains. Large detachments thrown out toward Richmond were to resist the enemy's assaults and cover the movement. To divert the attention of the enemy, McClellan sent General Stoneman with cavalry to make a raid in their rear on 23 June, but they were not entirely deceived. Ignorant at first of McClellan's purpose, they swarmed upon him, and then occurred that contest called the Seven days' battles, from 25 June to 1 July.   

On 25 June Hooker had been advanced beyond Fair Oaks toward Richmond, and after an action at Oak Grove had held his ground, and it seemed that there might yet lie a rapid march upon Richmond; but the news of " Stonewall " Jackson's return had caused McClellan to decide at once, and Hooker was recalled. On 26 June General D. H. Hill attacked Fitz-John Porter at Mechanicsville. Porter fought valiantly as he fell back, and, from want of concert on the part of the enemy, he repelled every attack with enormous loss to them. On the 27th was fought the severe battle of Gaines's Mills, to cover the National right, in which Porter was confronted by Jackson and D. H. Hill, while the bridges were threatened by A. P. Hill and Longstreet, Trains and parts of heavy guns had been taken across the river, and the troops clustered around the bridges on the north side, waiting to cross. This passage in presence of the enemy was a delicate and dangerous task. Falling back from Mechanicsville, they had reached Gaines's Mills opposite the New bridge. The troops were to defend the approaches during the day and to cross in the evening, destroying the bridges behind them. Porter's force formed an arc of an extended circle on an elevated plateau. He was first attacked about noon by A. P. Hill, whom he repelled: but the enemy returned with such vigor to the attack that Porter used all his reserves and asked urgently for re-enforcements. Slocum's division came and made a diversion in his favor, but was soon overpowered and outflanked by Jackson and Ewell. The defeat would have been a fatal rout but for the timely appearance of new re-enforcements under French and Meagher, and the Confederates were arrested while on the verge of a great victory. Porter crossed that night and destroyed the bridges behind him. The National loss was about 9,000 men. At the close of this battle McClellan, in an assembly of his generals, proposed, even at that moment, to make a rush upon Richmond: but this was opposed by his lieutenants and abandoned. The Confederates, now sure that McClellan was cut off from his base, expected to destroy and capture his whole army. It was only at this juncture that their eyes were fully opened: but they soon found that White House had been evacuated and a new base secured, which was already defended by the National Flotilla. In announcing the results thus far, on 28 June, to the Secretary of War, McClellan asserted that, if the government had sustained him, he could, with 10,000 additional troops, have captured Richmond the next day, and he closed the despatch to Sec. Stanton with the bold assertion: "If I save this army now. I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to you, or to any other persons in Washington. You have done your best to sacrifice this army." On the third day, Saturday, 28 June, the movement was conducted rapidly but in good order. Immediately after the battle of Gaines's Mills, McClellan had been inclined to cross the Chickahominy and persevere in his efforts to hold his position; but, after a consultation with his corps commanders, he decided upon the change of base, and proceeded promptly to its execution. The grand retrograde movement was now to be made through the swamp formed by the White Oak Creek, a branch of the Chickahominy, and then by the Quaker road principally to Malvern Hill, the point beyond which they would be secure from attack, both by the strength of the position and the flank fire of the fleet. Diverging from Richmond and running to intersect at different intervals, the route of .McClellan were, counting from the north, the Williamsburg Turnpike, the Charles City road, the Derby or Central Road, and the New Market Road, from which the Varina Road diverges to the south. Along these roads, upon the flank of the National Army, the columns of Lee were launched— Magruder on the Williamsburg road, Huger on the Charles City, A. P. Hill on the Central, while Jackson, crossing the Grapevine bridge, moved upon their rear. The situation was grave in the extreme; but a bold rear-guard checked Jackson from time to time, while strong detachments protected the right flank, fought the battles, and proved the mettle of the excellent but exhausted troops.

On the morning of 29 June was fought the battle of Savage's Station, in which the fighting was severe. Magruder, marching upon Fair Oaks and finding it abandoned, had hurried on to the station, which was held by Sumner and Heintzelman. who were to hold it till nightfall. Unfortunately Heintzelman, through a misunderstanding, retired too soon, and the brunt of Magruder's attack by the Williamsburg road fell upon Sumner, who held his post so well that he was able to retire at nightfall, though leaving his wounded behind him. The fifth day of battle was 30 June, and the fighting was at Frazier's farm, where the Central road joins the Quaker road. Longstreet and A. P. Hill, who had crossed the Chickahominy at New bridge, marched to and then followed the Central road. McClellan's line was now eight miles long—Jackson upon its rear, Magruder, who had made a detour, moving parallel by the New Market road, and Longstreet and Hill advancing upon Frazier's farm. The destruction of the National Army seemed sure. The Confederate attack was vigorous, but Magruder and Huger did not come up as expected; the troops from Fort Darling were driven back by shells from the National gun-boats; Jackson, who had been delayed by the destruction of the White Oak bridge, found himself obliged to reconstruct it, and was further checked by Franklin. McClellan's army fell back after dark to Malvern Hill, where the last of the trains and all the reserve artillery had arrived in the afternoon, and where the last great battle of the peninsula was to be fought. Malvern is an elevated plain, in some degree fortified by ravines radiating toward the front and on the northwest. It is about a mile and a half long by three fourths of a mile deep, and not far behind it, defended by the gunboats from Turkey Point to Haxall's and Harrison's Landing, is James River. In front it is enveloped by a small stream and thick underwood. Both flanks of the National Army touched the river here during the night. Sykes, with the regulars, guarded the road from Richmond to Haxall's, then came the rest of Porter's corps, Heintzelman in the center, then Sumner, Franklin, and Keyes. The approaches were defended by heavy guns, while the lighter batteries were disposed for use according to circumstances. The only roads by which the Confederates could approach were that from Richmond to Haxall's and the Quaker road. Their first movement was upon the National left. The position seemed impregnable; the outer line bristled with guns, and, could that be taken, there remained the inner and still more difficult defences, but General Lee ordered an attack along the whole line. Under the best, circumstances, success seemed impossible. The movement was dependent upon a signal, which was mistaken, and this gave rise to some confusion. The Confederates attacked furiously, and, being hurled back, returned again and again. At a signal the final attack was made by Magruder and A. P. Hill, whose troops melted away before the National fire, and the defeat of the Confederates was assured. As soon as the conflict was ended, the Army of the Potomac resumed its retreat upon Harrison's Landing, which it reached by noon on 2 July, and was then secure from any further attack. The boldest and most impulsive spirits in the army were of opinion that, had a vigorous advance been ordered as a riposte after the attack on Malvern, such were the confusion and disorder in the Confederate ranks, that Richmond could have been captured without further delay. But the condition of the men rendered this almost impossible.

When, on 7 July, President Lincoln visited the army, he found more than 80,000 men there, although General McClellan had reported a smaller number by reason of confused returns. He asked for more troops and another trial; but he had lost the confidence of the President and his advisers, and neither his request nor his advice was listened to. On 8 July General Burnside brought up reinforcements from Roanoke Island, and some days later Lee's army began to withdraw for a northern campaign. On the 11th General Halleck was made general-in-chief, and on 3 August McClellan was ordered to evacuate the Peninsula. He was directed also to repair in person first to Fort Monroe and then to Alexandria, and was relieved of his command, and ordered to send every available soldier to the new army of Virginia under General John Pope, an army that had been formed by consolidation of the forces under Generals Fremont, Banks, and McDowell. These three organizations were now known as the 1st, 2d, and 3d Corps respectively. (See Pope, John-.) The second battle of Bull Run, 30 August, 1862, was even more disastrous than the first, and on 2 September Pope resigned the command. In this emergency the government looked to McClellan as the only man who could inspire confidence and bring order out of chaos. He himself says that, pending the time when a general could be selected, he had only a verbal order or request to assume control; that in point of fact he never was fully in command, and that thus, without a warrant to show, not only his reputation, but his life depended upon some measure of success in a situation that seemed almost hopeless. Before setting out to meet the Confederate Army in Maryland, he left his card with a P. P. C. for the President, and departed without an official word from the Secretary of War or the general-in-chief. ne had been in virtual command, from 2 to 7 September, in charge of the defences of the city. Flushed with his recent victories, Lee was marching into Maryland, and must be met and checked by the remnants of Pope's army and the Army of the Potomac. It is touching to read of the men's joy and renewed confidence when they knew that "Little Mac" was again in command. The magnetism was like that ascribed to Napoleon. Organizing as he proceeded, he marched into Maryland parallel with Lee, who had advanced as far as Frederick. Lee was disappointed by the coolness of his reception, and on the approach of McClellan fell back to Turner's and Crampton's Gaps in the South Mountain, where he was defeated and driven from the former by Reno's corps, and from the latter by Franklin on 13 and 14 September McClellan was now to encounter the full force of the enemy on Antietam creek, a small tributary of the Potomac, which it joins about seven miles north of Harper's Ferry. By the failure of General Miles to fortify Maryland heights, and in spite of the entreaties of McClellan that Harper's Ferry should be abandoned and its garrison added to his army. Jackson captured the post on 13 September and took  prisoners. He was thus enabled to join forces with Lee at Antietam. On the 16th Lee had only two divisions across the Potomac, but the National Army did not come into position till the 17th. McClellan placed Hooker and Mansfield on the right, next came Sumner, with Franklin as a support, Burnside was on the left, and Porter in the centre. Lee had placed his army in the acute angle enclosed by the Potomac and the Antietam; on the heights between the two streams, to the right and left of the Boonsboro road, he had posted Longstreet and Hill, with Hood on the left. In the centre of the position was the Dunker Church, which seemed an objective point for both armies. Three stone bridges cross the Antietam, and there are also several fords. The bridge on the left was in front of Burnside, the central one in front of Porter, and the right opposite Hooker and Mansfield. McClellan's plan was for Hooker to cross and attack the enemy's left, supported if necessary by Sumner and Franklin, and upon the apparent success of that attack Burnside was to cross the bridge in his front, press the enemy's right, passing if possible to the south and rear of Sharpsburg. At daylight on the morning of the 17th 1 looker, followed by Mansfield, having crossed the stream, made so furious an attack upon Hood and Jackson that they were driven back beyond the Dunker Church. Re-enforced by D. H. Hill, the Confederates returned the attack, and drove Hooker back in turn. Then Sumner came up, moved forward, was driven back, and again, with Franklin's aid, forced them beyond the Dunker Church. Sumner even attempted to move, with a portion of his corps, to the left upon Sharpsburg, but he could only hold his ground. But the movements on the left were less fortunate. Burnside had been ordered at 8 A. M. to take the stone bridge, and aid the general movements by occupying the heights beyond. The approach to the bridge being swept by the guns of the enemy, the order to take it was not obeyed until 1 o'clock, when the Confederates had so strengthened their position beyond it that it was impossible to dislodge them. Thus it happened that the principal fighting was on the right, where Mansfield was Killed, and Hooker wounded. The desperate attempts of the enemy to pierce the National line on the right and centre were foiled. In spite of repeated orders, the failure of Burnside's corps to take the lower stone bridge invalidated McClellan's combinations, and to some extent neutralized his success. Had it been carried early in the day. Lee might have been driven pell-mell into the Potomac. As it was. when we consider all the circumstances, the forcing back of the Confederate line, and their inability to make any effect upon the National line, the engagement at Antietam, so often regarded as only a drawn battle, must be looked upon as a decided success. About 13,000 men fell on each side, but McClellan retained the field when the enemy, his plans entirely foiled, sullenly withdrew. As an offset to the disaster of Harper's Ferry, McClellan had, in this brief campaign, taken 13 guns, 39 colors, upward of 15,000 stand of arms, and more than 6,000 prisoners, while he had not lost a gun or a color. No swift pursuit was attempted, and Lee crossed the Potomac at his leisure on the 19th. McClellan then followed, advancing his army between Longstreet's corps and the main body under Lee, and halted at Warrenton to recruit, while the powers at Washington, withholding all praise for what he and his army had achieved, were scolding him for his delay. He needed supplies of all kinds, and with regard to the arrival of these there has since been a  long controversy. He believed that what time was lost in immediate pursuit of the enemy would be more than compensated by the concentration, freshness, equipments, good spirits, and recovered morale of his army. Urgent orders were sent him to move on, and irritating insinuations were hurled upon him. At last an order from the President came on 7 November, relieving McClellan of the command, and conferring it upon General Burnside, who then (as he had before) declared his unfitness for it and his indisposition to accept it. McClellan was directed to await orders at Trenton, New Jersey, and afterward at New York.

Though he was set aside by the government, his hold upon the people of the country was never relaxed. The army idolized him, and his popularity followed him. In 1863 he visited Boston, where he was received enthusiastically, and in 1864 he was chosen to deliver the oration at West Point on the occasion of the unveiling of the monument erected to the memory of the officers and soldiers of the regular army. He took no further part in the war, but in his enforced inactivity prepared his "Report on the Organization and Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac," which was published by the government. He also published an edition himself, with a preliminary account of the Campaign in Western Virginia. The most substantial proof of his popularity was his nomination at Chicago by the Democratic Party as their candidate for the presidency of the United States in August. 1864. But the time was ill chosen. Mr. Lincoln's popularity had been continually growing, and the conviction of many, among whom were warm friends of McClellan, was that a change of administration would at best, in that emergency, be but a doubtful policy. McClellan’s defeat was a foregone conclusion. He received but 21 electoral votes against 212; but the popular vote made a better record—he had 1,800,000 against 2,200,000. As he had not sought the nomination, he was not disappointed in the result. He had resigned his commission in the army on 8 September, 1864, and immediately after the election he went to Europe, where he remained until 1868.

On his return he took up his residence in New York City. In 1868-'9 he was employed to complete the Stevens iron-clad floating battery for harbor defence. This was a visionary caprice of the inventor and owner, for which McClellan was in no wise responsible: it had been long in process of construction, and unforeseen difficulties presented themselves, which led to its abandonment. He declined the presidency of the University of California in and that of Union College in 1869. In 1870 he was made engineer-in-chief of the department of docks of the city of New York, which post he left in 1872, having, in 1871, declined an appointment as city comptroller. He was also invited to become superintendent of construction of the railroad bridge across the Hudson at Poughkeepsie. In 1881 he was appointed by Congress a member of the board of managers of the National Home for Disabled Soldiers, which office he held until his death. During these latter years his principal residence was in Orange, New Jersey, but in the winters he resided in New York or Washington. He was elected governor of New Jersey in 1877, served for one term with credit, and declined a renomination. He made several tours in Europe, visiting the East, and published his observations in magazine articles. In the series of military papers, appearing in the current issues, he wrote several monographs illustrating his campaigns, and vindicating his reputation. While he was in the enjoyment of good 'health, with a long life apparently before him heart disease was developed, and he died suddenly at his country residence. In 1886 appeared a volume entitled "McClellan's Own Story." with a short biographical introduction by the editor. William C. Prime. It contains his own views, in his own words, with extracts from his private correspondence with his wife.

McClellan was about 5 feet 8 inches in height, firmly built, with broad shoulders. He was very solid and muscular, and an excellent horseman. Modest and retiring, he had withal a great self-respect, a gracious dignity. His personal magnetism has no parallel in military history, except in that of the first Napoleon; he was literally the idol of his officers and men. They would obey him when all other control had failed. In the opinion of many, he was unduly careful of his troops, so that his power to organize was neutralized by his caution in the field. He was a clear writer and an effective speaker. As a student of military history, he had no superior in his systematic knowledge of wars, battles, and tactics. He was also an accomplished engineer. His plans of campaign were just, clear, and timely: but any interference with them threw him back upon his natural caution, and caused him to take more time to reorganize and recast than the exigencies of the war and the rapid movements of the enemy would permit. He believed himself the personal butt of the administration, and that it did not wish him to succeed. He was constantly engaged in controversies, and his despatches, reports, and later papers are always in the tone of one vindicating himself from real or fancied injustice. He was a man of irreproachable character, a model Christian gentleman in every situation of life. He devised the McClellan saddle, which has proved useful and popular, in 1856. His writings include " A Manual of Bayonet Exercise," adapted from the French (1852); "Government Reports of Pacific Railroad Surveys" (1854); "Report on the Organization and Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac" (1864); papers in ' Harper's Magazine," 1874-'7, and in "Scribner's" on Egypt and the Nile.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 79-84.

McCELLAN, John Hill Brinton, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 13 August, 1823; died in Edinburgh, Scotland, 20 July, 1874, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1841, and at its medical department in 1844. In 1855 he was elected professor of anatomy in the medical department of Pennsylvania College, but held that appointment for a short time only. He was surgeon at St. Joseph's Hospital from 1850 till 1862, and also at Will’s eye Hospital for many years. During the Civil War he was connected with the South street Hospital, and afterward was acting assistant surgeon at Mower's Hospital, where he performed some notable operations, accounts of which are given in "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion " (Washington, 1870). Dr. McClellan had an extensive practice, both in surgery and in medicine, and was frequently called on to operate in different parts of the state. Among the operations credited to him are the removal of the entire parotid gland, reported in his father's " Surgery," and the first and only removal of the entire upper extremity for disease, including the shoulder-blade and collar-bone. He inherited much of his father's quickness, and his diagnosis of disease seemed almost intuitive, while his extreme delicacy of feeling and genial nature made him a welcome visitor in the sick-room. Dr. McClellan edited " Principles and Practice of Surgery " (Philadelphia, 1848), left in manuscript by his father. His son George was graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1870, and now practices in Philadelphia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 85.

McLELLAN, Carswell, civil engineer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 3 December, 1835, was graduated at Williams. Massachusetts, in 1855, and on 6 May, 1862, entered the 32d New York Regiment, was wounded at Malvern Hill, and on 3 July became topographical assistant on the staff of General Andrew A. Humphreys. He was present at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg where he was wounded again, and at the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac until April, 1864. He was taken prisoner in the fight for the Weldon Railroad on 19 August, 1864, but was paroled, 16 November, 1864, and resigned on that date. He was engineer in charge of location and construction works upon the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terra Haute, Northern Pacific, St. Paul and Pacific, and other western railroads, from 1867 till 1881, when he became U. S. civil assistant engineer, which post he now (1887) holds. He is the author of the " Personal Memoirs and Military History of Ulysses S. Grant vs. the Record of the Army of the Potomac " (Boston, 1887).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 85.

McLELLAN, Henry Brainerd, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 17 October, 1840, was graduated at Williams in 1858. In 1862-'3 he was adjutant of the 3d Virginia Cavalry, and from 1863 till the end of the war served as assistant adjutant-general of the corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was chief of staff to Generals James E. B. Stuart  and Wade Hampton, mid served by assignment on the staff of General Robert E. Lee from 14 May till 11 August, 1863. Since 1870 he has been principal of Sayre Female Institute, in Lexington, Kentucky He is the author of " Life and Campaigns of Major-General J. E. B. Stuart. Commander of the Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia " (Boston, 1885).   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 85.

McCLENACHAN, Charles Thomson, lawyer, born in Washington, D. C, 13 April, 1829. He was graduated at Germantown College, went to New York in 1844, and was instructor in the Institute of the Blind from 1845 till 1850. From 1850 till 1861 he was clerk of the board of councilmen of New York City, and during the Civil War he was quartermaster of the 7th New York Regiment. Subsequently he studied law, and was admitted to the New York Bar in 1867. He was general accountant in the street department, and afterward in the department of public works, for twenty-six years. He has published "The Laws of the Fire Department " (New York. 1855):" Compilation of the Opinions of Counsels to the Corporations " (1859); "New York Ferry Leases and Railroad Grants from 1750 to 1860" (1860); "The Atlantic Telegraph Cable of 1858 "(1863); "The Hook of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry" (1867); and an addendum to Dr. Albert G. Mackey's "Masonic Encyclopedia" (Philadelphia. 1884). He is now (1888) engaged, by appointment of the grand lodge, on the " History of Freemasonry in the State of New York."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 86.

McCLERNAND, John Alexander, lawyer, born in Breckenridge county, Kentucky, 30 May, 1812. On the death of his father in 1810, his mother moved to Shawneetown, Illinois, where the son subsequently worked on a farm. In 1829 he began the study of law, and in 1832 was admitted to the bar. In the same year he volunteered in the war against the Sacs and Foxes, and on his return was engaged for a time in trade. In 1835 he established the Shawneetown "Democrat," and also resumed the practice of his profession. In 1836-'40 and 1842 he was elected to the legislature, and in 1843 was sent to represent his state as a Democrat in Congress, where he served till 1851. His first speech was upon the bill to remit the fine that had been imposed on General Andrew Jackson by Judge Hall, of Louisiana. He was the chairman of the committee on resolutions of the Illinois Democratic Convention of 1858, and in that year was re-elected to Congress, serving from 5 December, 1859, until the beginning of the Civil War. He then resigned, returned home, and, with John A. Logan-and Philip B. Fouke, raised the McClernand brigade, the president appointing him brigadier-general of volunteers. He accompanied General Grant to Belmont, did good service himself at Fort Donelson, where he commanded the right of the National line, and was made major-general of volunteers, 21 March. 1862. The following month he commanded a division at the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee. In January, 1863, he relieved General Sherman in command of the expedition for the capture of Vicksburg. He afterward led the force that stormed and captured Arkansas Post, and was at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Big Black River, and Vicksburg. He led the 13th Army Corps until he was relieved in July, 1863, and resigned from the army on 30 November, 1864.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 86-87.

McCLUNEY, William J., naval officer, born about 1796; died in Brooklyn, New York, 11 February, 1864. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy, 1 January, 1812, and was in the action between the "Wasp" and the " Frolic " on 18 October of that year. He was commissioned lieutenant, 1 April, 1818, commander, 9 December, 1839, and captain, 13 October, 1851, and placed on the retired list, 21 December, 1861. He took part in the Mexican War, and in 1853 was ordered to command the "Powhatan," of Commodore Perry's Japan Expedition. He returned to the United States in February, 1856, and after a brief respite was ordered to New York on duty as general supervisor of the construction of the Stevens Battery. In 1858 he was placed in command of the Atlantic Squadron, which office he held until May, 1860. He was commissioned commodore, 16 July, 1862.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 89.

McCLURG. Alexander Caldwell, publisher, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, about 1835. He was graduated at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1853. He left the house of S. C. Griggs and Company booksellers of Chicago, to enter the National Army as a private, 15 August, 1862, and was subsequently commissioned captain in the 88th Illinois Volunteers. He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in the adjutant-general's department, and chief of staff of the 14th Army Corps, and brevetted colonel and brigadier-general. He served to the end of the war in the Army of the Cumberland, and accompanied General Sherman in his march to the sea. After the war he returned to the book business in Chicago, becoming a partner in the Arm of Jansen, McClurg and County, and the house is now widely known under the name of A. C. McClurg and Company, booksellers and publishers. General McClurg has been a frequent contributor to periodical literature.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 90-91.

McCLURG, Joseph Washington, 1818-1900, lawyer, legislator, soldier.  Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri.  Served in Congress December 1863-1868.  Elected Governor of Missouri in 1868.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 91; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 597; Congressional Globe)

McCLURG, Joseph Washington, legislator, born in St. Louis County. Missouri, 22 February, 1818. He was educated at Oxford College, Ohio, and taught in Louisiana and Mississippi in 1835-"6. He then went to Texas, where he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and made clerk of the circuit court in 1840. In 1844 he returned to Missouri and engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1861 he suffered from Confederate depredations on his property, became colonel of the Osage Regiment, and subsequently of a regiment of National cavalry. He was a member of the state conventions of Missouri in 1861-'2-'3, and was elected and re-elected to Congress while residing in Linn Creek, Camden County, first as an Emancipation and afterward as a Republican candidate, serving from 7 December, 1863, until 1868, when he resigned. In the latter year he was elected governor and served the full term.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 91.

McCOOK, Daniel, soldier, born in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 20 June, 1798; died near Buffington's Island, Ohio, 21 July, 1863. He was the son of George McCook, an Irishman of Scotch descent, who was concerned in movements of the "United Irishmen " about 1780, and on their failure fled to the United States. Daniel was educated at Jefferson College and moved to New Lisbon, and then to Carrollton. Ohio. At the beginning of the Civil War, although sixty-three years of age, he offered his services to the government, was commissioned major, and fell mortally wounded while leading an advance party to oppose and intercept General John Morgan in his raid. His wife. Martha Latimer, born in Washington. Pennsylvania, 8 March, 1802: died in New Lisbon, Ohio, 10 November, 1879, was married in 1818. Her courage and intelligence greatly influenced their ten sons who were in the National Army.— Daniel's brother. John, physician, born in Canonsburg. Pennsylvania, 21 February, 1806: died in Washington, D. C, 11 October, 1865, was educated at Jefferson College and graduated in the Medical school of Cincinnati. He practised medicine for many years in New Lisbon, and afterward in Steubenville, Ohio, and during the Civil War served for a time as a volunteer surgeon. He died at the headquarters of his son. General Anson G. McCook, in Washington, D. C, during a visit. His wife, Catherine Julia Sheldon, born in Hartford, Connecticut, 21 May, 1807; died in Steubenville, Ohio, 11 March, 1865, was noted for her gift of song. His five sons enlisted in the National Army. These two families have been called the "fighting McCook’s," and are familiarly distinguished as the "tribe of Dan" and the "tribe of John."—Daniel's son, George Wythe, lawyer, born in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 21 November, 1821; died in Steubenville. Ohio, 28 December, 1877, was graduated at Ohio University, studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and afterward became his partner. He served as an officer in the 3d Ohio Regiment throughout the Mexican War, and returned as its commander. He was one of the first four brigadier-generals selected by the governor of Ohio to command the troops from that state in the Civil War, but, owing to impaired health from his Mexican service, was prevented from accepting that post. He organized and commanded for short periods several Ohio regiments. In 1871 he was the Democratic candidate for governor of the state. He was at one time attorney-general of the state and edited the first volume of "Ohio State Reports."—Another son, Robert Latimer, soldier, born, in New Lisbon, Ohio, 28 December, 1827; died near Salem, Alabama, 6 August, 1862, studied law and moved to Cincinnati, where he secured a large practice. He organized the 9th Ohio Regiment in 1861, became its colonel, and commanded a brigade in the West Virginia Campaign under McClellan. His brigade was then transferred to the Army of the Ohio, and took an active part in the battle of Mill Spring, Kentucky, 19 January, 1862, where he was severely wounded. The Confederate forces were driven from their lines by a bayonet charge of McCook's brigade, and so closely pursued that their organization was destroyed. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 21 March, 1862, rejoined his command before his wound had healed, and was shot by Confederate guerillas while lying helpless in an ambulance.—Another son, Alexander McDowell, soldier, born in Columbiana County, Ohio, 22 April, 1831, was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1852, and assigned to the 3d U.S. Infantry. After a brief service in garrison he was engaged against the Apaches in New Mexico until 1857, and from 12 February, 1858, till 24 April, 1861, was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at West Point. On 6 December, 1858, he became 1st lieutenant. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed colonel of the 1st Ohio Regiment, and in April, 1861, he was mustering and disbursing officer at Columbus, Ohio. He commanded his regiment at the first battle of Bull Run. and for his services there was brevetted major, he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on 3 Sept, 1861, and commanded a division of the Army of the Ohio in the Tennessee an d Mississippi Campaign. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel at the capture of Nashville, 3 March, 1862, and colonel on 7 April, 1862, for services at Shiloh. On 17 July, 1862, he became major-general of volunteers and was placed in command of the 20th Army Corps, with which he served during the campaigns of Perryville, Stone River, Tullahoma, and Chickamauga. He engaged in the defence of Washington on 11 and 12 July, 1864, was in the Middle Military Division from November, 1864, till February, 1865, and in command of eastern Arkansas from February till May of the latter year. He received the brevet of brigadier-general. U. S. Army, on 13 March, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at Perrysville, Kentucky. and also on the same date that of major-general. U. S. Army, for services in the field during the war. He investigated Indian affairs with a joint committee of Congress from May till October, 1865, and at the close of the war was made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th U.S. Infantry. On 15 December, 1880, he became colonel of the 6th U.S. Infantry, and he is now (1888) stationed at Fort Leavenworth. Kansas, as commandant of the school of instruction for infantry and cavalry.—Another son, Daniel, soldier, born in Carrollton, Ohio, 22 July, 1834; died near Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, 21 July, 1864, was graduated at Alabama University, Florence, Alabama, in 1858, studied law in Steubenville, Ohio, and, after admission to the bar, moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he formed a partnership with William T. Sherman and Thomas Ewing. When the Civil War began the office was closed and all of the partners soon became general officers. Mr. McCook was captain of a local company, with which he volunteered, and as part of the 1st Kansas Regiment served under General Nathaniel Lyon at Wilson's Creek. Subsequently he was chief of staff of the 1st Division of the Army of the Ohio in the Shiloh Campaign, and became colonel of the 52d Ohio Infantry in the summer of 1862. He was at once assigned to the command of a brigade under General William T. Sherman, and continued to serve with the Army of the Cumberland. He was selected by General Sherman to lead the assault that was made on Kenesaw Mountain in July, 1864, and took his brigade directly up to the Confederate works. Just before the assault he calmly recited to his men the stanza from Macaulay's poem of "Horatius" beginning " Then how may man die better than facing fearful odds" He had reached the top of the enemy's works, and was encouraging his men to follow him. when he was fatally wounded. For the courage that he displayed in this assault he was  promoted to the full rank of brigadier-general, to date from 16 July, 1864, but survived only a few days.—Another son, Edwin Stanton, soldier, born in Carrollton. Ohio. 26 March, 1837; died in Yankton, Dakota, 11 September, 1873. was educated at the U.S. Naval Academy, but when the Civil War began raised a company for the 31st Illinois Regiment, of which his friend John A. Logan was colonel. He served with this regiment at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, where he was severely wounded. In his promotion he succeeded General Logan and followed him in the command of his regiment, brigade, and division, throughout the Vicksburg and other campaigns under Grant, and in the Chattanooga and Atlanta Campaigns, and the march to the sea under Sherman. He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, for his services in these campaigns. General McCook was three times severely wounded, but survived the war. While acting governor of Dakota and presiding over a public meeting, he was shot and killed by a man in the audience.— Another son, Charles Morris, born in Carrollton, Ohio, 13 November, 1843; died in Virginia, 21 July, 1861, was a member of the freshman class at Kenyon College when the war began, and volunteered as a private in the 2d Ohio Regiment. He was killed at the battle of Bull Run, in sight of his father, who had volunteered as a nurse.—Another son, John James, soldier, born in Carrollton. Ohio, 22 May, 1845, was also a student at Kenyon when the war began, and after completing his freshman year enlisted in the 6th Ohio Cavalry. He served through the war, attaining the rank of captain and aide-de-camp in September, 1863. He was brevetted major for gallant and meritorious services in action at Shady Grove, Virginia, where he was dangerously wounded, and lieutenant-colonel and colonel for his services during the war. Colonel McCook is now (1887) practising Law in New York City.—John's son, Edward Moody, soldier, born in Steubenville, Ohio, 15 June, 1833, received a common-school education, and was one of the earliest settlers in the Pike's Peak region, where he went to practice law. He represented that district in the legislature of Kansas before the division of the territories. Mr. McCook was temporarily in Washington just before the Civil War, and, by a daring feat as a volunteer secret agent for the government, won such approbation that he was appointed in the regular army as 2d lieutenant of the 1st Cavalry, 8 May, 1861. He became 1st lieutenant, 17 July, 1862. His brevets in the regular army were 1st lieutenant, 7 April, 1862, for Shiloh, Tennessee; captain, 8 October. 1862, for Perrysville, Kentucky; major, 20 September, 1863, for Chickamauga, Georgia; lieutenant-colonel, 27 January, 1864, for service during the cavalry operations in east Tennessee; colonel, 13 March, 1865, for the capture of Selma, Alabama, and also on that date brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious service in the field. He also was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 27 April, 1864, and brevetted major-general, 13 March, 1865. General McCook's most difficult and dangerous service was in penetrating the enemy's lines by way of diversion previous to Sherman's march to the sea. He resigned his commission in 1866 to accept the appointment of U. S. minister to the Sandwich Islands, which he held until 1869. He was twice appointed governor of Colorado territory by President Grant.—Another son of the first John, Anson George, soldier, born in Steubenville, Ohio, 10 October, 1835, received a common-school education at New Lisbon. Ohio, and wont while still a youth to California in an overland train. He remained on the Pacific Coast several years, returned, and studied law at Steubenville in the office of Stanton and McCook, and had just been admitted to the bar at the beginning of the Civil War. On the first call for troops he entered the service as captain in the 2d Ohio Infantry, and as such served in the first battle of Bull Run. At the reorganization of his regiment for three years, he was made major, and he subsequently became its lieutenant-colonel and colonel, serving in the Army of the Cumberland under Buell, Rosecrans, and Thomas. He was also with Sherman in the Atlanta Campaign, commanding a brigade part of the time, especially at the battle of Peach Tree Creek near Atlanta. When the regiment was mustered out at the expiration of its service he was made colonel of the 194th Ohio, ordered to the valley of Virginia, and assigned to command a brigade. At the close of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services. From 1865 till 1873 he resided in Steubenville, Ohio, as U. S. assessor of internal revenue, and then moved to New York City. He was elected to Congress from New York as a Republican, holding his seat from 1877 till 1883, and serving on the military committee. He is now (1888) secretary of the U. S. Senate. — Another son of John, Henry Christopher, clergyman, born in New Lisbon, Ohio, 3 July, 1837, after learning the printer's trade, and teaching for several years, was graduated at Jefferson College. Pennsylvania, in 1859. He studied theology privately and in Western Theological Seminary at Alleghany, Pennsylvania, and after serving for nine months as 1st lieutenant and chaplain in the army, held pastorates at Clinton, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri. During this period he was active as a leader in Sunday-school movements. In 1869 he became pastor of the Seventh Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, now known as the Tabernacle Presbyterian Church. Dr. McCook is vice-president of the American Entomological Society, and of the Academy of natural Sciences in Philadelphia, in whose proceedings he has published numerous papers upon the habits and industry of American ants and spiders. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by Lafayette in 1880. He is the author of "Object and Outline Teaching" (St. Louis, 1871); "The Last Year of Christ's Ministry" (Philadelphia, 1871); "The Last Days of Jesus" (1872); "The Tercentenary Book." edited (1873); "The Mound-Making Ants of the Alleghanies" (1877): "Historic Ecclesiastical Emblems of Pan-Presbyterian ism " (1880): "The Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas " (1880); " Honey and Occident Ants " (1882): "Tenants of an Old Farm" (New York. 1884): "The Women Friends of Jesus " (1884); " The Gospel in Nature" (Philadelphia, 1887); and "American Spiders and their Spinning-Work " (1888).— Another son, Roderick Sheldon, naval officer, born in New Lisbon, Ohio, 10 March, 1839; died in Vineland. New Jersey, 13 February. 1886, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1859. He was appointed lieutenant, 31 August. 1861, lieutenant-commander, 25 December 1865, and commander, 25 September, 1873. During the Civil War he took part in various engagements on the James River, in the sounds of North Carolina, and in both Fort Fisher fights, and commanded a battery of naval howitzers at New Berne, 14 March, 1862, where he was highly commended in the official despatches. In this conflict he received the surrender of a Confederate regiment of infantry, probably the only surrender of this character that, occurred in the Civil War. During his service on the monitors at Fort Fisher he seriously injured his health. His last service was in light-house duty, on Ohio River. Failing in  health, he was retired from active service, 23 February, 1885.—Another son, John James, clergyman, born in New Lisbon, Ohio, 4 February, 1848, was graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, in 1863. He began the study of medicine, but abandoned it to enter the Protestant Episcopal ministry. He served during a short campaign in West Virginia as lieutenant in the 1st Virginia Volunteers, a regiment recruited almost exclusively from Ohio. He has held pastorates in Detroit, Michigan, and Fast Hartford. Connecticut, and since 1888 has been professor of modern languages in Trinity College. He was editor of the "Church Weekly," is a frequent contributor to periodicals, and is the author of "Pat and the Council" (New York, 1870).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 91-94.

McCOWN, John Porter, soldier, born in Tennessee about 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and appointed 2d lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Artillery. He became 1st lieutenant, 30 September, 1843, was regimental quartermaster in 1847-'8, and was brevetted captain for bravery at Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847. He resigned from the U. S. Army, 17 May, 1861, and, entering the Confederate service, became a brigadier-general. He commanded at New Madrid, Missouri, in March, 1862, but evacuated that town after its investment by General Pope.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 96.

McCULLOCH, Ben, soldier, born in Rutherford County, Tennessee, 11 November, 1811: died near Pea Ridge, Arkansas, 7 March, 1862. He was a son of Lieutenant Alexander McCulloch, who fought under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. His education was slight, but travel and extensive reading supplied the lack of early study. Leaving school at the age of fourteen, he became an expert hunter and boatman. In 1835, when about to join a party of trappers on a trip to the Rocky Mountains, he heard of the expedition of his neighbor, David Crockett, and other friends, in aid of the Texan revolutionists, and hastened to unite with them, but arrived too late at Nacogdoches, the place of meeting, and started alone for Brazos River, where he was taken ill, and did not recover until after the fall of the Alamo. When health returned, he joined General Samuel Houston's army, and did good service at San Jacinto, in command of a gun. After the army was disbanded he settled in Gonzales, where he engaged in surveying and locating lands on the frontier, and was elected to the Congress of Texas in 1839. In 1840-'l he was engaged in repelling Indian raids, notably at the sanguinary fight at Plum Creek. He subsequently had many encounters with Comanches and other Indian tribes, and with Mexican raiders. When Texas was admitted to the Union, 29 December, 1845, he was elected to the first legislature, and was appointed major-general of the state militia for the western district, comprising the entire region west of the Colorado River. At the beginning of the Mexican War he raised a picked company of Texas Rangers, who provided their own horses and arms. His services as a scout were highly valued by General Zachary Taylor, and at Monterey his company, which was sent forward to feel the strength and position of the Mexican forces, opened the fight. He was made quartermaster, with the rank of major, 16 July, 1846, led his scouts on a daring reconnaissance at Buena Vista, and fought with bravery throughout the day. He was afterward attached to the army of General Winfield Scott, resigned his staff appointment on 6 September, 1847, and with his company of spies performed useful services at the taking of the city of Mexico. In 1849 he went to California, settled at Sacramento, and was elected sheriff of the county. He returned to Texas in 1852, and in the following year was appointed by President Pierce U. S. Marshal, in which office he was continued by President Buchanan. He spent much time in Washington, where he interested himself in studying improvements in ordnance and small arms. In 1857 he was appointed with Lazarus W. Powell, a commissioner to adjust difficulties with the Mormons of Utah, and, after the despatch of troops to that country, was commissioned to report on the condition of Arizona. In 1861 he was in Washington, engaged on his final reports, and when he had concluded his business with the government he hastened back to Texas, and was appointed to raise a temporary force to take possession of the U. S. Arsenal at San Antonio and other posts. After declining the command of a regiment, he was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate service on 14 May. 1861, and ordered to take command of Indian Territory. He reached Fort Smith, Arkansas, about the end of May, organized an army in haste, and marched to the succor of Governor Claiborne Jackson, of Missouri. Forming a junction with General Sterling Price's Missouri state guards, he encountered the troops of Genaeals Nathaniel Lyon and Franz Sigel in the battle of Wilson's Creek, otherwise called Oak Hills. After the defeat of the National forces, McCulloch, having no orders to enter Missouri, refused to pursue them, and surrendered the command to General Price. He took part in General Karl Van Horn's ineffectual attempt to surround General Sigel's force at Bentonville. At the battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn, he commanded a corps of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas troops, and, while riding forward to reconnoiter, was killed by the bullet of a sharp-shooter, General James Mcintosh, the second in command, fell almost simultaneously, and the Confederates, left without a leader, soon fled in disorder. See "Scouting Expeditions of McCulloch's Rangers," by Samuel C. Reid (Philadelphia, 1850), and "Life and Services of General Ben McCulloch." by Victor M. Rose.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 97-98

McCULLOCH, Hugh, Secretary of the Treasury, born in Kennebunk, Maine, 7 December, 1808. He entered Bowdoin in 1824, but leaving, on account of illness, in 1826, taught until 1829, and then studied law in Kennebunk and Boston. In 1833 he went to the west, and settled in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In 1835 he was elected cashier and manager of the branch at Fort Wayne of the State Bank of Indiana, and at the expiration of its charter in 1856 he became the president of the Bank of the State of Indiana, which post he held until May, 1863. He then resigned to accept the office of comptroller of the currency, which was tendered to him by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, undertaking the organization of the newly created bureau and the putting into operation of the national banking system. His own reputation for conservatism influenced the managers of the large state banks, and promoted the conversion of the leading credit institutions of the commercial cities into national banks. In March, 1865, on the resignation of William P. Fessenden, Mr. McCulloch was appointed by President Lincoln Secretary of the Treasury, at which time the government was in great financial embarrassment. It was still incurring enormous expenses, and heavy demands were pressing upon a nearly empty treasury. His first and most important duty, therefore, was to raise by further loans what was needed to pay the large amount due to 500,000 soldiers and sailors, whose services the government was in a condition to dispense with, and meet other demands. This was successfully accomplished, and in less than six months from the time of his appointment all the matured obligations of the government were paid, and the reduction of the debt was begun. The next most important work was the conversion of more than 11,000,000,000 of short-time obligations into a funded debt. This was quietly effected, and in a little more than two years the whole debt of the country was put into a satisfactory shape. In his annual reports he advocated a steady reduction of the national debt, the retirement of the legal-tender notes, and a speedy return to specie payments, urging that a permanent public debt might be dangerous to Republican institutions. He believed, also, that it was not the business of the government to furnish the people with a paper currency, that it had no power under the constitution to make its own notes lawful money, and that the paper currency of the country should be furnished by the banks. His views upon the subject of the debt were sustained by Congress, as were also for a short time those in regard to the legal-tender notes. Secretary McCulloch held office till 4 March, 1869. From 1871 till 1878 he was engaged in banking in London. In October, 1884, on the resignation of Walter Q. Gresham, he was again appointed Secretary of the Treasury, and continued in office until the expiration of President Arthur's term, 4 March, 1885, being the only man that hits held that office twice. Since his retirement he has resided in Washington. D. C, and on his farm in Maryland. Mr. McCulloch has contributed articles on financial and economical questions to the magazines and public journals. A series of letters written by him in London for the New York "Tribune" in 1875 were extensively copied, and were used by the Republicans in Ohio in 1875 for political purposes.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 98.

McDANIEL, Henry Dickenson, governor of Georgia, born in Monroe, Walton County, Georgia, 4 September, 1837. He was graduated at Mercer University, where his father, Ira O., was a professor, in 1856, studied law, and practised in Monroe. He was the youngest member of the Georgia Secession Convention in 1861, and at first opposed disunion, but finally voted for the measure. He joined the Confederate Army as a lieutenant, rose to the rank of major in 1862, commanded a brigade at Gettysburg, was severely wounded at Hagerstown in the retreat from Gettysburg, and was in the hospital at Chester, Pennsylvania, and subsequently a prisoner at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until the close of hostilities. He resumed practice at Monroe, Georgia, in 1865, and was a member of the state constitutional convention in that year. On the removal of his civil disabilities in 1872 he was elected to the legislature, and, as chairman of the finance committee of the house, imposed a law for the taxation of railroads that has been followed in other states. After the adoption of the constitution of 1877 as chairman of the judiciary committee, he had charge of the legislation that was made necessary by constitutional changes. On the death of Governor Alexander H. Stephens he was elected governor, 24 April, 1883, for the unexpired term, and in 1884 was re-elected without opposition for the succeeding term, which ended in November, 1886.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 99.

McDOUGAL, Clinton Dugald, soldier, born in Scotland, 14 June, 1839. He moved with his parents to the United States in 1842, received an academic education, studied law, and in 1856-'69 was engaged in banking. He raised a company for the 75th New York Regiment in 1861, accompanied it to Florida, and became lieutenant-colonel of the 111th New York Volunteers in August, 1862, and colonel in January, 1863, commanding it at Centreville, Virginia.  He led a brigade in the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg and in its subsequent campaigns until the close of the war, and in 1864 was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He became postmaster at Auburn in 1869, and was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1872, serving till 1877, and declining in June, 1876, the office of U. S. Treasurer, and in July that of commissioner of internal revenue. In 1877 he was appointed U. S. Marshal for the Western Judicial District of New York.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 107.

McDOUGAL, David, naval officer, born in Ohio, 27 September, 1809; died in San Francisco, California, 7 August, 1882. He was appointed midshipman in 1828, passed midshipman in 1834, lieutenant in 1841, commander in 1857, captain in 1864, and commodore in 1869. Commodore McDougal commanded the "Wyoming," of the Asiatic Squadron, in 1861-'4, engaged six batteries and three vessels of war at Simonoseki, Japan, 16 July, 1863, and had charge of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island, California, in 1865-'6. He commanded the steam-sloop "Powhatan" in 1868-'9, and the south Squadron of the Pacific Fleet in 1870. He became a rear-admiral on the retired list in 1873.   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 107.

MacDOUGALL, Charles, surgeon, born in Ohio about 1807; died in Fairfield, Clark County, Virginia, 25 July, 1885. He studied medicine and moved to Indiana, from which state he was appointed assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, 13 July, 1832. He was promoted major and surgeon, 7 July, 1838, and brevet-colonel, 29 November, 1864. He was with the mounted rangers in the Black Hawk Indian War in 1833, served in the Seminole War in 1841, and was at the U. S. Military Academy from 1846 till 1848, when he was sent west and remained there until the beginning of the Civil War. He was medical director of the Army of the Tennessee from April to September, 1862, when he was ordered to New York City, where he filled a similar office. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general "for faithful and meritorious service during the war." He was promoted lieutenant-colonel and assistant medical purveyor, 28 July, 1866, and retired, on 22 February, 1869.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 108.

Mc DOWELL, Irvin, soldier, born in Columbus, Ohio, 15 October, 1818: died in San Francisco, California, 4 May, 1885. He received his early education at the College of Troves, in France, and was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838, becoming 2d lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery. His first service was on the northern frontier during the Canada border disturbances, in Houlton, Maine, lending the disputed territory controversy. He returned to the academy in 1841, and was assistant instructor of infantry tactics and adjutant until 1845. He was then appointed aide-de-camp to General John E. Wool, and became the acting adjutant-general of that officer's column on its march to Chihuahua, and participated in the battle of Buena Vista, where for his services he was brevetted captain, and on 18 May, 1847, received that rank in the adjutant-general's department. Subsequently he continued with the army of occupation, and was engaged in mustering out and discharging troops until 1848. Be then filled the office of assistant adjutant general in the War Department in Washington, in New York, and elsewhere, attaining the rank of major on 81 March, 1856. The year 1858-'9 he spent on leave in Europe, and thereafter, until the beginning of the Civil War, he was engaged in the duties of the adjutant-general's department in Washington and as aide-de-camp on General Scott's staff, serving as inspector of troops. During the early part of 1861 he was occupied in organizing and mustering volunteers into service at the capital: but on being made brigadier-general, 14 May, 1861, he was assigned to the command of the Department of Northeastern Virginia and of the defences of Washington south of the Potomac. On 29 May, 1861, he was given command of the Army of the Potomac, which consisted of about 30,000 men, who, with the exception of 700 or 800 regulars, were almost entirely raw recruits. With these troops, in response to the public demand for some immediate action, he was ordered, on 16 July, to march against the Confederate Army, posted at Manassas Junction under General Beauregard, his plan of campaign had been carefully studied out, and its principal feature was to turn the enemy's left flank while threatening the front, which was well posted behind Bull Run on an elevation that commanded the entire plateau. A preliminary action, without the authority of General McDowell, took place at Blackburn's Ford on the 18th, and developed the fact that the Confederates were strongly intrenched. The National troops, unable to carry the masked batteries, fell back to Centreville, where they rested during the two following days. On the morning of the 21st the National Army crossed the run and succeeded in throwing the enemy's left into such confusion that the presence of Generals Beauregard and Johnston was necessary to rally their troops, who then re-formed in line on the crest of the hill. A severe struggle for this position ensued, and it was lost and won three times, and about three o'clock in the afternoon it remained in the control of the National forces. But soon after that hour fresh Confederate re enforcements arrived and completely turned the tide of battle. McDowell's men, who had been on their feet since two o'clock in the morning, who had marched twelve miles to the field and been engaged in heavy fighting since ten o'clock, were now exhausted by fatigue and want of food and water. Unable to withstand the fierce attack of fresh troops, they broke and retired in confusion down the hillside and made a disorderly retreat to Washington. Thus the first great battle of the Civil War was fought and lost. According to General Sherman, " it was one of the best-planned battles, but one of the worst fought." Heavy losses of artillery and other war-supplies were experienced as the soldiers fell back on the capital. Both armies were fairly defeated, and whichever had stood fast the other would have run. General Johnston says: "The Confederate Army was more disorganized by victory than that of the United States by defeat. While the plan was excellent and had received the approval of the commanding general, still much difficulty was experienced from the fact that the time of many of the regiments had expired and the men refused positively to serve any longer. Indeed, 4,000 men marched to the rear to the sound of the enemy's guns, and the defeat of the National troops was due to Confederate re-enforcements arriving under General E. Kirby Smith, who were supposed to be held in check by a force under General Robert Patterson in the Shenandoah valley. General McDowell was then given charge of the 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, having been superseded in the chief command by General McClellan. This corps under his command was soon afterward detached from the main army and designated as the Army of the Rappahannock. Meanwhile he was made major-general of volunteers on 14 March, 1862. In the summer of 1862 there were four independent commands in Virginia, and in quick succession they were attacked with such force that concentration became necessary, and the Army of Virginia was formed under General John Pope and the command of the 3d Corps was given to General McDowell. The campaign of northern Virginia followed, and with his command he participated in the battle of Cedar Mountain, the action of Rappahannock Station, and the second battle of Manassas. In the latter engagement General McDowell tenaciously held his old position on Henry Hill until forced to retire. The campaign ended at this point, and, beginning with the retreat from Cedar Mountain on 8 August, with scarcely a half day's intermission, McDowell's corps was either making forced marches, many times through the night and many times without food, or was engaged in battle. Though worn out with fasting, marching, and fighting, his men were neither demoralized nor disorganized, but preserved their discipline to the last. Public opinion persisted in holding him responsible for the defeat at Bull Run, and in consequence no further field-command was intrusted to him during the Civil War. He was retired from duty in the field on 6 September, 1862, and, regarding this as a reflection upon him as a soldier, he asked for a court of inquiry, which reported "that the interests of the public service do not require any further investigation into the conduct of Major-General McDowell." During part of 1863 he was president of the court for investigating alleged cotton-frauds, and later he was president of the board for retiring disabled officers. On 1 July, 1864, he was placed in command of the Department of the Pacific, with headquarters in San Francisco, and held that office until 27 July. 1865, after which he had command of the Department of California until 81 March. 1868. Meanwhile he was brevetted major-general in the U. S. Army and mustered out of the volunteer service on 1 September, 1866. In July, 1868, he was assigned to the command of the Department of the East, and on 25 November, 1872, was promoted to major-general. Soon after this he succeeded General George G. Meade as commander of the Division of the South, and remained until 30 June, 1876, after which he returned to San Francisco in charge of the Division of the Pacific until his retirement on 15 October, 1882. General McDowell had great fondness for landscape gardening, and during the last years of his life was one of the park commissioners of San Francisco, in which capacity he constructed a park out of the neglected Presidio reservation and laid out drives that command fine views of the Golden Gate.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 109-111.

MACFEELY, Robert, soldier, born about 1828. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1850, served as lieutenant of infantry in scouting against the Snake Indians, in the Yakima Expedition of 1855, and against the Oregon Indians, he was made a captain on the staff on 11 May, 1861, and was commissary for the state of Indiana, and afterward chief of the commissariat of the Army of the Ohio, and then of the Army of the Tennessee during the Vicksburg Campaign and the subsequent operations until the close of the Atlanta Campaign, after being commissioned as major on 9 February, 1863. He received two brevets on 15 March, 1865, for faithful services during the war. After serving as chief of commissariat at Cincinnati, Detroit, and Chicago, he was appointed commissary-general of subsistence, with the rank of brigadier-general, on 14 April, 1875, which office he still (1888) holds.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 115.

McFERRAN, John Courts, soldier, born in Kentucky in 1831; died in Louisville, Kentucky, 25 April, 1872. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843 and assigned to the infantry. He served in the military occupation of Texas and the war with Mexico. being engaged at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. He was with his regiment on the frontiers of Texas and New Mexico until he entered the quartermaster's department and was made a captain on the staff on 20 August, 1855. Before and during the Civil War he was on duty in New Mexico, being promoted major and appointed chief quartermaster of that department on 30 November, 1863. In 1864-'5 he was General James H. Carleton's chief of staff, and at the close of the war was brevetted brigadier-general. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 29 July, 1866, and served subsequently as chief quartermaster of the Department of Washington and of the Division of the South.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 115.

McGILL, George McCulloch, surgeon, born at Hannah Furnace, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 20 April, 1838; died near Fort Lyon, Colorado, 20 July, 1867, was graduated at Princeton in 1858 and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1861. He was commissioned assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army to date from 16 April, 1861, in June, 1863, was made medical inspector, and in May, 1864, was acting medical director of the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac. For gallantry at Meadow Brook he received the brevet of captain. In June, 1864, he was made acting medical inspector of the Army of the Potomac, and served as such until January, 1865. At the close of the war he was brevetted major. During the cholera year of 1866 he attended the victims of the epidemic on Hart's and David's Islands, New York Harbor, receiving the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. He was then ordered to the west, and while he was on the march from Fort Darker, Kansas, to Fort Lyon, the cholera broke out. Incessant labor then, which earned for him the brevet of colonel, with grief at the death of his wife, was the cause of his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp 117.

McGILVERY, Freeman, soldier, born in Prospect, Maine, 27 October, 1823; died in Virginia, 2 September, 1864. He was born in humble circumstances, became a sailor, and before he had completed his twenty-first year was master of a vessel. On hearing of the beginning of the Civil War, while he was in Rio Janeiro, he returned, after completing his business, to his native state, and raised a battery of artillery, which was first brought into action at Cedar Mountain, 9 August, 1862, where he was instrumental in preserving the left flank of the National Army. He was subsequently engaged at Sulphur Springs, the second battle of Bull Run, Chantilly, and Antietam. He was promoted major 5 February, 1868, and assigned to the command of the 1st brigade of the volunteer artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac. On 23 June, 1863, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and at Gettysburg, by the rapid and destructive fire of his guns, repelled three infantry charges on General Daniel E. Sickles’ position, which would otherwise have broken the National line. In the third assault he was driven from his position after the infantry had retreated; but by sacrificing one battery he was able to form a new line that, without infantry supports, filled a gap of 800 yards, through which the Confederates would otherwise have passed, cutting the National Army in twain. He was promoted colonel of the Maine Mounted Artillery on 1 September, 1868, and in June, 1864, commanded the reserve artillery before Petersburg. In August he was appointed chief of artillery of the 10th Army Corps, and while serving in that capacity in the operations at Deep Bottom was shot in the finger. The urgency of his duties caused him to neglect the wound until an operation became necessary, and, while undergoing it, he died from the effects of chloroform.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 119.

McGINNIS, George Francis, soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 19 March, 1826. He was educated in the common schools of Maine and Ohio, served during the Mexican War as captain of Ohio volunteers, and in the Civil War as lieutenant-colonel and colonel of the 11th Indiana Infantry, was engaged at Fort Donelson, and promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862. He served with that rank during the remainder of the war, and was mustered out on 24 August, 1865. After the war he settled in Indianapolis, Indiana, became auditor of Marion County in 1867, and held that office till 1871.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 119.

McGROARTY, Stephen Joseph, soldier, born in Mount Charles County, Donegal, Ireland, in 1830; died in College Hill, Ohio, 2 January, 1870. He was brought to the United States when three years of age. His parents settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was educated in St. Francis Xavier College. After graduation he engaged in the dry-goods business in partnership with an uncle, but left it at the end of five years to study law. He was admitted to the bar and began practice in Toledo, but subsequently returned to Cincinnati, where he achieved a reputation as a criminal lawyer. When the Civil War began he raised a company of Irish-Americans for three months, with which here-enlisted for three years. At Carnifex Ferry he received a gunshot wound through the right lung. As soon as he had recovered he returned to the field as colonel of the 50th Ohio Infantry, which was afterward merged in the 61st, and he commanded the latter till the end of the war. At Peach Tree Creek his left arm was shattered at the elbow in the beginning of the engagement, yet he remained with his men through the fight. He was accustomed to expose his life with the utmost hardihood, and during the war received twenty-three wounds. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 1 May, 1865. He was for two years collector of internal revenue, and just before his death, which resulted from injuries received in battle, was elected clerk of the Hamilton County Courts.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 120.

McGUIRE, Hunter Holmes, physician, born in Winchester, Virginia, 11 October, 1835. He is the son of a physician, and was educated at Winchester Academy, and studied medicine at the Medical College of Virginia, the medical schools in Philadelphia and New Orleans, and Winchester Medical College, from which he received his diploma in 1855. He practised first in Winchester, holding the chair of anatomy in the Medical college from 1856 till 1858, when he moved to Philadelphia. In the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the Confederate Army, was soon promoted to the post of medical director of the Army of the Shenandoah Valley, and was afterward medical director of the 2d Army Corps. In 1865 he was elected professor of surgery in Virginia Medical College, Richmond, which chair he held till 1880. In 1885 he was made professor emeritus in that institution. Dr. McGuire organized, in connection with his large general surgical practice, St. Luke's Home for the Sick in Richmond, with a training-school for nurses. He was president of the Association of Confederate Medical officers in 1869, and of the Virginia Medical Society in 1873, vice-president of the International Medical Congress in 1870, and of the American Medical Association in 1881, and president of the American Surgical Association in 1887. The University of North Carolina in 1887 gave him the degree of LL. D. He has published in medical journals various papers, an account of the circumstances of the wounding and death of General Stonewall Jackson, whom he attended. He has contributed to John Ashhurst's " International Cyclopaedia of Surgery " (1884); William Pepper's "System of Medicine" (Philadelphia, 1885-'7); and the American edition of Holmes's "Surgery."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 121.

McINTOSH, James McQueen, soldier, born on Tampa bay. Florida, in 1828; died near Pea Ridge, Arkansas, 7 November, 1862, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, became captain of the 1st U. S. Cavalry in 1857, and, resigning from the army in 1860, was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, and killed at the battle of Pea  Ridge, Arkansas—son, John Baillie, soldier, born on Tampa bay, Florida, 6 June, 1829, was educated at Lawrenceville, New Jersey, and Sing Sing, New York, entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman in 1848, resigned in 1850, and at the beginning of the Civil War entered the U. S. Army as 2d lieutenant of cavalry. He became 1st lieutenant in 1862, served in the Peninsular Campaign, was made colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania Volunteers in November, 1862, and commanded a brigade in many important battles, including Chancellorsville and Gettysburg.  He was commissioned captain in the 5th U.S. Cavalry in 1863, engaged in the Wilderness Campaign, and the battles around Petersburg, became brigadier-general of volunteers in July, 1864, commanded a cavalry brigade at Winchester, and lost a leg at Opequan. He was brevetted major in the U. S. Army for his gallantry at White Oak Swamp, lieutenant-colonel for Gettysburg, colonel for Ashland, brigadier-general for Winchester, major-general of volunteers for distinguished gallantry and good management in the battle of Opequan, Virginia, and, in 1865, major-general for meritorious service during the war. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 42d U.S. Infantry in 1866, and in 1870 was retired with the rank of brigadier-general.   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 124-125.

MACKALL, William Whann, soldier, born in the District of Columbia in 1818. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1837, became 1st lieutenant in 1838, and adjutant in 1840, assistant adjutant-general with the rank of captain in 1840, serving throughout the Mexican War, and receiving the brevets of captain, for gallantry at Monterey, and major, for Contreras and Churubusco. He was wounded at Chapultepec. He was treasurer and secretary of the military asylum in the District of Columbia in 185l-3, became assistant adjutant-general with the rank of major at the latter date, declined promotion to a lieutenant-colonelcy in May, 1861, and resigned to join the Confederate Army. He served in Kentucky as assistant adjutant-general to General Simon Buckner, with the rank of colonel, until after the surrender of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, was subsequently appointed brigadier-general, commanded at Island No. 10 at the time of its surrender, and was confined in Fort Warren until exchanged.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 126.

McKEAN, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, born in Burlington, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, 21 August, 1810; died in Marion, Iowa, 19 April. 1870. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Infantry, but resigned in 1834 and engaged in civil engineering. During the Florida War he was adjutant of the 1st regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, and, failing to obtain a commission, he served as a private of Iowa volunteers during the Mexican War, where he was wounded at Churubusco, and in June, 1848, brevetted 2d lieutenant of dragoons, but declined and returned to civil engineering. He became paymaster in the U. S. Army in June, 1861, in November of this year was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, served in the Mississippi Campaign in April and May, 1862, and participated in the battle of Corinth. He was in command of the northeast District of Missouri in 1863, and of the District of Kansas from March to August, 1864, was chief of cavalry on the Gulf of Mexico from September till October, and in December was in command of the Western District of Florida. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers in March, 1865, and in August mustered out of volunteer service. He then settled near Marion, Iowa, engaged in farming, and in 1869 was appointed pension-agent for the eastern district of the state, but declined. In 1868 he was a delegate to the Chicago National Republican Convention.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 128-129.

McKEE, George Colin, legislator, born in Joliet, Illinois, 2 October, 1836. He was educated at Knox College and Lombard University, Illinois, and admitted to the bar in 1858. After practicing law at Centralia, Illinois, he volunteered as a private in April, 1861, in the 11th Illinois Regiment, became captain on its reorganization, and served throughout the war in various capacities. He was wounded at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and Vicksburg, commanding a picked corps during the siege of the latter town. When at the head of his own regiment and other detachments, on the second Yazoo Expedition, he defeated the Confederate assault at Yazoo City, 5 March, 1864, after which he was ordered, as brigadier-general, to enroll and equip four regiments of colored militia. He was appointed register in bankruptcy in 1867, and was a member of the Constitutional Convention of Mississippi. He was elected to the 40th Congress, but his state was refused representation, and, being re-elected, he served from 23 February, 1870, till 4 March, 1875. Since the close of the war he has been postmaster, and practised his profession, at Jackson, Mississippi. He has invented a cotton-press, which he patented 3 April, 1877.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 129.

McKEEVER, Isaac, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in April; 1793; died in Norfolk, Virginia, 1 April, 1856. He entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman in 1809, was made lieutenant in 1814, and commanded one of a flotilla of five gun-boats under Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, that was captured by a British Expedition on Lake Borgne, Louisiana, in December, 1814. The gun-boats mounted collectively 23 guns, and were manned by 182 men. The British Expedition consisted of 42 large barges and other boats, manned by more than 1,000 seamen and marines. The engagement, which was very severe, lasted three hours, and 200 of the British were killed and wounded. Lieutenant McKeever's vessel was the last one to be attacked, and he was severely wounded, together with most of his officers, before he surrendered. He was commissioned commander in 1830, and captain in 1838, performing much active service in both grades. In 1855 he had charge of the U.S. Navy-yard at Norfolk, Virginia, when a pestilence broke out in that city and the adjacent towns. He was authorized by the Navy Department to suspend operations in the yard and leave for a time, should he see fit, but he decided to remain, that work might be given those who depended upon it for support of their families.—His son, Chauncey, soldier, born in Maryland, about 1828, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, and assigned to the artillery. He was promoted 1st lieutenant. 24 December, 1853, and captain of staff and assistant adjutant-general, 3 August, 1861. During the Civil War he took part in the battles of Bull Run and other engagements. After being promoted staff major and lieutenant-colonel, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 1864, and colonel and brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, for "diligent, faithful, and meritorious services in the adjutant-general's department." On 9 March, 1875, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, and he is now (1888) on duty in San Francisco, California   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 129.

MACKENZIE, Alexander Slidell, naval officer, born in New York City, 6 April, 1803; died in Tarrytown, New York, 13 September, 1848. He was the son of John Slidell, and the brother of the U. S. Senator of that name. The name of Mackenzie, that of his mother, was added to his own in 1837, at the request of a maternal uncle. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1815, and in 1822 he took command of a merchant-vessel to improve himself in seamanship. He was made lieutenant in 1825, and commander in 1841, and in both grades was in active duty in the Mediterranean, the West Indies, the Brazilian waters, and the Pacific. He was at Bahia in command of the " Dolphin " during the siege of that place, and at its surrender, and was an eyewitness of many of the political events on the Rio de la Plata at that period, an account of some of which he published in a pamphlet at the time. He also enjoyed the intimacy of General Rosas, with whom he subsequently corresponded for many years. In 1842 he had charge of the brig "Somers," manned chiefly by naval apprentices; and on his passage from the coast of Africa, in the autumn of that year, the existence of a mutinous plot on board was discovered, the principals of which were immediately placed in close confinement. A council of officers was called, which, after a careful investigation, recommended the immediate execution of the three persons that were principally implicated. This recommendation was carried into effect at sea, 1 December, 1842. The "Somers" soon afterward arrived in New York, when a court of inquiry was immediately ordered to investigate the affair. The result was a full approval of the conduct of Mackenzie. Subsequently a court-martial was held upon him at his own request, and the trial again resulted in his acquittal. As the young men that had been executed were all of good social standing, one of them being a son of the Secretary of War, John C. Spencer, of New York, the event created a great sensation, and Mackenzie's conduct was as severely criticised by some as it was warmly defended by others. The decisions of the courts-martial did not succeed in quieting these differences of opinion, and the affair more or less embittered the remainder of Mackenzie's life. In May, 1840, he was sent by President Polk on a private mission to Cuba, and thence sailed to Mexico. He was ordnance-officer at the siege of Vera Cruz, and commanded a detached division of artillery at the storming of Tabasco in 1847. Mackenzie also attained note as an author. His first book was "A Year in Spain, by a Young American" (2 vols., Boston, 1829; London, 1831; enlarged ed., 3 vols., New York, 1830), which gained immediate popularity both in his country and in England. "Here,'' wrote Washington Irving from London on its appearance, " it is quite the fashionable book of the day, and spoken of in the highest terms in the highest circles." It has also been translated into Swedish. His other works are "Popular Essays on Naval Subjects" (2 vols., 1833); "The American in England" (2 vols.. 1835); ' Spain Revisited" (2 vols., 1836); "Life of John Paul Jones" (2 vols., Boston, 1841); "Life of Commodore Oliver H. Perry" (2 vols., New York. 1841); and ' Life of Commodore Stephen Decatur," being vol. xxi. in Jared Sparks's  Library of American Biography " (Boston, 1846). He also left in manuscript " A Journal of a Tour in Ireland." See "The Case of the 'Somers'; Defence of A. S. Mackenzie" (New York, 1843).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 132.

MACKENZIE, Ranald Slidell
, soldier, born in Westchester County, New York, 27 July. 1840, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1862, and assigned to the engineers. In August he was brevetted 1st lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious services" at the battle of Manassas, where he was wounded. He was commissioned 1st lieutenant, 3 March, 1863, brevet captain for gallantry at Chancellorsville, and brevet major for the same cause at the battle of Gettysburg. He was promoted captain, 6 November, 1863, brevetted lieutenant colonel for his services before Petersburg, Virginia, 18 June, 1864, and became colonel of the 2d Connecticut Heavy Artillery, 10 June, 1864, being brevetted colonel in the regular army in the following October for gallantry at Cedar Creek, and brigadier-general of volunteers for meritorious services at the battles of Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Middletown, Virginia. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for bravery and also major-general of volunteers in March, 1865. Besides taking part in other engagements, General Mackenzie was engaged in building bridges, constructing rifle-trenches, repairing roads, erecting forts, and other engineering work throughout the war. He was promoted colonel, 6 March, 1867, and brigadier-general, 26 October, 1882. On 24 March, 1884, he was placed on the retired list, having been disabled "in the line of duty."
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 132.

MACKENZIE, Alexander Slidell, naval officer, born in New York City, 24 January, 1842; died in the island of Formosa, China, 13 June, 1867, was appointed acting midshipman, 29 September, 1855, and promoted midshipman, 9 June, 1859, lieutenant, 31 August, 1861, and lieutenant-commander, 29 July, 1865. He served in the "Kineo" at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip in 1862, and in the "Ironsides" at the first attack upon Fort Sumter in 1863. He commanded the boats of the squadron off Charleston in the joint army and navy expedition of 10 July of the same year, which resulted in the capture of the greater part of Morris Island. Lieutenant-Commander Mackenzie lost his life while leading a charge against the savages in the island of Formosa. A tablet to his memory has been placed in the chapel of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and his fellow-officers cordially approved the opinion of Rear-Admiral Bell, that " the navy could boast no braver spirit, no man of higher promise," than young Mackenzie.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 132-133.

McKINSTRY, James Paterson, naval officer, born in Spencertown, Columbia County, New York, 9 February, 1807; died  in Detroit, Michigan, 11 February, 1873. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 1 February, 1826, and became lieutenant, 9 February, 1837, and commanded the mail-steamer "Georgia" in 1854-'5. On 14 September, 1855, he was appointed commander, was lighthouse-inspector in 1858-'9, and assigned to the "Dakota,' of the blockading squadron, in 1861. He was commissioned captain, 16 July, 1862, had charge of the steam sloop "Monongahela," of the Western Gulf blockading Squadron, and was present at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, where he was severely injured, being thrown with violence on the deck when the bridge on which he was standing was shot away. During the remainder of the Civil War he was forced to remain inactive. On 25 July, 1866, he was appointed commodore, and after serving as commandant of the naval station in Sackett's Harbor, New York, he was retired on 9 February, 1869.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 137.

McKINSTRY, Justus, soldier, born in New York about 1821. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838 and assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry. He became 1st lieutenant, 18 April, 1841, and assistant quartermaster with the rank of captain on 3 March, 1847, and led a company of volunteers at Contreras and Churubusco, where he was brevetted major for gallantry on 20 August, 1847. He participated in the battle of Chapultepec, and on 12 January, 1848, became captain, which post he vacated and served on quartermaster duty with the commissioners that were running the boundary-lines between the United States and Mexico in 1849-1850, and in California in 1850-'5. He became quartermaster with the rank of major on 3 August, 1861, and was stationed at St. Louis and attached to the staff of General John C. Fremont. He combined the duties of provost-marshal with those of quartermaster of the Department of the West, on 2 September, 1861, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded a division on General Fremont's march to Springfield. He was accused of dishonesty in his transactions as quartermaster, and was arrested on 11 November, 1861, by General Hunter, the successor of General Fremont, and ordered to St. Louis, Missouri, where he was closely confined in the arsenal. The rigor of his imprisonment was mitigated on 28 February, 1862, and in May he was released on parole, but required to remain in St. Louis. In October, 1862, he was tried by court-martial, and on 28 January, 1863, dismissed from the army for neglect and violation of duty. In 1864-'7 he was a stock-broker in New York, and in the latter year became a land-agent in Rolla, Missouri. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 137.

McLAUGHLEN, Napoleon Bonaparte, soldier, born in Chelsea, Vermont, 8 December, 1823; died in Middletown, New York, 27 January, 1887. He enlisted in the 2d U. S. Dragoons in 1850, rose to be sergeant, reenlisted when his term of service expired, and on 27 March, 1861, was appointed a lieutenant in the 1st Cavalry. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in May, transferred to the 4th Cavalry in August, and served as inspector-general of the Army of Kentucky. On 17 July, 1862, he was commissioned captain, and on 1 October was appointed colonel of the 1st Massachusetts Volunteers. He was engaged at Fredericksburg, receiving the brevet of major for Chancellorsville, won another brevet at Gettysburg, fought at Locust Grove and in the battle of the Wilderness, and commanded a provisional brigade at Spottsylvania. In June, 1864, he rejoined his regiment in front of Atlanta, but in September was appointed colonel of the 57th Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers, commanded a brigade at the siege of Petersburg, and also at the battle of Poplar Grove Church, and for his gallantry in this engagement was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to duty according to his brevet rank. He did good service in defence of Fort Steedman, receiving the brevet of colonel in the U. S. Army, and was taken prisoner there and confined in Libby prison till the surrender of General Lee. He was brevetted brigadier-general U. S. Army, in March, 1865, for gallant conduct in the field during the was mustered out of the volunteer service on 10 August, 1865, promoted major in the 10th U.S. Cavalry on 17 May. 1876, and placed on the retired list on 26 June, 1882.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 140.

McLAWS, Lafayette, soldier, born in Augusta, Georgia, 15 January, 1821. After studying one year in the University of Virginia, he was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1842. He was stationed for some time in Indian Territory, and in 1846 joined General Zachary Taylor’s army of occupation at Corpus Christi, and was engaged in the defence of Port Brown, the battle of Monterey, and the siege of Vera Cruz. His health failing, he returned to the United States on recruiting duty, and after the peace was assistant adjutant-general in the Department of New Mexico for two years. He was promoted captain of infantry on 24 August, 1851, and took part in the expedition of 1858 against the Mormons, and in the operations against the Navajo Indians in 1859-'60. He resigned his commission and offered his services to his state on its secession from the Union. After the organization of the Confederate Army he was appointed colonel of the 10th Georgia Regiment, and on 25 September, 1861, was commissioned as a brigadier-general. He brought himself to notice by his conduct in an action at Lee's Mill, was afterward engaged in the retreat to Richmond and the battle of Williamsburg, and, on the arrival of the army at Richmond was promoted major-general, 23 May, 1862. His division was engaged at Savage's Station and Malvern Hill, and when General John Pope's army retreated it remained for a time to watch the movements of the National troops at Harrison's Landing, but afterward joined the rest of the army near Warrenton, and marched with it into Maryland. General McLaws was placed in command of a corps, and ordered to march on Harper's Ferry and capture Maryland Heights. A road was built up the side of the mountain, by which cannon were got to the summit, and when they opened fire Harper's Ferry at once surrendered. The troops, who had been for sixty hours under fire and without water on Elk Ridge, halted a few hours in Harper's Ferry, and then marched all night, and reached Sharpsburg when the troops of Jackson and Hood were retiring in disorder, and, driving back the National troops, restored the Confederate line. At Fredericksburg his men were posted along the bank of the Rappahannock, opposite the city, and on Marye's Hill, where, from a sunken row, they drove back the National troops. At Chancellorsville his division formed the right wing of the Confederate force. At Gettysburg his division formed part of General James Longstreet's corps, which assaulted and drove back General Daniel E. Sickles’ corps and other troops in the second day's fight. At the siege of Knoxville he reluctantly carried out General Longstreet's order to assault Fort Saunders, and desisted from the attack when he perceived that success was impossible. He was subsequently summoned before a court-martial, which justified his conduct. He was chief in command at Salem Church, where he defeated General Sedgwick's assault. During General William T. Sherman's invasion, McLaws commanded the military District of Georgia, conducting the defence of Savannah, and afterward falling back on the line of the Salkehatchie, where he attempted to check General Sherman's northward march and resisted the crossing of the army over the three bridges successively. He commanded a division at the battle of Averysborough, North Carolina, 16 March, 1865, and at that of Goldsborough, on 21 March, and then was sent back to Augusta to resume command of the District of Georgia, but before he reached that place General Lee had surrendered, and the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston, which followed, included his command. After the close of the war General McLaws engaged in business, and was appointed collector of internal revenue at Savannah, Georgia, in 1875, and postmaster of that city in 1876. In November, 1886, he opened a series of lectures by northern and southern military leaders, that was instituted by the Grand Army of the Republic, in Boston, his subject being "The Maryland Campaign."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 140-141.

MACLAY, William Walter, civil engineer, born in New York City, 27 March, 1846, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy, and commissioned ensign, 28 May, 1863. He was attached to the steam sloop "Ticonderoga," and participated in both attacks on Fort Fisher. After the war he made a cruise of four years with Commodore Louis M. Goldsborough as his navigating officer, being promoted lieutenant on 10 November, 1866. He was commissioned as lieutenant-commander on 12 March, 1868. and, while acting as fleet-captain of the Asiatic Squadron, was selected by the Japanese government to survey and designate sites for light-houses. He was subsequently appointed assistant professor of mathematics in the naval academy, but resigned in order to pursue the study of civil engineering, and received the degree of C. E. from the University of  the City of New York in 1873. In the same year he was appointed assistant engineer in the department of docks in New York City. He served on a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers that recommended a uniform system of tests for cement, and conducted during a period of several years a series of experiments, the results of which he digested in a treatise, entitled "Notes and Experiments on the Use and Testing of Portland Cement," that received the Norman gold medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers (New York and London, 1877; German translation, Leipsic, 1877).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp 141-142.

McLEAN, John, 1785-1861, Morris County, New Jersey, jurist, attorney.  U.S. Supreme Court Justice, January 1830-.  Dissented against the majority of Justices on the Dred Scott case, stating that slavery was sanctioned only by local laws.  Free Soil and later Republican Party candidate for President of the U.S.  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 144; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 127; Longacre, James B. & James Herring, National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans.  Philadelphia: American Academy of Fine Arts, 1834-1839)

McCLEAN, Nathaniel Collins, soldier, born in Warren County, Ohio, 2 February, 1815. was graduated at Augusta College. Kentucky, in 1832, studied for a year or two longer at Harvard, and took his degree at the law-school there in 1838. He married a daughter of Judge Jacob Burnet the same year, and began practice in Cincinnati, where he attained success at the bar. He entered the National Army on 11 January, 1862, as colonel of the 75th Ohio Volunteers, being commissioned brigadier-general on 29 November, 1862, and resigned on 20 April, 1865.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 144.

McLEOD, Hugh, soldier, born in New York City, 1 August, 1814; died in Dumfries, Virginia, 2 January, 1862. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and entered the army as 2d lieutenant, but resigned the same year and joined the Texan forces in their struggle with Mexico, also commanding a company in the battle with the Cherokees in 1839. He then studied and subsequently practised law. In 1841, with the rank of brigadier-general, he commanded an expedition to Santa Fe that was sent by President Mirabeau B. Lamar to open trade with New Mexico, and fell into the hands of the Mexicans, who treacherously disregarded the flag of truce. After being held a prisoner for nearly a year, he was released through the intercession of the U. S. government. He was a member of the Texas Congress in 1842-'3, and served throughout the Mexican War, and subsequently in the state legislature after the annexation of Texas. He joined the Confederate Army in 1861, directed the movement against the U. S. forts on the Rio Grande, and was commissioned successively major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of the 1st Texas Regiment, with which he participated in the first Virginia Campaign.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 146.

McMAHON, Martin Thomas, soldier, born in Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838. He was graduated at St. John's College, Fordham, New York, in 1855, and subsequently studied law. For a time he was special post-office agent for the Pacific Coast, and also served as Indian agent, but at the beginning of the Civil War he volunteered and was made captain, becoming aide-de-camp to General George B. McClellan. In 1862 he was appointed adjutant-general and chief of staff of the 11th Corps of the Army of the Potomac, under General William B. Franklin, serving also under Generals John Sedgwick and Horatio G. Wright until after the final operations before Petersburg. He resigned in 1866, after receiving the brevets of brigadier and major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. In 1866-'7 he was corporation attorney of the City of New York, and in 1868-69 he was U. S. minister to Paraguay. In 1872 he was appointed receiver of taxes in New York City, which office he held until 1885, when he became U. S. Marshal of the Southern District of New York. General McMahon received the degree of LL. D. from St. John's College in 1885. During 1885-'7 he was president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac. His brother, John Eugene, born in Waterford, Ireland, in 1834, died in Buffalo. New York, in May, 1863, and another brother, James Power, born in Waterford, Ireland, in 1835, killed at the battle of Cold Harbor, in June, 1864, each had command of the 164th New York Volunteers. They had previously graduated from St. John's College, and were practicing lawyers when the Civil War began.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 148.

, William, lawyer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 4 March, 1841, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1859, and had begun law studies when, in April, 1861, he enlisted as a private under President Lincoln's first call for troops. He was afterward promoted to captain and aide-de-camp, then major, and later brevetted colonel, acting under General Grant, General Rosecrans, and General Thomas. After serving through the war he resumed his law studies, and was admitted to the Philadelphia bar in 1865. He was appointed solicitor of internal revenue of the treasury department soon after General Grant's first election to the presidency, and resigned the office in 1871 to become U. S. Assistant Attorney-General. That office he held until 1877, when he was appointed U. S. District Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, but he resigned in 1875 to enter into private practice. He was appointed by President Garfield a member of the U. S. Board of Indian Commissioners. In 1882 he was a candidate for congressman-at-large on the independent Republican ticket. He has always been an active participant in public affairs. He is now (1888) a member of the bar of New York City. He inherited in a large degree the oratorical gifts of his father. Among his addresses is a eulogy on General George H. Thomas at a memorial meeting at the Academy of Music, and an oration at the unveiling of the Lincoln Monument in Fairmount, Arkansas—Morton's fourth son, Clayton, journalist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30 June, 1844, was educated in private schools, enlisted in the army in April, 1861, and wits commissioned 2d lieutenant in the U. S. Army on 5 August. He resigned, 27 September, 1865, with the brevet rank of major in the regular army. After leaving the army he began journalistic work in connection with his father's newspaper, and a few years before the latter's death succeeded him in its editorship, in which post he has since continued. In 1872 he was appointed commissioner to the International Exposition at Vienna, and in December, 1882, became U. S. Marshal for the District of Columbia, he resigned. 4 March, 1885, but his resignation was not accepted by President Cleveland until 3 December.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 149.

McMILLEN, William Linn, soldier, born in Hillsboro, Highland County, Ohio, 18 October, 1829. He was graduated at Starling Medical College. Columbus, Ohio, in 1852, was surgeon in the Russian Army from 1855 till the end of the Crimean War, and of the 1st Ohio Infantry in 1861, and in 1862 he became colonel of the 95th Ohio. He served in the west and south, led a brigade at Nashville, commanded a district after Lee's surrender, and received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers on 16 December, 1844, and 13 March, 1865, respectively. He then became a planter in Louisiana, served several terms in the legislature, and in 1872 and 1873 was chosen to the U. S. Senate by the McEnery legislature, but not admitted to a seat. In 1878-'83 he was postmaster of New Orleans.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 150.

McNAIR, Antoine Reilhe, naval officer, born in Louisiana, 15 September, 1839, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860, assigned to the “Seminole," and engaged off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia during the two following years. In July, 1862, he was promoted lieutenant and engaged in the attack on Fort Sumter and the defences of Charleston, the capture of the batteries on Morris Island, in the capture of Fort Fisher, and other minor engagements on the Atlantic seaboard. After the Civil War he served on the "Chicopee." In July, 1866, he was promoted lieutenant-commander, and, after a year at the Naval Academy as instructor, saw duty on the flag-ships of the West India Squadron and the European Squadron until 1870. He then was appointed equipment-officer and inspector of supplies at the Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard, but was retired on 26 October, 1872, in consequence of an injury that he received in the West Indies in 1868. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 153.

McNAIR, Frederick Vallette, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania, 13 January, 1839, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1857, after which he served on the ''Minnesota" in the East India Squadron. He was made lieutenant in 1861, transferred to the "Iroquois," of the West Gulf Squadron, and participated in the bombardment of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, the capture of New Orleans, passage both ways of the Vicksburg batteries, and the destruction of the Confederate ram "Arkansas." Later he served as executive officer of the "Juniata," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, acting in this capacity in both of the attacks on Fort Fisher, and received special mention for his conduct. In 1864 he was commissioned lieutenant-commander, and after the Civil War was assigned to duty in the Brazil Squadron in 1865-'6, and in the South Atlantic Squadron in 1866-'7. He was stationed at the Naval Academy in 1868, after which he was on the flag-ship of the European Squadron. In 1872 he was commissioned commander and given the "Kearsarge," and later the "Portsmouth," becoming in 1879-'80 commandant of cadets at the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis. Subsequently he was captain of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island, California, having, on 13 April, 1883, been promoted captain, and at present (1888) has command of the "Omaha," of the Asiatic Squadron.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 153.

McNEIL, John, soldier, born in Halifax, N. S., 4 February, 1813. He received a common-school education and learned in Boston the trade of a hatter, which he carried on in St. Louis, Missouri, for twenty years. In 1844-'5 he was in the Missouri legislature. He was president of the Pacific Insurance Company from 1855 till 1861, when he joined the National Army under General Nathaniel Lyon, with the rank of colonel. With 600 men he routed General David B. Harris at Fulton, Missouri, on 17 July, 1861, and was then placed by General John C. Fremont in command of St. Louis. He was made colonel of the 19th Missouri Volunteers, 3 August,  and early in 1862 took command of a cavalry regiment, and of the District of Northeast Missouri, which he soon cleared of guerillas. He was made a brigadier general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, and did good service in defence of Cape Girardeau in the spring of 1863, and during Price raid in October, 1864, and resigned in 1865. He was sheriff of St. Louis County, Missouri, in 1866 and 1870, clerk of the criminal court in 1875-'6, U. S. Commissioner to the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, and inspector in the U. S. Indian Service in 1878 and again in 1882.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 153-154.

McNEILL, William Gibbs, civil engineer, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, 3 October, 1800; died in Brooklyn, New York, 16 February, 1853. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1817, and entered the artillery branch of the service as 3d lieutenant, serving on topographical duty until January, 1823, when he was transferred to the Corps of Topographical Engineers with the brevet rank of captain. Subsequently, while in this corps, his work included engagements on the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in 1824-'6, on Kanawha, James, and Roanoke Rivers in 1827, and as member of the board of engineers on the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1827-'30, and he became chief engineer in charge of the construction of the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad in 1830-'6, meanwhile also holding engineering appointments to various other roads. He then was chief engineer in charge of the construction of railroads till 1837, and during the latter year he also had charge of the examination of the coasts of North and South Carolina, but he resigned from the army in November, after attaining the rank of brevet major on the staff of the topographical engineers. He had achieved the reputation of being one of the foremost railroad engineers in the United States, and his services were sought for at unusual prices. At the time of the Dorr Rebellion in 1842 he was commissioned major-general of Rhode Island Militia, and commanded the state troops during that excitement. He was president of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company in 1842-'3, and chief engineer of the dry dock at the U. S. Navy-yard in Brooklyn in 1844-'5. Subsequently he held consulting appointments principally to various railroad and other public works m the United States and Cuba.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 154.

MACOMB, Alexander, Washington, DC, General in Chief, United States Army, American Colonization Society, Vice-President, 1833-1841.  (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 155; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 155; Longacre, James B. & James Herring, National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans.  Philadelphia: American Academy of Fine Arts, 1834-1839)

MACOMB, Alexander, soldier, born in Detroit, Michigan, 3 April, 1782; died in Washington, D. C, 25 June, 1841, entered the army as a cornet of cavalry in 1799, was retained in the service after the partial disbanding of troops in 1802, became captain in 1805 and major in 1808, and at the beginning of the war of 1812 held the rank of lieutenant-colonel of engineers, and adjutant-general of the army. Finding his position unlikely to bring him into active service, he was transferred to the artillery, and in 1813, as colonel of the 3d Regiment of Artillery, did effective service at Niagara and at Fort George. He was promoted brigadier-general in 1814, and placed in command of the northern frontier, bordering on Lake Champlain. At Plattsburg on 11 September of this year, while in command of 1,500 regular troops and some detachments of militia, he sustained the attack of a greatly superior British force under Sir George Provost, which, after the defeat of the British Squadron on Lake Champlain on the same day, retreated to Canada. General Macomb was promoted major-general for his conduct on this occasion, and received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal. He was subsequently retained in the service as colonel of engineers, and, after the death of General Jacob Brown in 1835, succeeded to the office of commander-in-chief of the army. During the Florida War in 1835 he took the field for a short time. He was buried with military honors in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, and his tomb is marked by a handsome monument. He published "A Treatise on Martial Law and Court-Martials as practised in the United States" (Charleston, 1809), and "A Treatise on the Practice of Court-Martials" (New York, 1840). and supervised Adjutant Samuel Cooper's " Tactics and Regulations for the Militia " (Philadelphia. 1836). See " Memoir of Alexander Macomb," by George H. Richards (New York, 1833).—His son. William Henry, naval officer, born in Detroit, Michigan, 16 June, 1818; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 12 August, 1872, entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1834, and was commissioned lieutenant in 1847, commander in 1862, captain in 1866, and commodore in 1870. He commanded the sloop " Portsmouth,'" of the East India Squadron, in 1856-'8, with which he was engaged in the capture of the barrier forts at Canton, China, under Commodore Andrew H. Foote, on 16-22 November, 1856. He had charge of the "Metacomet" in the Paraguay Expedition in 1859, and the steamer "Genesee" in 1862-3, attempting the passage of the Confederate batteries at Port Hudson on 14 March of the latter year, and was in frequent actions in April and June, 1863. He commanded the "Shamrock." of the-North Atlantic blockading squadron, in 1864-'5, and the naval force in the capture of Plymouth, North Carolina, on 30 October, 1864, and was advanced ten numbers in his grade for gallantry in this action and for that on Roanoke River, near Poplar Point, North Carolina. He was assigned to the steam sloop "Plymouth " of the European Squadron, in 1869. His last service was that of lighthouse-inspector.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 155.

McPHERSON, James Birdseye, soldier, born in Sandusky, Ohio, 14 November, 1828; died near Atlanta, Georgia. 22 July, 1864. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1853, first in a class of fifty-two members, among whom were Philip H. Sheridan, John M. Schofield, and John B. Hood. He was appointed successively brevet 2d lieutenant in 1853, 2d lieutenant in 1854, 1st lieutenant in 1858, and captain in 1861 in the Corps of Engineers, and served on fortification and other construction duty until the beginning of the Civil War. He was then stationed in California, but immediately applied for active duty with the army in the field, where his promotion was very rapid. He became lieutenant-colonel, 12 November, 1861; colonel, 1 May, 1862; brigadier-general of volunteers, 15 May, 1862; and major-general of volunteers, 8 October, 1862. General Henry W. Halleck had known him in California, and, on assuming command of the Department of the Missouri, placed him on his staff. When active operations began in the spring of 1862 he was transferred to the staff of General Grant, with whom he served as chief engineer at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh. the siege of Corinth, and Iuka. From June to October, 1862, he was in charge of the railroads in western Tennessee. On 2 October he received command of a brigade and joined General William S. Rosecrans just at the close of the battle of Corinth, and led the advance in the pursuit of the Confederate Army, under General Earl Van Dorn, during the following days. He was promoted to the command of a division stationed at Bolivar, Tennessee, on 14 October. In November and December, 1862, he commanded the right wing of Grant's army in the advance along the Mississippi Central Railroad, and was engaged at Lamar, Mississippi, 12 November, 1862, and in various skirmishes during the advance to and retreat from Oxford, Mississippi In the reorganization of Grant's army in January, 1863, he was appointed to the command of the 17th Army Corps. He endeavored to open a passage, via Lake Providence and Tensas Bayou, to the Mississippi below Vicksburg in February and March, and also to get in rear of Vicksburg by the Yazoo Pass and Yazoo River, in April, 1863, but in both attempts was unsuccessful, owing to the insuperable physical difficulties of the route. In the final campaign against Vicksburg from the rear, McPherson's corps bore a prominent part, although one of his divisions did not join him until near its close. At the battle of Port Gibson, 1 May, 1863, just after crossing the Mississippi, part of his corps, led by McPherson in person, turned the enemy's right flank, and, driving him from a post that he had held all day, decided the battle. Advancing into the interior, McPherson's corps constituted the right wing, and on 12 May engaged part of Johnston's army at Raymond and completely routed it. On 14 May, in connection with Sherman's corps, McPherson attacked Johnston's army at Jackson, and defeated it with a loss that was much greater than their own. On 10 May, Pemberton's army was met at Champion's Hill, and a disastrous and decisive defeat was inflicted upon it, Pemberton's troops retiring: in confusion to Vicksburg. The brunt of the fighting at Champion's Hill was borne by McPherson's corps, which held the right of Grant's line, and had McClernand on the left attacked with equal vigor Pemberton's army would have been surrounded and captured. At the assaults on the fortifications of Vicksburg on 19 and 23 May, McPherson's corps formed the centre of Grant's army, and attacked the works at the salient on the Jackson Road with great gallantry and heavy losses, but without success. Throughout this campaign McPherson was constantly engaged, and was conspicuous for his skill and personal bravery; and at its close General Grant, in a highly eulogistic letter, recommended him to the War Department for appointment as brigadier-general in the regular army, which appointment was made to date from 1 August, 1863. At the surrender of Vicksburg, McPherson was one of the commissioners to fix the terms of capitulation, and he was then assigned to the command of the city and district, where he remained until the following spring, except during February, 1864, when he took part in Sherman's expedition to Meridian, Mississippi

When Sherman succeeded Grant in command of the western armies in the spring of 1864, McPherson took the former's place as commander of the Army of the Tennessee. This organization numbered 25,000 men for duty, but much of it was detached on Red River in Louisiana and elsewhere, so that he was unable to take more than 25,000 into the Georgia Campaign. These he assembled and organized at Huntsville, Alabama, in April, 1864. The campaign was opened on 5 May. Johnston then occupied a strongly fortified position at Dalton, and Sherman planned to make a demonstration in his front with the armies of Thomas and Schofield, while McPherson was to pass around Johnston's left flank through Snake Creek Gap, and, by throwing himself across the railroad near Resaca in Johnston's rear, cause Johnston to evacuate Dalton; in the retreat Sherman designed to fall upon him with the strong forces of Thomas and Schofield. McPherson's instructions were largely discretionary; he was to destroy the railroad, and then to retreat back into Snake Creek gap, rejoin the main body, or await developments, according to his judgment and the information he might receive. He passed through the gap unopposed, approached Resaca, found it too strongly fortified to justify, in his judgment, an assault, and then retired to the gap, fortified a strong position, and remained there threatening the railroad. Sherman was disappointed, and in his "Memoirs" says so frankly; and while acknowledging that McPherson acted strictly within the line of his instructions, yet thinks he missed an opportunity that does not come twice in a lifetime. His idea was that McPherson, having 23,000 men with him, should have attacked Resaca vigorously, knowing that Johnston could not detach against him without exposing himself to instant attack from Thomas and Schofield; he thinks that McPherson would have brushed away the two brigades that defended Resaca, and, by thus planting himself squarely on Johnston's communications, would have forced the latter to attempt a retreat eastward, in which he would have lost a large part, if not the whole, of his army. He did not claim that such a course was required by McPherson’s instructions, but that these latter permitted it, and when the opportunity offered, McPherson should have seized it. There has been much controversy concerning this, the only criticism that was ever made on McPherson’s career by Sherman, who was always his ardent admirer. McPherson’s action was prudent rather than bold, but he was on the spot, had had large experience in assaults, was noted for his courage, both moral and physical, and was well qualified to judge of the probability of success in assaulting Resaca. As a result of his action, Sherman brought his entire army to Snake Creek gap on McPherson’s left, and the moment Johnston perceived the movement he abandoned his stronghold at Dalton and retreated to Resaca. This at least raises the question whether it would not have been better for Sherman to send a larger force against Resaca at first (which was the movement proposed by Thomas), in which case Johnston's retreat would have been cut off beyond any doubt. As soon as the rest of his army had come up on McPherson’s left, Sherman attacked and defeated Johnston at Resaca. and in this engagement. 14 and 15 May, 1864, McPherson's corps was heavily engaged.

During the months of May, June, and July there was incessant skirmishing between the two armies, culminating in battles at New Hope Church, 26 May, Dallas, 28 May. Kenesaw mountain, 27 June, and around Atlanta, 19-22 July. The Confederate attack at Dallas was directed wholly against McPherson’s corps, and he repelled it, inflicting heavy loss on his assailant. At Kenesaw Mountain he made a gallant assault in connection with Thomas's army, but both were driven back. On 17 July, Johnston was superseded by General John B. Hood in command of the Confederate Army, which was then at Atlanta, confronted by Sherman's army on the north and east. Sherman was extending his left flank to envelop Atlanta, and Hood opposed this with a series of engagements from the 19th to the 21st of July. On the 22d Hood withdrew from the trenches in front, of Thomas and Schofield. and, massing his entire army, made a furious onslaught on Sherman's left flank, which was commanded by McPherson. The latter happened at the moment to be at Sherman's headquarters in consultation with his chief, and he rode rapidly to the threatened point, in order to superintend personally the disposition of his troops to meet this attack on his flank and rear. While he was thus engaged, and attempting to pass from one column to another, he rode into the enemy's lines, and was killed.

General McPherson died in command of an army of about 30,000 men, at the age of thirty-five, and while his career was one of the highest distinction, yet it fell short of the full measure it must have attained had he lived till the close of the war. From the first, General Grant was impressed with his genius and courage, and he always spoke of him in terms of unbounded praise. When Grant came to the east to take command of all the armies, in March, 1864, he wrote to Sherman: "I want to express my thanks to you and McPherson, as the men to whom, above all others. I feel indebted for whatever I have had of success": and on McPherson’s death he wrote to the latter's aged grandmother to express "the highest reverence for his patriotism, his zeal, his great, almost unequalled, ability, and all the manly virtues that can adorn a commander." While he did not display the dashing qualities of Sheridan, he was remarkable for his correct judgment, coolness in danger, quick perception, knowledge of ground, and untiring energy. His statue in bronze has been erected in parks in Washington, D. C, by his comrades of the Army of the Tennessee.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 157-159.

McQUADE, James, soldier, born in Utica, New York, 27 April. 1829: died there, 25 March, 1885. He was educated in a Roman Catholic institution in Montreal, Canada, where he became an excellent linguist. On his return to Utica he studied law, which he abandoned for banking, and subsequently for politics. In 1851-'3 he was assistant clerk of the assembly, and in 1859 he served one term in that body. At the beginning of the Civil War he was captain of the Utica Citizens' Corps, which enlisted as a company of volunteers at the first call for troops, and in April, 1861, he became colonel of the 14th New York Regiment. He served at Malvern Hill, and, in consequence of the death of other colonels, took command of his brigade for eighteen months. Although ill at the battle of Chancellorsville, he insisted on doing duty, and participated in the fight until he fell exhausted from his horse. He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. After the war he served in various civic capacities, was an active politician, and was department commander of the Grand Army of the Republic in New York in 1879. He published several army songs, one of the best known of which is "The Loyal Legioner."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 159.

McQueen, John, Congressman, born in Robinson County, North Carolina, in 1808; died in Society Hill, South Carolina, 30 August, 1867. He was educated at home, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and settled in Bennettsville, South Carolina. He was colonel of militia during the nullification excitement of 1835, promoted major-general in 1835, and was in command in the threatened disturbances of 1837. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1848, re-elected without opposition for the next six sessions, and served from 1849 until his resignation in 1860. From 1862 till 1864 he was a member of the Confederate Congress.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 160.

MacVEAGH, Wayne, lawyer, born in Phoenixville, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 19 April, 1833. He was graduated at Yale in 1853, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1856, and served as district attorney for Chester County from 1859 till 1864. In 1862 he was captain of cavalry, when the invasion of Pennsylvania was threatened, and in 1863 he was chairman of the Republican Central Committee of Pennsylvania. In 1870-'l he was U. S. minister to Turkey, and in 1872-'3 was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention. He was the chief member of the " MacVeagh Commission " that was sent to Louisiana in 1877 by President Hayes to represent him unofficially, and to endeavor to bring the conflicting parties m that state to an understanding. In 1881 he was appointed U. S. Attorney-General in the cabinet of President Garfield, but resigned, with the other members, on the accession of President Arthur, and resumed his law practice in Philadelphia. He received the degree of LL. D. from Amherst in 1881. He has been chairman of the Civil Service Reform Association of Philadelphia, and also chairman of the Indian Rights Association of that city for several years.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 162.

MAFFITT, John Newland, naval officer, born at "sea. 22 February. 1819; died in Wilmington, North Carolina, 15 May, 1880, entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman on 25 February, 1832, became a lieutenant on 25 June, 1848, and was placed on the reserved list on 14 September, 1855. He resigned on 2 May, 1861, and entered the service of the Confederacy. In the early part of 1862 he took a cargo of cotton to England, and while there received instructions to take charge of the steamer "Oreto," which had been clandestinely constructed for the Confederate government at Liverpool. She had been seized on representations made by the American minister, but was released, and allowed to sail. On arriving at Nassau, 28 April, 1862, she was again detained, but was discharged by a court of admiralty, after which Captain Maffitt took her to the island of Green Kay, received on board the guns and armaments, and rechristened her the " Florida." The captain and crew were prostrated by yellow fever, and repaired to Havana for medical attention. He sailed from that port on 1 September, 1862, ran the blockade at Mobile, refitted his vessel and completed her armaments, and steamed out again in a dark and stormy night. The National Squadron gave chase, but Captain Maffitt stopped his engines and took in his sails, and the pursuing vessels passed the low hull unobserved. The " Florida" began her captures in the Gulf of Mexico, cruised up to New York, then southward to beyond the equator, and back again to the latitude of New York. With the "Florida" and captured ships that he fitted out as tenders, Captain Maffitt took about fifty-five prizes, including many large and richly laden vessels. The machinery of the lightly built cruiser having become deranged, Maffitt, with the permission of the French government, had his vessel repaired in the docks of the navy-yard at Brest. The effects of yellow fever and the fatigues of service had so exhausted his strength that he asked to be relieved, and the " Florida " put to sea again under the command of Capt. C. M. Morris. His last years were spent in Wilmington, North Carolina.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 172.

MAGRUDER, John Bankhead, soldier, born in Winchester, Virginia, 15 August, 1810; died in Houston, Texas, 19 February, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1830, assigned to the artillery, and served in the west, in Maine, and at Fort McHenry, Baltimore. In the Mexican War he commanded the light battery of General Pillow's division, and was brevetted major for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, and lieutenant-colonel for Chapultepec, where he was severely wounded. After the war he served in Maryland, California, and Newport, R. I., where he was in command of Fort Adams. While holding this last post he added greatly to the gayety of Newport by the splendid entertainments that he gave at the fort during the fashionable season. When Virginia seceded, he resigned his commission, that of captain of artillery, and entered the Confederate Army. After gaining the battle of Big Bethel, he was made brigadier-general and placed in command of the Confederate forces on the peninsula, with his headquarters at Yorktown, where for several weeks he opposed the advance of the National Army. He was then promoted major-general and took part in the seven days' fighting around Richmond, especially in the battle of Malvern Hill. On 16 October, 1862, he was placed in command of the Department of Texas, and on 1 January, 1863, he recovered Galveston from the National forces, capturing the steamer " Harriet Lane," and dispersing for a time the blockading squadron. He remained in command in Texas until the close of the war, when he entered the army of Maximilian in Mexico, with the rank of major-general, serving until the emperor's downfall and execution. He then returned to the United States and lectured, in Baltimore and other cities, on Mexico. In 1869 he settled in Houston, where he remained until his death.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 175.

MAHAN, Dennis Hurt, engineer, born in New York City, 2 April, 1802; died near Stony Point, New York, 16 September, 1871. He spent his boyhood in Norfolk, Virginia, and was appointed from that state to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1824, at the head of his class. During his third year he was appointed acting assistant professor of mathematics at the academy, and he continued as such after his promotion as 2d lieutenant into the Corps of Engineers until 1825, when he became principal assistant professor of engineering. In 1826 he was sent abroad, by order of the War Department, to study public engineering works and military institutions, and he spent some time, by special favor of the French government, at the Military School of Application for Engineers and Artillerists in Metz. While in Paris he was frequently the guest of Lafayette. He returned to West Point in 1830, and resumed his duties as acting professor of engineering, which chair he accepted permanently in 1832, vacating his commission in the Corps of Engineers. This office he continued to hold, with that of dean, after 1838, until his death, which was by suicide during a fit of insanity that resulted from his distress on learning that the Board of visitors had recommended that he be put on the retired list, although assured by the president that he should be retained. Professor Mahan was appointed in 1850 by the governor of Virginia a member of the board of engineers to decide the controversy between the city of Wheeling and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company as to the proper route of the railroad to Wheeling. He received the degree of LL. D. from William and Mary in 1852, from Brown in 1852, and from Dartmouth in 1867, and, besides being a member of many scientific societies in the United States, was one of the corporate members, of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863. As an engineer he acquired a world-wide reputation by his text-hooks, which were used in the military academy and in many universities. They include "Treatise on Field Fortifications" (New York. 1836); “Elementary Course of Civil Engineering" (1837; rewritten in 1868); "Elementary Treatise on Advanced Guard, Outposts, and Detachment Service of Troops" (1847; improved ed., 1862); "Elementary Treatise on Industrial Drawing" (1853); "Descriptive Geometry, as applied to the Drawing of Fortifications and Stereometry" (1864); and "Military Engineering," including "Field Fortifications, Military Mining, and Siege Operations" (1865); and "Permanent Fortifications" (1867). He also edited, with additions, an American reprint of Mosely's "Mechanical Principles of Engineering and Architecture " (1856). See the sketch by General Henry L. Abbot in vol. ii. of the "Biographical Memoirs" of National Academy of Sciences (Washington, 1886). His portrait, painted by Robert W. Weir, is included in the collection of professors to be seen in the library of the U. S. Military Academy.—His son, Frederick Augustus, engineer, born in West Point, New York, 28 March, 1847, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1867, and promoted into the Corps of Engineers as 2d lieutenant, becoming 1st lieutenant in 1869 and captain in 1881. He has served principally on engineering work and on duty as instructor at the military academy. Captain Mahan was associated in the editorship of the latest edition of his father's "Civil Engineering" (1880), and has translated from the French Krantz's "Study on Reservoir-Walls" (New York, 1882). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 176.

MAHONE, William, senator, born in Southampton County, Virginia, 1 December, 1820. He was graduated at Virginia Military Institute in 1847, and until the beginning of the Civil War engaged in engineering, and was the constructor of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. He joined the Confederate Army in 1861, took part in the capture of Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard in April of that year, raised and commanded the 6th Virginia Regiment, was engaged in most of the battles of the Peninsular Campaign, those on the Rappahannock, and those around Petersburg, where he won the sobriquet of the "hero of the Crater." and was throughout his career noted as a fighting commander. He was commissioned brigadier-general in March, 1864, and major-general in August of the same year. He subsequently led a division in Ambrose P. Hill's corps, and at Lee's surrender was at Bermuda Hundred. At the close of the war he returned to engineering, and became president of the Norfolk and Tennessee Railroad. He also engaged in politics, was the leader of the movement that elected Gilbert C. Walker governor of Virginia, and, after failing to secure the nomination for that office in 1878, organized and became the leader of the Readjuster Party, which advocated conditional repudiation of the state debt. He was elected U. S. Senator in 1880, served till March, 1887, and was defeated at the next election.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 177.

MALLERY, Garrick, ethnologist, born in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, 23 April, 1831, was graduated at Yale in 1850, in 1853 received the degree of LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania, and the same year was admitted to the bar of Philadelphia, where he practised law and engaged in editorial work until he entered the volunteer service as 1st lieutenant of Pennsylvania troops, 15 April, 1861. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel, and at the reorganization of the regular army in 1870 was commissioned as a captain in the 1st U. S. Infantry, with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was twice severely wounded, was kept for some time in Libby Prison, and received four promotions by brevet for gallantry in action. During the reconstruction period, while on military duty in Virginia in 1869-70 as judge-advocate on the staff of the successive generals commanding, he was appointed to the offices of Secretary of State and adjutant-general of Virginia, with the rank of brigadier-general. In August, 1870. he was the first officer that was detailed for meteorological service with the chief signal-officer of the army. He was long in charge of the Signal-Service Bureau, and was its executive officer until August, 1876, when he was ordered to the command of Fort Rice, Dakota territory. There he made investigations into the pictographs and mythologies of the Dakota Indians, which led to his being ordered, 13 June, 1877, to  report to Major John W. Powell, then in charge of the geological and geographical survey of the Rocky mountain region, for duty in connection with the ethnology of the North American Indians, being, in July, 1870, retired from active military service on account of wounds received in action. He received the appointment of ethnologist of the Bureau of Ethnology on its organization at Washington in that year, which office he still (1888) holds, General Mallery was a founder and president of the Anthropological Society and of the Cosmos Club of Washington, and was chairman of the anthropological section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in 1881. He has contributed largely to periodical literature, but his most important works, some of which have been translated, are " A Calendar of the Dakota Nation" (Washington, 1877); "The Former and Present Number of our Indians" Salem, 1878); "Introduction to the Study of Sign Language among the North American Indians as illustrating the Gesture Speech of Mankind" (Washington, 1880); "Gesture Signs and Signals of the North American Indians, with some Comparisons" (1880); "Sign Language among the North American Indians compared with that among -other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes" (1881); and "Pictographs of the North American Indians" (1886).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 183.

MALLET, John William, chemist, born in Dublin, Ireland, 10 October, 1832. He was graduated at Trinity College, and studied chemistry at the University of Gottingen, Germany, where he received the degree of Ph. D. for his researches on the tellurium ethers in 1852. Soon afterward he came to the United States, and was called to Amherst, where, during 1854-'6, he was assistant professor of analytical and applied chemistry. He was then given the chair of chemistry in the University of Alabama, where he remained until the beginning of the Civil War, and was also associated in the chemical work of the geological survey of Alabama. Professor Mallet took an active part in the war and attained the rank of colonel in the Confederate Army. He became professor of chemistry in the medical department of the University of Louisiana in 1865, and later engaged in the iron business near Vicksburg, Mississippi.  He accepted in 1867 the professorship of analytical, industrial, and agricultural chemistry in the University of Virginia, which chair in 1872 became that of general and industrial chemistry and pharmacy. Professor Mallet continued this relation until 1883, when he became professor of chemistry and physics in the recently organized University of Texas, and the equipment of these departments was selected by him, but he resigned a year later to accept a similar chair in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. In 1885 he returned to the University of Virginia as professor of general and industrial chemistry and pharmacy, which post he still (1888) holds. Professor Mallet's researches in pure chemistry include valuable investigations on the atomic weights of aluminum and lithium, and improved methods of analysis. In the direction of mineral chemistry he has accomplished much, not only by making analyses of new minerals, but also in the " Laboratory Communications" from his students that have been published by him. separations of rare earths have been indicated. His specialty is industrial chemistry or chemistry applied to the arts and manufactures, and in this branch he has probably no superior in the United States. His extended knowledge of this subject led to his being called to lecture on the "Utilization of Waste Products" in 187980 at Johns Hopkins university, and at that time he published in the "American Chemical Journal" a review of the "Progress of Industrial Chemistry " for the decade of 1870-'80. At the request of the National board of health he undertook an elaborate investigation as to the chemical methods in use for the determination of organic matter in potable water, with a comparative study of the water-supply of different localities in the United States. This work has taken high rank in the literature of water analysis, and was published by the board in its annual report for 1882. In 1880 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and in 1882 he was president of the American chemical Society. The honorary degrees of M. D. and LL. D. have been conferred on him. His publications have been entirely in the line of his profession, and have been confined to scientific journals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 183.

MALLORY, Stephen Russell, statesman, born in Trinidad. W. I., in 1813; died in Pensacola, Florida, 9 November, 1873. He was the second son of Charles Mallory, a civil engineer of Reading, Connecticut. When he was about a year old his parents moved to Havana, and in 1820 they settled at Key West, Florida. He was educated at Mobile und at Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and at the age of nineteen was appointed by President Jackson inspector of the customs at Key West. While filling this post he studied law with Judge William Marvin, of the U. S. District Court at Key West, and was admitted to the bar about 1839. He soon attained a high reputation and enjoyed a large practice. He became judge for Monroe County, and judge of probate, and in 1845 was appointed collector of customs at Key West. During the Indian War in Florida he volunteered and served for several years in active operations against the Seminoles. In 1850 he was elected a delegate to the Nashville Commercial Convention, but declined. In 1851 he was elected to the U. S. Senate for six years. His opponent, David L. Yulee, contested his seat, but it was unanimously awarded to Mr. Mallory. He was re-elected in 1857, and continued to represent his state until the secession of Florida in 1861, when he resigned and at once took an active part with the southern states. He had moved from Key West to Pensacola in 1858. During the greater part of his service in the U. S. Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, and a member of the Committee on Claims. In 1858, President Buchanan tendered him the appointment of minister to Spain, which he declined. On the secession of Florida he was appointed chief justice of the admiralty court of the state, which office he also declined. Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president of the Confederate States on 18 February, 1861, and on the 21st he appointed Mr. Mallory Secretary of the Navy, which post he held during the war. He found himself at the head of a Naval Department on the eve of a great war, without a snip or any of the essentials of a navy. He had not only to organize and administer, but to build the ships and boats, provide as best he could their ordnance and machinery, and create a naval force in a country whose ports were rapidly blockaded and which possessed resources only in a crude state. The timber for his ships stood in the forest; the iron was in the mines, and there were neither furnaces nor workshops; the hemp for the ropes had to be sown, grown, and reaped, and then there were no rope-walks; he had no rolling-mill capable of turning out a 21-inch iron plate, nor a workshop able to complete a marine engine. Mr. Mallory left Richmond in company with Jefferson Davis on the abandonment of that city by the Confederate government in April.1865. At Washington, Georgia, they separated, Mr. Mallory going to La Grange, Georgia, where his family were then living. On 20 May, 1865, he was arrested and was taken to Fort Lafayette, New York Harbor, where he was confined ten months, and released on parole in March, 1866. He returned to Pensacola in July, 1866, still under parole, and resumed the practice of law, which he continued until his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 183-184.

MALONEY, Maurice, soldier, born in Ireland about 1812; died in Green Bay, Wisconsin, 8 January. 1872. He emigrated to the United States early in life, enlisted in the 4th U. S. Infantry about 1835, and was a non-commissioned officer from 1836 till 1840, serving through the Seminole War in Florida and in the Cherokee Nation, and afterward at. Fort Scott. In November, 1840, he was commissioned lieutenant. He was engaged at all the principal battles of the Mexican War, was brevetted for gallantry at Molino del Rey, where he was one of the storming party, and again for his conduct at Chapultepec, and was wounded at the taking of the city of Mexico, and promoted 1st lieutenant on 6 May, 1848. He received a captain's commission on 22 November, 1854, and served on the western frontier and in the war of secession till September, 1862, when he was promoted major in the 1st U. S. Infantry, and served as colonel of the 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and afterward with his regiment in the field. He received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for services at the siege of Vicksburg, and that of colonel for his record during the war. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 10 June, 1867, commanded for some time the barracks at Atlanta, Georgia, and was retired on 15 December, 1870.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 184.

MALTBY, Jasper Adalmorn, soldier, born in Kingsville, Ashtabula County, Ohio, 3 November, 1820; died in Vicksburg. Mississippi, 12 December, 1867. He served during the Mexican War as a private, and was severely wounded at Chapultepec. After his discharge he established himself in mercantile business at Galena, Illinois In 1861 he entered the volunteer service as lieutenant-colonel of the 45th Illinois Infantry, was wounded at Fort Donelson, and, after being promoted colonel on 29 November, 1862, received a severe wound at Vicksburg. He was commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers on 4 August, 1863, served through the subsequent campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, and was mustered out on 15 January, 1866. He was appointed by the military commander of the district mayor of Vicksburg on 3 September, 1867, and died while in the discharge of the duties of that office.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 184-185.

MANDERSON, Charles Frederick, senator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 9 February, 1837. He was educated in the schools of his native city, moved to Canton, Ohio, in 1856, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859, and in 1860 elected city solicitor. He raised a company of three months' volunteers in April, 1861, was commissioned as captain in the 19th Ohio Infantry, served in western Virginia in the summer of 1861, and when mustered out re-enlisted for the war, and was afterward attached to the Army of the Cumberland, and rose through the various grades to be colonel of his regiment, of which he took command during the battle of Shiloh. At the battle of Lovejoy Station he was so severely wounded that in April, 1865, after receiving the brevet of brigadier-general, he resigned his commission. Resuming the practice of law at Canton, Ohio, he was twice elected district attorney. He moved to Omaha, Nebraska, in November, 1869, was city attorney for six years, and in 1871 and 1874 received the votes of both parties as a member of the Constitutional Conventions of those years. He was elected as a Republican to the U. S. Senate for the term of six years beginning on 4 March, 1883.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 186-187.

MANIGAULT, Arthur Middleton, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1824; died 16 August, 1886, was prepared for college, but entered business in Charleston. In 1846 he was elected 1st lieutenant of the Charleston Company in the Palmetto Regiment. He served through the Mexican War under General Scott, and was present in all the battles in which his regiment participated. Returning, he resumed his occupation, which he continued until he inherited a rice-plantation on Santee River, South Carolina. At the beginning of the Civil War he served as inspector-general on Beauregard's staff, and, having been elected colonel of the 10th Regiment of South Carolina Infantry, he commanded the 1st Military District. Early in 1862 he was ordered to Mississippi, and served continuously in the western army under Bragg, Johnson, and Hood, and was made brigadier-general in 1863. His brigade was frequently engaged, and did severe fighting in the retreat before Sherman. He was wounded twice, the second time severely in the head, at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. At the close of the war he attempted rice-planting again, but without success, and in 1880 he was elected adjutant-general of the state, serving in that post six years, and being the candidate of the Democratic Party for re-election at the time of his death, which was hastened by the consequences of the wound that he received at Franklin.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 188.

MANLEY, Henry De Haven, naval officer, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, 20 December. 1839. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860, promoted master, 19 September, 1861, and was on board the frigate "Congress" when she was destroyed by the "Merrimac" at Newport News. He was favorably mentioned in the reports of that action, and promoted lieutenant on 16 July, 1862. In the first attack on Morris Island he commanded the boats of the "Canandaigua," aiding in the capture of the lower end of the island. He participated in all the subsequent attacks on Fort Sumter and other works in Charleston Harbor, and commanded the "Canandaigua" and four other vessels in the blockade of Charleston, South Carolina. He was promoted lieutenant-commander on 25 July, 1866, served on the flag-ships of the European and Brazilian Stations, was commissioned as commander on 5 April, 1874, circumnavigated the globe in command of the "Ranger" and the "Alert" in 1878-'9, and was retired from active service on 31 January, 1883, on account of loss of hearing and failure of health caused by hard service.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 188.

MANN, Ambrose Dudley, diplomatist, born in Hanover Court-House, Virginia, 26 April, 1801. He was educated at the U. S. Military Academy, but resigned before he was graduated, was consul to Bremen in 1842, and was appointed to negotiate commercial treaties with Hanover, Oldenburg, and Mecklenburg in 1845, accredited to all the German states, except Prussia, for the same object in 1847, and became commissioner to Hungary in 1849. He was U. S. minister to Switzerland in 1850, and negotiated a reciprocity treaty. On returning home he became assistant Secretary of State, serving till 1856. Having devoted himself especially to the development of the material interests of the southern states, he was sent to Europe by the Confederate government on a special mission, in which he was subsequently joined by John Slidell and James M. Mason. Since the Civil War he has resided in France, where he has been engaged in the preparation of his "Memoirs," which are now ready for publication (1888).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 190.

MANNING, John Lawrence, governor of South Carolina, born in "Hickory Hill," Clarendon County, South Carolina, 29 January, 1816, entered Princeton, but was recalled before graduation by the death of his father. He was afterward graduated at South Carolina College, and while a student there married Susan Frances, daughter of General Wade Hampton. He was engaged for many years in sugar-planting in Louisiana, and his works were among the first on the Mississippi River. He entered public life at an early age, served several years in the assembly and senate of South Carolina, when only thirty years old was defeated in a close contest for governor, and in 1852 was elected governor by an overwhelming majority. During his term he especially devoted himself to the advancement of education. He established scholarships in South Carolina College, and from his own ample private means aided the progress of many impecunious young men. He was a delegate to the Convention that nominated Buchanan for the presidency, and was one of the committee that was sent to wait on him at "Wheatlands" to inform him of his nomination. Mr. Buchanan tendered him the mission to St. Petersburg, which for private reasons he declined, suggesting for the place Governor Francis Pickens, who was afterward appointed. In the Civil War he served on the staff of General Beauregard, and in 1865 was chosen U. S. Senator, but with the other southern senators of that year was not allowed to take his seat. He is at present (1888) the only surviving ante-bellum governor of the state.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 193.

MANNING, Thomas Courtland, jurist, born in Edenton, North Carolina, in 1831; died in New York City, 11 October, 1887. His ancestor came from England to Virginia in the 17th century. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina, admitted to the bar, and practised for a time in his native town. Removing in 1855 to Alexandria, Louisiana, he took up his permanent residence there and built up a large practice. He was sent to the Secession Convention of 1861 as a state-rights Democrat, and when the convention adjourned was elected a lieutenant in a Louisiana Confederate Regiment. He served with the rank of lieutenant-colonel on the staff of Governor Moore, and in 1863 was appointed adjutant-general of the state, with the rank of brigadier-general. In 1864 he was appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, and served until the close of the Civil War. In 1872 he declined the nomination for governor and was a presidential elector, and in 1876 he was vice-president of the National Convention that nominated Samuel J. Tilden. In January, 1877, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, serving until 1880, when the adoption of a new constitution displaced the whole state government. While chief justice he was elected one of the trustees of the Peabody Educational Fund. In 1880 he was again presidential elector, and in the autumn of that year was appointed U. S. Senator, but was not admitted. In 1882 he was placed for the third time on the supreme bench, and served until the expiration of his term in 1886. He was then appointed by President Cleveland U.S. minister to Mexico, which office he filled until his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 193-194.

MANSFIELD, John Brainard, author, born in Andover, Windsor County, Vermont, 6 March, 1826; died in Effingham, Atchison County, Kansas, 29 October, 1886. He received an academic education, and was for several years engaged in canvassing for books and maps. He published, with Austin J. Cooledge, the first volume of a "History of the New England States," embracing Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont (Boston, 1860), but the Civil War prevented the appearance of the second and remaining volume, which had been prepared for the press. After establishing a weekly paper called the "New England Meridian," in each number of which the muster-roll of one of the New England regiments was published, he acted as war correspondent for that journal, and subsequently served twenty months as hospital steward, until December, 1864, when he was mustered out of the service for disability. In 1866 he published in Washington, D. C., "The American Loyalist." in which were printed biographies and speeches of members of the 39th Congress. After publishing a campaign paper in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1867, he returned to Washington and was employed in the government printing office for several years. In 1882 he moved to Kansas on account of impaired health. While in Washington he began the preparation of "A Sketch of the Political History of the United States of America " from the settlement of Jamestown to the present time, which he completed, but it still remains in manuscript.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 195.

MANSFIELD, Joseph King Fenno, soldier, born in New Haven, Connecticut, 22 December, 1803; died near Sharpsburg. Maryland, 18 September, 1862. He was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy, where during part of the fourth year he acted as assistant professor of natural philosophy, and was graduated in 1822, standing second in a class of forty. He was assigned to the Engineer Corps, and for the next three years was an assistant to the Board of Engineers, then assembled in New York and engaged in planning fortifications for the defence of the harbors and cities on the coast. In 1832 he was promoted 1st lieutenant, and on 7 July, 1838, he was appointed captain. He served in the Mexican War as chief engineer under General Taylor, was brevetted major for gallant and distinguished services in the defence of Fort Brown, Texas, which he built, in 1840, and the following September was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct in the engagements at Monterey, where he received seven severe wounds. In 1847 he was brevetted colonel for meritorious services at Buena Vista. On 28 May, 1853, he was appointed inspector-general of the U. S. Army, with the rank of colonel, and in May, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and placed in command of the Department of Washington with earthworks. On the return of General Wool to Fortress Monroe he was sent to Hatteras, and afterward to Camp Hamilton and Newport News. On 10 May he marched with a division to the attack on Norfolk, and, after the capture of that place, was assigned to the command of Suffolk, Virginia, where he acted as military governor. After the second battle of Bull Run he was summoned to the court of inquiry at Washington, and during the delay, becoming impatient for active duty, he was assigned to the command of the corps formerly under General Nathaniel P. Banks. At the battle of Antietam he fell mortally wounded early in the day while cheering on his troops in a charge. On the 18th of the previous July he had been promoted major-general of volunteers.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 195-196.

MANSON, Mahlon D., soldier, born in Piqua, Miami County, Ohio, 20 February, 1820. He received a common-school education, studied pharmacy, and settled in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He served during the Mexican War as captain of the 5th Indiana Volunteers, sat in the legislature in 1851-'2, and, enlisting as a private at the beginning of the Civil War, was at once made colonel of the 10th Indiana Regiment, which he commanded at the battle of Rich Mountain, West Virginia, in July, 1861. He led the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, of the Army of the Ohio into action at Mill Springs, Kentucky, in January, 1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers in the following March. In August of the same year he commanded the National forces at Richmond, Kentucky, where he was wounded and taken prisoner, but was exchanged in December. He was again in command during the Morgan raid in Indiana and Ohio in July, 1863, and in September was placed at the head of the 23d Army Corps. He took part in the siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, and in various engagements in that state. He was severely wounded at the battle of Resaca and compelled to resign. On his return home, after being nominated as lieutenant-governor and Secretary of State, he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 4 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1873.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 197

MARCHAND, John Bonnett, naval officer, born in Greensborough. Pennsylvania, 27 August, 1808; died in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1875. He entered the U. S. navy in 1828 as midshipman, and was promoted lieutenant in 1840, commander in 1855, captain in 1862, and commodore in 1866. He commanded the steamer " Van Buren " in the operations against the Seminole Indians in 1841-'2, participated in the bombardment of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuspan in 1847, and had charge of the steamer "Memphis" in the Paraguay Expedition of 1859-'60. During the Civil War he commanded the steamer "James Adger" in the South Atlantic blockading squadron in 1862, participated in the capture of Fernandini, and was slightly wounded while reconnoitering in Stone River in March of that year. He had charge of the sloop "Lackawanna," of the Eastern Gulf Squadron, in 1863-'4, and participated in the battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864, during which he twice rammed the iron-clad "Tennessee." In August, 1870, he was retired from active service.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 201.

MARCY, Randolph Barnes, soldier, born in Greenwich. Massachusetts, 9 April, 1812; died in Orange, New Jersey, 22 November, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1832, and served in the Black Hawk Expedition of that year, also on frontier duty with the 5th U.S. Infantry. During the war with Mexico he participated in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and was made captain in May. 1846, after which he served on recruiting service. Subsequently he was engaged in the exploration of the Red River country in 1852-'4, in the Florida hostilities against the Seminole Indians in 1857, and in the Utah Expedition of 1857-'8, having command of a detachment that was sent to New Mexico in November, 1857, and returning in March, 1858, after great suffering. In 1859 he was promoted major on the staff and served as paymaster of the northwestern posts in 1859-61, becoming inspector-general with the rank of colonel on 9 August, 1861. During the Civil War he served as chief of staff to his son-in-law, General George B. McClellan, and acted in that capacity in McClellan's campaigns of western Virginia, in the Peninsular Campaign, and in the Maryland Campaign until November, 1862. He had been made brigadier-general of volunteers on 23 September, 1861. He was then assigned to inspection duties in the departments of the Northwest, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, and the Gulf until 1865, when he became inspector-general of the Military Division of the Missouri. In 1869 he was transferred to Washington, and became inspector-general of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier-general, to date from 12 December, 1878, continuing in that office till his retirement on 2 January, 1881. He received the brevets of brigadier-general and of major-general on 13 March. 1865, for services during the Civil War. He had the reputation of being a famous sportsman, spending much time in hunting in the Rocky mountains. General Marcy has contributed to magazines, and published "Exploration of the Red River in 1852" (Washington, 1853): "The Prairie Traveller, a Handbook for Overland Emigrants" (New York, 1859); "Thirty Years of Army Life on the Border" (1866); and " Border Reminiscences " (1871).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 202-203.

MARMADUKE, John Sapington, soldier, born near Arrow Rock, Missouri, 14 March, 1833; died in Jefferson City, Missouri, 28 December, 1887, was brought up on his father's farm till the age of seventeen, when he entered Yale College. After studying two years there and one year at Harvard, he was appointed a cadet in the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1857. In the spring of 1858 he joined the expedition that was sent under General Albert Sidney Johnston to quell the Mormon revolt. He served for two years in Utah, and was then stationed in New Mexico, where he was serving when the secession troubles began. Obtaining leave of absence, he returned home, resigned his commission on 17 April. 1861, raised a company of state guards, and was soon afterward elected colonel of a regiment.  Disapproving both the military and the political course of Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, he resigned his commission, and went to Richmond to tender his services to the Confederate government. Jefferson Davis gave him a commission as 1st lieutenant, and he joined the command of General William J. Hardee in southeastern Arkansas, was promoted lieutenant-colonel a few weeks later, and in the autumn was made colonel of the 3d Confederate Infantry. His regiment at Shiloh bore the guiding colors of the battle-line, and captured the first prisoners of the day. He fought with conspicuous gallantry in the front until he was wounded in the second day's fight. While in hospital he was promoted brigadier-general. In August, 1862, he was transferred to the trans-Mississippi department, commanded in northwestern Arkansas and Missouri for six months, and made frequent raids, engaging the National forces with varying fortune until finally he compelled General Blunt's withdrawal to Springfield, Missouri. In 1863 he entered Missouri with 4,000 men and extricated General Carter near Cape Girardeau, but was pursued and brought his force away with difficulty. He took part in the unavailing attack on Helena in July, 1863, and subsequently, with his cavalry division, contested in daily combats the advance of General Frederick Steele on Little Rock, and after its fall covered General Sterling Price's retreat. In an attack on Pine Bluff he captured the National camp and stores. When General Steele was marching in the spring of 1864 to co-operate with General Banks against Kirby Smith, Marmaduke harassed and delayed him by repeated attacks, and enabled General Smith to overtake and defeat Steele's command at Jenkin's Ferry. For these services Marmaduke was made a major-general. In the following summer he had an indecisive encounter with General Andrew J. Smith at Lake Village, Arkansas, and in the autumn took part in Price's invasion of Missouri, but after several battles and skirmishes was surrounded and compelled to surrender near Fort Scott, 24 October. He was confined as a prisoner of war at Fort Warren till August, 1865. After a journey in Europe for the restoration of his health, he returned to Missouri in May, 1866, and engaged in the commission business, and in 1809-'71 in that of life insurance. He then became part proprietor of the " Journal of Commerce,' established in St. Louis the " Evening Journal." and also carried on the ' Illustrated Journal of Agriculture." In June, 1873, he retired from journalism, and became secretary of the state board of agriculture. In 1875 he was appointed railroad commissioner, and in 1876 was elected to that office for four years. In 1884 he was elected governor of Missouri.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 211-212.

MARSHALL, Elisha Gaylord, soldier, born in Seneca Falls, New York, 26 January, 1829; died in Canandaigua, New York, 3 August, 1883, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1850, assigned to the 6th U.S. Infantry, and served on frontier duty and in the Utah Expedition of 1858. He was promoted captain on 14 May. 1861, and on 20 April, 1862, became colonel of the 13th New York Regiment. He was engaged in the various campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, being severely wounded at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and receiving the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, 13 December, 1862. He was on sick leave of absence from that date until 23 May, 1863, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service and appointed mustering and disbursing officer at Rochester, New York. In May, 1864, he engaged in the Richmond Campaign, commanding a brigade in the Army of the Potomac, and was wounded at Petersburg, 17 June, 1864. He was one of the leaders in the assault after the mine explosion, and was captured after holding the crater during most of the day. He was a prisoner in Columbus, Georgia, from 30 July, 1864, till April, 1865, and from May till July of that year commanded a brigade. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for gallant and meritorious services, 13 March, 1865.  He mustered out of the volunteer service on 16 August, and on 12 June became major of the 5th U.S. Infantry. He was retired as colonel on 11 September, 1867.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 220.

MARSHAL, Charles Alexander, soldier, born in Mason County, Kentucky, 2 May, 1809, was educated in Woodford by his uncle, Dr. Louis Marshall, and served in the legislature in 1840, 1855, and 1857. He was a determined friend of the Union, recruited the 16th Kentucky Infantry in 1861, at the head of that regiment led the advance of General William Nelson in his campaign in eastern Kentucky in the autumn of 1861, and bore the brunt of the fight at the battle of Ivy Creek.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 225.

MARSHAL, Charles, lawyer, born in Warrenton, Virginia, 3 October, 1830, is the son of Alexander John, a lawyer of Virginia. He was graduated in 1849 at the University of Virginia, was professor of mathematics from 1849 till 1852 in the University of  Indiana. Afterward he practised law in Baltimore, and upon the secession of Virginia entered the Confederate Army and served on the staff of his kinsman, General Robert E. Lee, as assistant adjutant and inspector-general, until the close of the Civil War, and was charged with the duty of preparing the official reports of the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 till 1865, and was directed by General Lee to prepare a general order, embodying his farewell address to his army, dated 10 April, 1865. He now (1888) practices law in Baltimore. He was requested by General Lee's family to prepare a biography of him, which work is practically ready for publication. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 225-226.

MARSHAL, Humphrey, soldier, born in Frankfort, Kentucky, 18 January, 1812; died in Louisville, Kentucky, 28 March, 1872.  He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1832, assigned to the mounted rangers, and served on the Black Hawk Expedition. He resigned on 30 April, 1833, studied law, and practised in Frankfort and Louisville. He became captain in the Kentucky militia in 1830, major in 1838, and lieutenant-colonel in 1841. In 1830 he raised a company of volunteers and  marched to defend the Texas frontier against the Indians, but his force disbanded on hearing of General Houston's victory at San Jacinto. He became colonel of the 1st Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, 9 June, 1846, served in the war with Mexico, won great distinction at the Battle of Buena Vista, and afterward retired to his farm in Henry County, Kentucky. He was subsequently elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 3 December, 1849, till 4 August, 1852, and supported Clay's compromise measures. From 1852 till 1854 he was U. S. minister to China, and on his return he was elected to Congress from Kentucky as an American, serving from 3 December, 1855, till 3 March, 1859. In 1856 he was a member of the National American Council in New York City, where he was instrumental in abolishing all secrecy in the political organization of his party. In 1860 he canvassed Kentucky for John C. Breckinridge, and he afterward recruited in that state a large body of men for the Confederate Army, in which he accepted a commission as brigadier-general. He was placed in command of the Army of Eastern Kentucky, with which it was designed to invade the state through the mountain-passes. In January, 1862, he fought the battle of Middle Creek, in Floyd County, with General James A. Garfield (q. v.). In May, 1862, General Marshall surprised General Jacob D. Cox at Princeton, Virginia, the result of the action being the relief of the Lynchburg and Knoxville Railroad, for which service he received the thanks of General Lee. He resigned his commission soon afterward, practised law in Richmond, and was elected to the Confederate Congress, serving on the Committee on Military Affairs. Subsequently he moved to Louisville, Kentucky, and acquired a large law-practice. He was one of the first Confederates whose disabilities were removed by Congress. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 226-227.

MARSHALL, William, surgeon, born in Milton, Delaware, 23 May, 1827. After attending Milton Academy he was graduated at Jefferson Medical College in 1847, and practised in Milton, Philadelphia, Placerville, California, and Georgetown, Delaware, until the opening of the Civil War. He served in the National Army as surgeon of the 3d Delaware Regiment, and after the battle of Antietam was discharged for disability, but he subsequently led a company in the 6th Delaware Regiment, and also acted as surgeon until the close of the war. Since that time he has practised in Milford. He has been president of the Delaware Medical Society, and was secretary of the State Board of Health from 1879 till 1887. He performed the first successful resection of the humerus in the Civil War, at Winchester in 1862, and discovered the pathognomonic sign of malarial poisoning. His specialties are surgery and obstetrics, and he has contributed numerous articles to medical publications.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 227.

MARSHALL, William Rainey, governor of Minnesota, born in Boone County, Missouri, 17 October, 1825. His father, Joseph M. Marshall, moved to Missouri, and thence to Quincy, Illinois, where William received a common-school education. At the age of sixteen he worked in the lead-mines of Galena, Illinois, and in 1847 he went to Minnesota (then part of Wisconsin Territory) and engaged in the survey of public lands. In 1849 he established with his brother the first store of general merchandise in the Falls of St. Anthony (now Minneapolis). In 1848 he served in the legislature of Wisconsin, and in 1849 was elected a member of the first territorial legislature of Minnesota. He established the first iron store in Minnesota at St. Paul in 1852, and in 1855-'7 engaged in banking in that place. He presided at the meeting that organized the Republican Party in Minnesota, and in 1855 was a Republican candidate for Congress, but was defeated. He engaged in dairy-farming in 1857, and  imported fine stock into the state. In 1861 he  founded "The Daily Press" (now the "Pioneer Press"), and in the following year enlisted in the 7th Minnesota Regiment, of which he became colonel, taking active part in two campaigns against the Indians. In 1868 he was assigned to the 10th Army Corps, and participated in several battles, he commanded a brigade at the battle of Nashville, 15 and l6 December, 1864. On 13 March,1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious conduct. He was wounded at the siege of Mobile. From 1865 till 1869 he was governor of Minnesota, and he subsequently served as a railroad commissioner.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 227-228

MARSTON, Gilman, legislator, born in Orford. Grafton County, New Hampshire, 20 August, 1811. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1837, and at Harvard Law-School in 1840. The year following he was admitted to the bar and began practice at Exeter, where he has since resided. He was a member of the state house of representatives in 1845-'6-'7 and 1848, subsequently in 1872-'3-'6 and 1877. and during the biennial terms of 1879-80, '81-82, '83-'84. '85-'86, and '87-88. In 1850 and 1870 he was a delegate to the state constitutional Convention, he was elected as a Republican to Congress, and re-elected, serving from 5 December 1859. till 3 March, 1863. He also took part in the Civil War as colonel of the 2d New Hampshire Regiment, being promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, and receiving severe wounds. On his return home at the end of the war he was again elected to Congress, serving from 4 December, 1865, till 3 March. 1867. He was also the Republican candidate for election to the 45th Congress, but was defeated by 43 votes.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 228.

MARSTON, John, naval officer, "born in Boston, 12 June, 1795; died in Philadelphia. 7 April, 1885. He carried the first news of Commodore Isaac Hull's capture of the "Guerriere" to John Adams at Quincy, and through the ex-president's influence was appointed a midshipman, his commission being dated 15 April, 1813. He saw some service during the war of 1812-'15, and later was on board the "Constitution" when Lord Byron visited the famous frigate. In 1825 he was promoted to the grade of lieutenant, and was on board the "Brandywine" when she conveyed Lafayette to France. In 1827-'9 he served in the Pacific Squadron, and again in 1833 and 1834. In 1840 he was assigned to the frigate " United States," and in the following year was commissioned commander. In 1850 he was assigned to the command of the " Yorktown," on the coast of Africa, and he was in charge of the Philadelphia U.S. Navy-yard from 1853 till 1855, being in the latter year made captain. Although placed on the retired list in December, 1801, he was assigned to the "Cumberland," of the Brazil Squadron, in which service he continued for a year, when he was commissioned commodore, 10 July, 1802, and was in command of the frigate " Roanoke" at Hampton Roads when the "Merrimac" destroyed the " Congress " and " Cumberland." He was afterward made rear-admiral, and for several years after the war was in charge of the U.S. Navy-yards at Portsmouth and Philadelphia, and of the naval station at Key West. He also acted as a lighthouse-inspector. In his many voyages he had served under Commodores Rodgers, Hull, Pony, and Chauncey, of the old navy, and had seen altogether, before his retirement, half a century of active service. His tastes were scholarly, and he was a fine specimen of a gentleman of the old school. He was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. His eldest son, Matthew R., entered the regular army, and was brevetted major for gallant conduct during the siege of Vicksburg.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 228.

MARTIN, Henry Austin, physician, born in London. England, 23 July, 1824; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 December, 1884. He came to this country at an early age, was graduated at Harvard Medical School in 1845, and practised in Boston. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed staff surgeon, and rose to be surgeon-in-chief of the 2d Corps, Army of the Potomac, which post he held till near the close of the war. On his resignation he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and meritorious services." Afterward he paid particular attention to surgery, and gained I great repute in the treatment of diseases of the rectum. He early made a thorough study of small pox and vaccination, and in 1870 first introduced into this country the practice of true animal vaccination, and it was largely owing to his writings and labors that the method was so soon and so universally adopted. He was an authority on the subject in this country. In 1877, as chairman of the committee on animal vaccination of the American Medical Association, he made a full report on that subject, which appeared in the published volumes of the "Transactions," and was widely quoted from and reviewed here and abroad. In 1877 he introduced to the profession the treatment of ulcers of the leg, and many other kindred troubles, by the use of the pure rubber bandage that he had invented. The Martin bandage has been generally adopted, and has given its inventor a wide reputation in this country and abroad. In 1878 Dr. Martin announced to the profession his operation of tracheotomy without tubes, which he many times successfully performed. In 1881 he attended the International Medical Congress at London, and delivered a paper on treatment of synovitis of the knee-joint by aspiration and subsequent use of the Martin bandage, a method original with himself. Dr. Martin has contributed largely to medical journals, notably to the London "Lancet," the " British Medical Journal." and other magazines in England, as well as to the ' North American Review " and many other journals in this country.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 230.

MARTIN, James Green, soldier, born in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 14 February, 1819; died in Asheville, North Carolina, 4 October, 1878. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and assigned to the artillery. As 1st lieutenant of a light battery he fought in the Mexican War, and lost his right arm at Churubusco. He had meanwhile been commissioned as captain of staff, and was now brevetted major. When the Civil War began he was quartermaster at Fort Riley. Resigning his commission on 14 June, 1861, he offered his services to his state, was appointed adjutant-general of North Carolina, and applied himself to the task of organizing, equipping, and clothing the troops. At his suggestion blockade-running ships were first employed to bring supplies from Europe. On 28 September, 1861, he was appointed general-in-chief of the state forces, with the rank of major-general. Anticipating the need of more troops, he raised 12,000 men beyond North Carolina's quota, which were hastily called into the field when General McClellan advanced on Richmond, and performed effective service in the defence of the Confederate capital. When he had accomplished the duty of fitting the North Carolina troops for the field, he was commissioned as brigadier-general in the Confederate Army in 1862, and on reaching the field in 1863 was assigned to the command of a brigade and ordered to Petersburg. Not long after his arrival at the scene of operations General Lee requested him to go back and resume the duties of adjutant-general of North Carolina, where the conscription law had provoked a dangerous state of disaffection. After spending nine months at Raleigh in the discharge of this trust, he again-asked for service in the field, was assigned to the command of a brigade, and was made commander of the District of North Carolina. His brigade was often spoken of as the best-disciplined in Lee's army, and he won additional praise by his ability in handling his command in action. He surprised the National camp at Newport, was ordered to Petersburg in May, 1864, and at Bermuda Hundred carried by assault the earthworks on the extreme left of the National line. He afterward was engaged in severe fighting at Cold Harbor and in the battles before Petersburg. At the close of the war he was stationed at Asheville in command of the District of western North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. The considerable property that he once possessed had been swept away, and, though his health was impaired by hard service, he studied law, was speedily called to the bar, and practised in Asheville during the remainder of his life.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 231.

MARTIN, James Stewart, soldier, born in Scott County, Virginia, 19 August, 1826. He received a public-school education, moved to Salem, Illinois, in 1846, and during the Mexican War served as a non-commissioned officer. He was clerk of the Marion County Court from 1849 till 1861, in the mean time studying law and being admitted to the bar. For several years he was a member of the Republican State Committee. He entered the National Army as colonel of an Illinois regiment in 1862, and served till the end of the war, taking part in all the important battles of the Atlanta Campaign and in the march to the sea, and receiving the brevet of brigadier-general on 28 February, 1865. After his return to Illinois he was elected judge of the Marion County Court, and in 1868 was appointed a pension-agent, resigning the judgeship. He resigned that office on being elected as a Republican to Congress in 1872. After his service in Congress he was for some years commissioner of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary, and subsequently a banker in Salem and president of a coal-mining company.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 231.

MARTIN, John Alexander, governor of Kansas, born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania. 10 March, 1839. He learned the printer's trade in the office of the Brownsville "Clipper." and became foreman of the composing-room, and subsequently local editor. Removing in 1857 to Atchison, Kansas, he purchased  the "Squatter Sovereign" in February  a powerful influence on the political development of the state. In July, 1859, he was secretary of the Wyandotte Convention, at which the state constitution was framed, in October of that year was a delegate to the Republican Convention, and in December was elected a state senator. He was a member of the National Republican Convention in 1860, and after the admission of Kansas to the Union in 1861 was postmaster at Atchison. He served during one session in the state senate, on 27 October joined the National Army as lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Kansas Infantry, and was for some time provost-marshal of Leavenworth. On 1 November, 1862, he was promoted colonel of the regiment, and a month later appointed provost-marshal at Nashville, Tennessee, in which capacity he served six mouths. He took part in the principal engagements of the Army of the Cumberland, commanding a brigade at Chickamauga, and also for several months before he was mustered out, 17 November, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the war. Returning to Atchison, he resumed the management of his newspaper, which he converted into a daily, and in 1865 was elected mayor. He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1868, 1872, and 1880, a member of the National Committee of the party from 1868 till 1884, also of the U. S. Centennial Commission in 1870, and since 1878 has been a manager of the National Soldiers Home. He was elected governor of Kansas in 1884, and in 1886 was re-elected.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 231-232.

MARTIN, John Mason, member of Congress, born in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama. 20 January. 1837, was graduated at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, in 1856, studied law. was admitted to the bar in 1858, and established himself in practice at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He served four years in the Confederate Army, was elected a state senator in 1871 to fill a vacancy, reelected for a full term the following year, and chosen president pro tempore. In 1875 he became professor of equity jurisprudence in the University of Alabama. He was elected to the National House of Representatives as a Democrat, and served from 7 December, 1885. till 3 March. 1887.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 232.

MARTINDALE, Henry Clinton, member of Congress, born in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 6 May, 1780; died in Sandy Hill, Washington, New York, 22 April, 1860. He was graduated at Williams in 1800, studied law, and established himself in practice at Sandy Hill. After filling various local offices, he was elected to Congress as a Whig, and reelected for the throe succeeding terms, serving from 1 December 1823, till 3 March, 1831. After an interval of one term he was returned for the fifth time, and served from 2 December, 1833, till 3 March, 1835.—His son, John Henry, soldier, born at Sandy Hill, New York, 20 March. 1815; died in Nice. France, 13 December, 1881, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and attached to the 1st Dragoons, but resigned on 10 March. 1836, and, after a brief employment as engineer in the construction of a railroad, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1838, and began practice in Batavia, New York. He held the office of district attorney of Genesee County by appointment of the court in 1842-'5. and in 1847-'51 by election under the new constitution of 1846. In the spring of 1851 he moved to Rochester, New York, and there followed his profession until the Civil War. On 9 August, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He won credit by the skilful handling of his brigade during the Peninsular Campaign. At Hanover Court-House, with about 1,000 men, he bore the attack of 4,000 until General Fitz-John Porter came up, and thus enabled the National forces to achieve a complete victory. His brigade was prominently engaged at Gaines's Mills and at Malvern Hill. In the retreat  he exclaimed that he would rather stay and surrender than desert the wounded. For this expression General Porter brought charges against him, and after recovering from a severe illness he demanded a court of inquiry, which fully exonerated him. He was appointed military governor of Washington in November, 1862, where he remained until he was relieved at his own request in May, 1864, joined General Benjamin F. Butler's army, and in the operations south of Richmond and the siege of Petersburg led a division. He subsequently commanded the 18th Corps, and held the advanced line on the Appomattox until he was compelled by sickness to leave the field. He resigned his commission on account of disability on 13 September, 1864. For gallant conduct at Malvern Hill he was given the brevet of major-general of volunteers. He resumed the practice of law in Rochester, and in 1866-'8 was Attorney-General of New York State. He was for many years vice-president of the board of managers for soldier's homes.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 234-235.

MARTYN, Grace, abolitionist, first director of the Ladies New York City Anti-Slavery Society (LNYCASS), founded New York City, 1835 (Yellin, 1994, p. 34)

MARTYN, Reverend J. H. (Yellin, 1994)

MARVIN, Joseph Dana, naval officer, born in Bazetta, Ohio, 2 October, 1839; died in Yokohama, Japan, 10 April, 1877. He entered the U.S. Navy as acting midshipman, 25 September, 1850, and became midshipman. 15 June, 1860, and was promoted master, September, 1861, lieutenant, 16 July, 1862, lieutenant-commander, 12 April, 1866, and commander, 12 December, 1873. He served as executive officer of the "Mohican" at both attacks on Fort Fisher, and superintended the fire of that vessel with much coolness and skill. He was associated with Commodore Simpson in 1870 in his mission to Europe “to inspect its principal foundries, ordnance establishments, dock-yards, and powder-magazines." In 1871 he  was placed in command of a battery at Annapolis, Maryland, and subsequently ordered to special ordnance duty as assistant to the chief of bureau. In September, 1875, he took command of the "Alert," on board of which, in May, 1876, he sailed for China, by way of the Suez Canal.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 238-239.

MASON, John S., soldier, born in Steubenville, Ohio, 21 August, 1824. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and assigned to the artillery, served in the war with Mexico, and acted as regimental quartermaster from 1854 till 1858. He was commissioned captain, 14 May, 1861, and was made colonel of the 4th Ohio Regiment on 3 October of the same year. He was made brevet lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at the battle of Fredericksburg, and became brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862. He was promoted major, 14 October, 1864, and brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, in the regular army, 13 March, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, since which time he has been chiefly engaged in frontier duty with different regiments. He was made lieutenant-colonel, 11 December, 1873, and colonel, 9th U.S. Infantry, 2 April, 1883, a commission he still (1888) holds.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 245.

MASTIN, Claudius Henry, surgeon, born in Huntsville, Alabama, 4 June, 1826. He received his collegiate education at the University of Virginia, was graduated at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1849, went abroad in 1850, studying in Edinburgh, Paris, and London. On his return he settled in Mobile, where he has since practised, chiefly as a surgeon. During the Civil War he served in the latter capacity in the Confederate Army. In 1885 he presented a memoir to the American Surgical Association, then in session in Washington, D. C, which resulted in uniting the various special American Medical Associations into a common body, under the name and title of the "Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons," which organization was completed, 5 October, 1887. He was vice-president of the American Surgical Association in 1883. He has invented several surgical instruments and contributed largely to medical journals, especially on genito-urinary surgery. The University of Pennsylvania gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1875.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 250.

MATHER, Fred, pisciculturist, born in Albany, New York, in August, 1833. In 1854 he became interested in the lead-mines of Potosi, Wisconsin, and afterward hunted and trapped in the Bad Axe country in that state. Here he learned enough of the Chippewa language to become interpreter to the government survey in northern Minnesota. During the political troubles in Kansas he served under General James Lane, and was one of Jennison's "Jayhawkers." He enlisted in the 113th New York Regiment in 1862, and became 1st lieutenant two years later. At the close of the Civil War he took a clerkship in the live-stock yards near Albany. In 1868 he bought a farm at Honeoye Falls, New York, and began to hatch fish of various kinds.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 251.

MATTHEWS, Stanley, 1824-1889, lawyer, jurist, newspaper editor, anti-slavery activist, soldier and U.S. Senator.  Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1881-1889.  Assistant editor of the anti-slavery newspaper, the Cincinnati Morning Herald, the first abolitionist paper there.  Served in the Union Army, attaining the rank of Colonel, commanding both a regiment and a brigade.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 418)

MATTHEWS, Stanley, jurist, born in Cincinnati. Ohio, 21 July, 1824. He was graduated at Kenyon College in 1840, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, settling in Maury County, Tennessee. He shortly afterward returned to Cincinnati, early engaged in anti-slavery movements, and in 1846-'9 was an assistant editor of the "Cincinnati Herald," the first daily anti-slavery newspaper in that city. He became judge of the court of common pleas of Hanover County in 1851, was state senator in 1855, and in 1858-'61 was U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Ohio.  In March, of the last-named year, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 23d Ohio Regiment, and served in West Virginia, participating in the battles of Rich Mountain and Carnifex Ferry. In October, 1861, he became colonel of the 57th Ohio Regiment, and in that capacity commanded a brigade in the Army of the Cumberland, and was engaged at Dobb's Ferry, Murfreesborough. Chickamauga, and Lookout Mountain. He resigned from the army in 1863, to become judge of the superior court of Cincinnati, and was a presidential elector on the Lincoln and Johnson ticket in 1864, and on the Grant and Colfax ticket in 1868. In 1864 he was a delegate from the presbytery of Cincinnati to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Newark. New Jersey, and as one of the committee on bills and overtures reported the resolutions that were adopted by the assembly on the subject of slavery. He was defeated as Republican candidate for Congress in 1876, and in the next year was one of the counsel before the electoral commission, opening the argument in behalf of the Republican electors in the Florida case, and making the principal argument in the Oregon case. In March he was elected U. S. Senator in place of John Sherman, who had resigned. In 1881 he was appointed associate justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 262.

MAURY, Matthew Fontaine, scientist, born in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, 14 January, 1800: died in Lexington, Virginia, 1 February, 1873. In his sixteenth year young Maury entered Harpeth Academy, then under the charge of Reverend James H. Otey, afterward bishop of Tennessee. On 1 February, 1825, he was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy, making his first cruise in the frigate "Brandywine," on the coast of Europe and in the Mediterranean. In 1820 the "Brandywine" returned to the United States, and Maury was transferred to the sloop-of-war "Vincennes," for a cruise around the world. After the expiration of the cruise he passed with credit the usual examination, and in 1831 was appointed master of the sloop-of-war " Falmouth," then fitting out for the Pacific. He did not complete his cruise in this vessel, being transferred to the schooner "Dolphin," serving as acting 1st lieutenant, until he was again transferred to the frigate "Potomac," in which he returned to the United States in 1834, and published his first work, "Maury's Navigation," which was adopted as a textbook in the navy. During this intermission of active service he married Miss Ann Herndon, of Virginia, a sister of Lieutenant William L. Herndon, of the navy, who was conspicuous on the occasion of the foundering of the "Central America," which he commanded. In 1837, after thirteen years of service, Maury was promoted to the grade of lieutenant and offered the appointments of astronomer and hydrographer to the exploring expedition to the South Seas, then preparing to sail under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, but declined. In 1839 he met with a painful accident by which he was lamed for life. Being unable for several years to perform the active duties of his profession, he devoted the time to study, to the improvement of the navy, and to other matters of national concern. His forcibly stated views were published first and mainly in the "Southern Literary Messenger," of Richmond, Virginia, over the pen-name of Harry Bluff, and under the general head of "Scraps from the Lucky Bag." These essays produced great reforms in the navy, and led to the foundation of a naval academy. He also advocated the establishment of a U.S. Navy-yard at Memphis, Tennessee, which was done by act of Congress. Under his direction, Lieutenant Robert A. Marr made at that point the first series of observations on the flow of the Mississippi. He proposed a system of observations that would enable the investigators to give information, by telegraph, as to the state of the river and its tributaries, to the captains of steamers and all others who might be interested. He advanced the enlargement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, that vessels of war might pass between the Gulf and the lakes. For this he received the thanks of the Illinois Legislature. He suggested to Congress, through one of its committees, plans for the disposition of the drowned lands along the Mississippi belonging to the U. S. government. In the interest of commerce he brought forward and successfully advocated, in a series of papers, what is known as the warehousing system. In 1842 he was appointed superintendent of the depots of charts and instruments at, Washington, afterward known as the hydrographical office, and upon the organization and union with it of the National Observatory in 1844, he was made superintendent of the combined institutions. To his labors as astronomer of the Naval Observatory he added the task of determining the direction of the winds and currents of the ocean. In pursuance of these objects he collected from the log-books of ships of war, long stored in the government offices, and from all other accessible sources, the material for his purpose. In 1844 he made known his conclusions respecting the Gulf stream, ocean currents, and great-circle sailing, in a paper read before the National Institute, and printed under the title of "A Scheme for Rebuilding Southern Commerce " (1851). They were also embodied in the " Wind and Current Charts" and "Sailing Directions" issued by the observatory. With the accumulation of material the need was felt of systematizing the observations and records themselves, particularly as ships of different nations used different methods of observation and registry. Lieutenant Maury accordingly suggested a general maritime conference, which, at the request of the U. S. government, assembled at Brussels in 1853, and recommended a form of abstract log to be kept on board ships-of-war and merchant vessels. The first fruits of his investigations on the winds and currents of the sea, with its currents and its atmosphere, appeared in 1856 in his work "The Physical Geography of the Sea," which, translated into the languages of France, Germany, Holland, Norway, Spain, and Italy, mode its author well known throughout Europe. By Humboldt, Maury was declared to be the founder of a new and important science, and France, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Belgium, Portugal, Sweden, Sardinia, Holland, Bremen, and the Papal States bestowed orders of knighthood and other honors upon him. The academies of science of Paris, Berlin, Brussels, St. Petersburg, and Mexico received him into membership. In his works he was the first to give a complete description of the Gulf Stream, and to mark out specific routes to be followed in crossing the Atlantic. Maury also instituted the system of deep sea sounding, and was the first to suggest the establishment of telegraphic communication between the continents by cable on the bed of the ocean, and the existing cable was laid along the line indicated by him. There are letters from him to Cyrus W. Field on this subject in the observatory at Washington, D. C. In 1855 he was promoted to the rank of commander. When Virginia seceded, Maury resigned his commission in the U. S. Navy, and was selected as one of a council of three to assist the governor, so serving until the army and navy of Virginia were incorporated with those of the Confederacy. When it became known in Europe that he had resigned from the U. S. service, he was invited to Russia and to France, to continue in either of those countries the work to which his life had been devoted. These offers, from a sense of duty, he declined. He entered the Confederate Navy on 10 June, 1861, served on the court-martial of Captain Josiah Tatnall, of the " Merrimac," and in October, 1862, established at Richmond the naval submarine battery service. Before the torpedo bureau was far advanced, Commander Maury was sent to Europe to continue his experiments. While abroad he invented an ingenious method of arranging and testing torpedo mines, which he was about to put into use at Galveston, Texas, against blockading vessels, when General Lee surrendered. He had been appointed one of the Confederate Navy agents in Europe, and while serving in this capacity purchased and fitted out armed cruisers abroad. At the close of the war, in anticipation of a large emigration from the southern states to Mexico, with the view of aiding his countrymen, he went to that country, and was cordially received by the Emperor Maximilian, who appointed him to a place in his cabinet. Thence he was sent on a special mission to Europe. The revolution terminating his relations with Mexico, he resumed, as a means of support, his scientific and literary labors. During this period the University of Cambridge gave  him the degree of LL. D., and the emperor of the French invited him to the superintendency of the Imperial Observatory at Paris. He finally accepted the chair of physics in the Virginia Military Institute. While connected with the institute he prepared and published "The Physical Survey of Virginia" (Richmond, 1868) in connection with the establishment of through routes by rail, and of a great and free water-line uniting the east and west, and this again in connection with foreign commerce by his familiar pathways on the sea, the perfecting of a system of observations and reports of the crops of the world, tending to reduce the fluctuations and to destroy the oppositions of trade in the staple productions of agriculture. Subsequently, with William M. Fontaine, he published "Resources of West Virginia" (Wheeling, 1870). In September. 1872, he addressed the Agricultural Society of Norfolk, Massachusetts, and in October the State Agricultural Society of Missouri, at its annual fair at St. Louis. He reached the Virginia Military Institute on 23 October quite ill, and lingered until 1 February, 1873, when he died. Resides the works mentioned, he published " Letters on the Amazon and the Atlantic Slopes of South America" (Washington, 1853); "Relation between Magnetism and the Circulation of the Atmosphere," in the appendix to "Washington Astronomical Observations for 1846" (1851); "Lanes for Steamers Crossing the Atlantic" (1854); and a series of geographies; "Manual of Geography: Mathematical, Civil, and Physical Geography " (1870); a "Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology (New York, 1853); and smaller works on geography. His life has been written by his daughter (London, 1888).— John Minor's son, Dabney Herndon, soldier, born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 21 May, 1822, was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1841, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, assigned to the Mounted Rifles, and brevetted 1st lieutenant for Cerro Gordo, Mexico, where he was severely wounded. For his services there he was also presented with a sword by the citizens of Fredericksburg and the legislature of Virginia. He was assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics at West Point from 1847 till 1850, assistant instructor of infantry tactics in 1850-'2, and then served on frontier duty in Texas. In 1858 he was made superintendent of the Cavalry-School for Practice, Carlisle, Pennsylvania.  He was assistant adjutant-general in New Mexico from 1 June. 1860, till 24 May, 1861, then became adjutant-general in the Confederate Army, and was sent to the Trans-Mississippi Department in February, 1862, as chief of staff to General Earl Van Horn, and promoted to brigadier-general after the battle of Pea Ridge. He led a division at Corinth, where he was made major-general, served in the operations around Vicksburg, and participated in the defence of Mobile, commanding the Department of the Gulf. On 12 May, 1865, General Maury and the Army of Mobile were paroled prisoners of war under the terms of surrender made by General Richard Taylor and General Edward S. Canby. He organized the Southern Historical Society in 1868, and originated the movement for the reorganization of militia of the nation in 1878. In 1880 he was appointed U. S. minister to Colombia He has published "Skirmish Drill for Mounted Troops" (Washington, 1859).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 264-266.

MAXEY, Samuel Bell, soldier, born in Tompkinsville, Monroe County, Kentucky, 30 March, 1825. His family was of Huguenot descent, and came to Kentucky from Virginia, and his father, Rice Maxey, was clerk of the circuit court and county court of Clinton County. Samuel was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1846, and assigned to the 7th U.S. Infantry. During the Mexican War he served at the siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro Gordo, was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and was also at Molino del Rey and the capture of the city of Mexico. He was made commander of a picked company in the city guard by General Winfield Scott. After the war he was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, but resigned on 17 September, 1849, and in 1850 began the practice of law at Albany, Clinton County, Kentucky. He married in 1853, and in 1857 moved to Paris, Texas, where he practised until 1861. He had been brought up a Whig, but voted for John C. Breckinridge, and afterward for the secession of the state. He was elected to the state senate, but never took his seat. He raised the 9th Texas Infantry, and joined General Albert Sidney Johnston in March, 1862, at Decatur, Alabama, whence he was sent to Chattanooga to collect and reorganize troops. In the meantime he had been made a brigadier-general. Maxey now served under Bragg, and assailed the rear of Buell's army on its retreat, driving it from Bridgeport, Battle Creek, and Stevenson, and making valuable captures. He was in the first siege of Port Hudson, when the National troops were repulsed, and was under General Joseph E. Johnston in the defence of Jackson, Mississippi,  In 1863 he was assigned to the command of Indian Territory, he organized this military district, and put 8,000 or more men under arms. In 1864, with these troops, he assisted General Sterling Price at Prairie Danne, and at Poison Springs, 18 April, 1864, he fought General Frederick Steele, and captured his entire train of 227 wagons, thus compelling him to retreat. For these services he was made a major-general. He also acted as Indian Agent during this period, and directed important military movements. After the war General Maxey resumed the practice of law at his home, and was appointed a judge, but declined. In 1874 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, took his seat, 5 March, 1875, and was re-elected on 25 January, 1881. He has served on the Committee on Territories, Military Affairs, and on Labor and Education, and as chairman of that on Post-Offices. He has endeavored to protect the frontier and secure its peace and safety, to grant literal appropriations for rivers and harbors and other internal improvements, to procure greater postal facilities, and to increase our foreign trade by generous subsidies to steamship-lines. His bills first asserted the right of way through the Indian Territory, which was afterward obtained for the railroads through that region. General Maxey has favored revenue reform, and regards a protective tariff as unconstitutional and oppressive.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 267-268.

MAXWELL,  Augustus Emmet, jurist, born in Elberton, Georgia, 21 September, 1820. After his graduation  at the University of Virginia in 1841, he studied law. was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in Tallahassee, Florida. He was a member of the Florida House of Representatives in 1847, Secretary of State in 1848, and state senator in 1849. He was then elected to Congress from Florida as a Democrat, serving from 5 December, 1853, till 3 March, 1857, and from that date until 1861 he was navy agent at Pensacola. From 22 February, 1862, till the end of the Civil War he was a Confederate senator. In 1866 he was made president of the Pensacola and Montgomery Railroad, and in the same year a justice of the state supreme court, but held office only a short time. He became judge of the First Circuit of Florida in 1877, and chief justice in 1887.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 270-271.

MAXWELL, George Troupe, physician, born in Bryan County, Georgia, 6 August, 1827. He studied at the Chatham Academy in Savannah, Georgia, and was graduated at the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1848. Dr. Maxwell practised in Tallahassee, Florida, until 1857, when he was appointed surgeon of the Marine Hospital in Key West, Florida In 1860 he moved to Savannah, as he had been elected professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children in Oglethorpe Medical College, but a year later he enlisted as a private in the 1st Florida Regiment, and served for four months in the Confederate Army. He was then commissioned major of cavalry, and in 1862 promoted to colonel. Late in 1863 he organized the Florida Brigade in the Army of the Tennessee, and led it, under General Braxton Bragg, until the battle of Missionary Ridge, where he was captured. He was imprisoned on Johnson's Island in Lake Erie until March, 1865. Meanwhile he had been recommended for promotion to brigadier-general. On the close of the war he returned to Florida, and was elected a delegate from Leon County to the convention that was held for the purpose of remodelling the constitution and reorganizing the state government, and in 1860 he was elected to the legislature. In 1871 he moved to Delaware, and has since made Middletown his residence. Dr. Maxwell has held various offices in the Delaware Medical Society, including that of vice-president in 1874. He claims to have invented the laryngoscope independently several months before Professor Johann N. Czermack announced his discovery, and he was the first American physician to see the vocal cords of a living person. He had contributed professional papers to the medical journals, and published " An Exposition of the Liability of the Negro Race to Yellow Fever "; and a history of his invention of the laryngoscope (1872).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 271.

MAXWELL, Sidney Denise, statistician, born in Centreville, Montgomery County. Ohio, 23 December, 1831. He studied law, settled in Cincinnati in 1868, and in 1862-'3 was army correspondent of the Cincinnati "Commercial." also serving as a private in the 131st Ohio Regiment, and rising to the rank of colonel. In 1864-'5 he was aide-de-camp to the governor of Ohio. He was assistant city editor of the Cincinnati "Gazette " from 1868 till 1871, and agent of the Western Associated Press from 1870 till 1874. Since 1871 he has been superintendent of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, and is now (1888) its statistician. In addition to pamphlets and the annual reports of the chamber of commerce, he has published "The Suburbs of Cincinnati" (Cincinnati. 1870), and “The Manufactures of Cincinnati and their Relations to the Future Progress of the City" (1878).   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 271.

MAYER, Brantz, author, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 27 September. 1809: died there, 21 March, 1879. He was educated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, and studied law during a long voyage to the East in 1827-'8. On his return home he entered the law department of the University of Maryland, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. After practicing for several years he visited Europe in 1833, and in 1843 was appointed secretary of legation in Mexico. When he returned home he published his first work, "Mexico as it Was, and as it Is" (Philadelphia, 1844), which was accused of unfairness and gave rise to animated controversy. In the winter of 1844 Mr. Mayer founded the Maryland Historical Society, the original object of which was "the collecting the scattered materials of the early history of the state, and for other collateral purposes. From a membership of twenty it has steadily increased to the present membership of two hundred, including many professional men as well as merchants. During the Civil War Mr. Mayer was an active Unionist, and in 1861 was appointed president of the Maryland Union State General Committee, and did much to aid the National cause. In February, 1863, he was appointed a paymaster in the U. S. Army, and was retained in the service after the close of the war. He served in Maryland, Delaware, and California until his sixty-second year, when he was retired from active service with the rank of colonel. Besides the work mentioned above, he published "Mexico. Aztec, Spanish, and Republican" (2 vols.. Hartford. 1851): "Captain Canot, or Twenty Years of an African Slaver." founded on fact (New York, 1854); "Observations on Mexican History and Archaeology" in "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge''(Washington, 1856); "Mexican Antiquities" (Philadelphia, 1858); "Memoir of Jared Sparks" (1807); and " Baltimore  as it Was and as it Is" (1871), and he contributed to the papers of the State Historical Society "The Journal of Charles Carroll during his Mission to Canada" (1844), and " Tah-gah-jute, or Logan and Captain Michael Cresap" (1851; Albany, 1867).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 273-274.

MAYES, Joel Bryan, Cherokee chief, born in the Cherokee reservation, Georgia, 2 October, 1833. His father was white, and his mother was of mixed blood and descended on the paternal side from James Adair, an Indian agent under George III. Joel was moved in his youth to the Cherokee Reservation in Indian Territory, was graduated at the Cherokee Male Seminary in 1856, and taught until the beginning of the Civil War, through which he served as quartermaster in the Confederate Army. He returned to his farm on Grande River in 1865, was county commissioner and chief clerk of the Cherokee Court for many years, and county judge for two terms. While holding the latter office he was chosen associate and subsequently chief justice of the Supreme Court. In August, 1887, he became chief of the Cherokee Nation.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 275.

MAYNAIDER, William, soldier, born in Maryland in 1806; died in Washington, D. C, 3 July, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1827, became 1st lieutenant in 1832, captain in 1838, major and lieutenant-colonel in 1861, colonel in 1863, and brevet brigadier-general in 1865. He was aide to General Winfield Scott in the Black Hawk War, and on similar duty under General Alexander Macomb during the early part of the Florida War. He was frequently assigned to ordnance duty while in the artillery, and in 1838, on the increase of that corps, became captain of ordnance, and was assigned to the Pikeville, Maryland, Arsenal, where he was in command, acting also as Chief of Ordnance till 1842, when he became principal assistant to the chief of ordnance. From this date he was closely associated in official connection with the successive chiefs of the Ordnance Bureau, by whom he was greatly valued for his ability and long experience. He was charged and acquitted in 1862 of disloyalty, as accessory to the alleged attempt of Secretary John B. Floyd to transfer U. S. cannon, munition, and arms to the south. In 1864 he was inspector of arsenals and depots.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 276.